The essential purpose of this study was to explore the transformational managerial characteristics that are essential to successful global operations, using a case study of Gulfport Transit Company. This study utilized the deductive methodology of exploration method; whereby the hypothesis and the theories were planned in the wake of experiencing important writing. In like manner, a quantitative examination framework was used to test the theories that were arranged. The data was related to Gulfport Transit Company. The findings of this study have uncovered the essential characteristics of transformational management. Also, proper transformational management is associated with high profits and the efficient use of resources. Transformational management also helps an organization to manage risk and uncertainty and also creating a competitive advantage for the organization.
This chapter covers the background to the study, problem statement, research objectives, and hypotheses and the significance of the study.
Background to the study
Management plays an important role in the success of any organization irrespective of its line of production. Excellent management helps individuals, groups, and the entire organization to adapt to the new changes and appreciate the prevailing conditions. Change is a big challenge for many organizations; therefore, good management is required to ensure that people cope with the new work requirements. In modern organizations, managers are required to be innovative and highly knowledgeable because this would help them survive in a highly competitive business environment. A case study of the Gulfport Transit Company was used to explore the concept of transformational managerial characteristics in this study.
The main aim of the study was to point out the transformational managerial characteristics for effective management. Effective management is the backbone of any organization, and it is a recipe for the success of the organization. A visionary manager is one who desires for the success and advancement of the organization. He does this by being both a manager and a manager at the same time. This study identified variables based on the explicit review of the current literature regarding the concept of management. Efficient management means being all-inclusive and allowing followers to participate in making decisions in the organization. Also, the manager is responsible for organizing training programs to enable the followers to be on par with the constant changes in technology. An effective manager also champions for innovation in the organization and also rewards the followers for a job well done.
Statement of the problem
Many scholars have pointed out that management is a very important concept in any organization. Management has a great impact on organizational behavior and organizational culture. Bartlett and Ghoshal (1994) in their study about transformational management argue that “efficient management positively impacts the organization by fostering quality management and in turn better results; in the process of the advancement of any organization, management assumes an element part towards forming the eventual fate of the organization” (p. 45). Management is the act of talking to people to follow a particular trend. It also entails the management to offer guidance and influence.
Therefore, the actions that come with management include: guiding, influencing, overseeing, commanding, directing, and controlling (Cardon & Scott, 2003, p. 18). The manager has the challenge of innovating creative initiatives that are to be followed by the rest; he has to demonstrate the capability to lead from the top. The skills of the manager will enhance speedy decision making in the organization. Lovvorn and Chen (2011) argued that “the current worldwide business environment obliges management, as easily as the equipped management that recognizes the progressions, define and carry through the most suitable organization to achieve the outcomes sought” (p. 277).
Prahalad and Doz (1987) further contended that “managers that make the coveted change must be in ownership of learning, aptitudes, ability, and capabilities required in mapping out the path towards accomplishing a result that fulfills both the clients and the collaborators” (p. 32). In the current business globalized framework, different components influence the performance of firms. All the factors need to be looked into and proper management and administration systems need to be united. Vision acknowledgment angles are one of the variables that impact the exhibitions of the organization (Kets de Vries & Mead, 1992). Given the way that the sign of any organization is to achieve positive results through others, the capacity of persuading workers stays basic to the management of the organization (Kogut, 1985, p. 32).
Objectives of the study
The general objective of this study was to explore the transformational managerial characteristics that are essential to successful global operations, using a case study of the Gulfport Transit Company. In line with the general objective, the study examined the following transformational managerial characteristics:
- Proactive decision-making;
The study sought to answer five research questions in line with the main objective which was to explore the transformational managerial characteristics that are essential to successful global operations:
- Is being visionary a characteristic of transformational management?
- Is a proactive decision making an element of transformational management?
- Is the ability to take the risk an element of transformational management?
- Is adaptability an essential characteristic of transformational management?
- Is being confident an element of transformational management?
Justification of the study
Any management that is considered to be proficient normally impacts the level of execution of an organization and business manageability amid competition. The study will uncover the most proper management styles that support execution, fitness, and maintainability in the current set up of organizations. The study will likewise give suggestions on the best management style that cultivates innovation in organizations and key execution, keeping in mind the end goal to ensure proficiency and aggressiveness.
Scope of the study
This study flows in conformity with the main objective. Using secondary data and applying statistical techniques, the study explained the variables to meet the research objectives.
The section assesses past investigations that have explored the interests encompassing management styles, theories, and applications in the organizations. Above all, the part basically, assesses how visionary management has been tied to different organizations to create and force changes to be in force. As well, it highlights key variables and ideas encompassing the restorative system and the diverse ways that scientists have drawn near the subject. On these lines, it is straightforward the major hypothetical synthesis of the exploration issue and any actual theory that comes out of the same. Data included in this study has originated from dependable sources, principally from past works. In particular, there has been a sharp focus on past studies distributed in books, diaries, and checked in articles and believable sites. Some key databases sought the guidelines for incorporating emerald knowledge, management, and business diaries.
What management entails
There has been a continuous need to interpret the nature of management in many subject areas; this has brought close to a spacious range of literature identifying the same concept. After several years of perpetual research, the theories of management that have been presented are still not comprehensive, even though the concept of management has been greatly explored. This work will concentrate on the related literature that set the different theories of managers in parliamentary procedure to furnish a clear apprehension of the concept of management and how it is used. It is a basic human activity to be a manager; therefore, leading is a universal concept. This is the cause why so many researchers have searched on the same to verbalize their intellect. This comprehensive literature purposes to clearly distinguish the concept of leadership from management. In summation, the literature review purposes to explain the usual traits of successful management and also the theories of management.
The concept of management
Management is a complex phenomenon that cannot be specified or described certainly. Very many students have researched the concept of management in different disciplines, for illustration, management in pedagogy, management in psychology, management in human resources, management in business, and so on (Aggarwa, 2011, p. 55). These scholars have revealed new ideas and perceptions regarding the broad concept of management. Many works have been taken away to explore the variation between leadership and management. The conflict between leadership and management is attributed to the organizational culture. Leadership defines and changes the culture of any arrangement; on the other hand, management affairs in line with the refinement of the organization. This thus explains the extensive diversity in terms of the behaviors of the leadership and the managers (Barnevik, 2001, p. 430).
The relationship between leadership and management has been explored in a capitalist economic organization. The functions of the leader and the manager have been compared and contrasted to illustrate their differences. While the leader is the trailblazer, the director is the administrator; the leader originates the idea that is implemented by the director. The leader takes the risk to explore new ventures while the manager’s role is to maintain the current venture (Baruch, 2002, p. 37). The leader concentrates on the individuals everywhere while the manager spotlights on the frameworks. A leader will make the best choice while the supervisor will choose the best. A leader creates an organizational culture while the manager operates within the culture. This already demonstrates that leadership is on another level as compared to management. There is no vivid definition of management that is universally accepted; this is attributed to the fact that management varies from one field to the other (Birnbaum, 1987; Brett, 2001).
Transformational management characters
Various scholars have explored the trait theory of management, whereby they have argued that the personalities of the managers are directly related to their management styles. The manager of an organization plays the role of inspiring trust from the people. The manager also has the privilege to transform the entire organization in line with his vision and passion for the organization. The actions of the manager empower the rest of the people, hence, making it possible to learn new ideas and concepts (Aycan, 2001, p. 122). The manager is the first person to start any change process in an organization as the rest follow.
The original definition of the management associated it with the personality while the most recent definition of the management associated it with the ability of the person to influence. Management is a wide concept that is respected across the globe, and that is the reason why the definition of management changes from one organization to the other. There has been a limitation associated with the studies on management that have been done since the early 1990s. This limitation has been attributed to the fact that the scholars who study management and the individuals who are the managers have been unable to accurately give a universal definition of management (Byrd, 2007, p. 277).
Management has a broad depth because it is considered to be universal. Management and management are very close, but it should be noted that they are not similar. Every manager should demonstrate strong and articulate management skills (Cranford & Glover, 2007, p. 10; Cook & Cook, 2004). Numerous variables characterize viable management. These variables include the culture in the organization, the behavior of the members of the organization, and the personality of the person entrusted to lead the organization. Many managers who are considered to be successful have so many positive traits. Successful managers are flexible, thoughtful to others, commanding, concerned, enigmatic, powerful, and confident. All these traits are possessed by a transformational manager (Bartlett & Ghoshal, 1994).
In any case, whether visionary management is suitable for the current organizations is still there to be proved wrong. Doz and Prahalad (1991) argued that “in the quick changing worldwide business atmosphere, the subject of management procedure to the connected by the firm to stay focused stays basic” (p. 152). Studies show that the lion’s share inside the business management practice underscores the centrality of upholding a dream (Fayerweather, 1982). Moreover, most organizations propose the properties of a successful vision, which most directors don’t realize how it seems (Frost & Walker, 2007; p. 27).
Harteis (2012) contended that “most organizations have vision proclamations that are not compelling or are not meeting expectations towards accomplishing whatever is contained inside the vision articulations” (p. 100). A lot of the time, directors confound between the visual sense of the organization with related terms, including statements of purpose, worth and convictions (Ghoshal, Arnzen & Brownlicld, 1992, p. 58). With a specific end goal to attain the visual modality of the firm, visionary management propelled by the visionary managers is obliged (Gregersen, Morrison & Black, 1998, p. 27). Visionary managers make the representatives and also, different partners see the significance of attaining the objectives of the firm and work towards achieving such objectives (Hedlund, 1993, p. 232).
Giving vision is insufficient to the firm to live up to the customers, workers and different partners. The dreams must be sufficiently solid for everybody in the space of the firm to have confidence in (Hodgetts & Luthans, 2002). The thought is discriminating for worldwide firms that are topographically scattered for workers down the chain of importance to partake in the same vision (Hofstede & Peterson, 2000. As indicated by Kedia and Mukherji (1999), “effective dreams that make a critical commitment to the customers and the partners’ fulfillment need to have notable attributes that range from clarity to attract quality, which is the capacity to rouse” (p. 242). Conciseness, stability, investigative and future introduction are discriminating qualities needed in the visionary management (Jacoby, 1973; Jerisat, 2004). The presentations are nearly trailed by the high performing organizations crosswise over different commercial enterprises. Studies also demonstrate that such traits have basic ramifications for managers working with high performing organizations crosswise over fluctuated commercial ventures and in differing societies (Johnson, 2008, p. 87; Jusela, 1994, p. 382).
In the current world framework where globalization has got no restrictions regarding social introductions, organizations need to coordinate visionary management characteristics that would authorize them to stay centered in the worldwide business. In whatever instance, studies show that such management styles need to be connected with different cases of management to achieve the desired objectives (Kantabutra & Avery, 2010). Therefore, effective dreams must be extremely alluring and moving (Lane, DiStefano & Maznevski, 1997; Lerner, 1981, p. 30). Surveys show that managers that offer dreams that are brief, clear, future arranged, sturdy, unique and rousing are prone to see better execution (Cranford & Glover, 2007, p. 12).
Models of management in global organizations
While speaking about different management models that are appropriate in the current organizations, it is discriminating to concede that consistent change is inescapable in the current business atmosphere and shapes the management models and difficulties the traditional measures of management. On the condition that visionary management is linked up, it must be brought together with imaginative methodologies to remain within the progressions (Perlmutter, 1969, p. 12; Okoro, 2012, p. 133; Lussier, 2005). The management and execution of the firm have been identified to be most related by numerous analysts (Pfeffer, 1994; Porras & Silvers, 1991, p. 62; Reynolds & Valentine, 2011; Roy, 2012, p. 59; Rhinesmith, 1993, p. 145).
The sort of management has been analyzed by different scholars (Barnevik, 2001, p. 430; Baruch, 2002, p. 37) to be discriminating in deciding the authoritative techniques and additionally inspiring execution among the models. While the unfathomable writing perceives the meaning of management in deciding the execution of the system, there is no meeting of minds on the powerful management (Barnevik, 2001, p. 430; Baruch, 2002, p. 37). Irrespective of these omissions, it is broadly adequate that management stays discriminating in making a huge connection between the authoritative adequacy and the workers’ exhibitions at the lowest levels (Aggarwa, 2011, p. 55; Aycan, 2001, p. 122; Bartlett & Ghoshal, 1994).
Styles of management and the organization’s performance
The excellent manager offers a sense of inspiration and motivation for the workers in the organization, and also at the same time, helping the workers to meet the organizational goals and targets (Perlmutter, 1969, p. 12). Management is an element that is enshrined in the behavior of an individual; this helps the individual to mentor a group of individuals to accomplish a specific target that is shared by all of them (Pfeffer, 1994; Porras & Silvers, 1991, p. 62; Reynolds & Valentine, 2011; Roy, 2012, p. 59; Rhinesmith, 1993, p. 145).
Management consists of strategies that include: motivating, inspiring, and encouraging individuals to spur growth and development (Perlmutter, 1969, p. 12). It is always a philosophy that any management style directly reflects on the performance of a particular organization; there is a direct relationship between management and performance. Today’s business environment has evolved and it is highly competitive, this call for pragmatic and visionary management that can spur invention and innovation for the sustainability of the organization (Barnevik, 2001, p. 430; Baruch, 2002, p. 37). Many studies that explore the relationship between management and organizational performance have revealed that efficient management has a positive impact on the development of the organization and also in the performance of the organization. The management provides a dynamic platform that equips the organization to handle new challenges that might come along with the organization’s operations (Barnevik, 2001, p. 430; Baruch, 2002, p. 37).
The performance of the organization is reflected through attaining maximum profits, producing high-quality products and services, efficient marketing strategies, and excellent financial returns. All of these are determined by the quality of management that is in place in the organization (Aggarwa, 2011, p. 55; Aycan, 2001, p. 122; Bartlett & Ghoshal, 1994). The performance of the organization is what makes the organization stand out among other competing organizations in the same line of business or operations. Also, the performance of the organization reflects the level of productivity of the workers. The level of productivity of the workers in the organization is determined by how much revenue is generated, how much profit is generated, how large the organization grows, and how large the organization expands (Aggarwa, 2011, p. 55; Aycan, 2001, p. 122; Bartlett & Ghoshal, 1994).
Many researchers who are exploring the concept of management have focused their studies on how effective management impacts the performance and the development of organizations. Therefore, it is very important to understand the relationship between the concept of management and its impacts on any organization (Ghoshal, Arnzen & Brownlicld, 1992, p. 58). Bartlett and Ghoshal (1994) in their study argued that “effective management is the engine that drives and propels any organization” (p. 65). The organization is bound to achieve economies of scale, and therefore, gaining a competitive advantage and stand out among its peers (Barnevik, 2001, p. 430; Baruch, 2002, p. 37). Transactional management in an organization has the impact of pushing the organizational members to meet the set objectives by availing the required necessary resources.
In this case, the job performance of the organization’s members will determine the number of rewards. Visionary management, on the other hand, involves looking at the future of the organization by strategically setting visions that create a sense of commitment and dedication among the organization’s members so that they work to achieve the goals (Barnevik, 2001, p. 430; Baruch, 2002, p. 37). Visionary management has an overall impact of inculcating a sense of togetherness, dedication, trust, and motivation among the members of the organization. This, in turn, raises the level of performance of the organization (Aggarwa, 2011, p. 55; Aycan, 2001, p. 122; Bartlett & Ghoshal, 1994).
It is the aim of any organization to perform efficiently so that they become better than the competitors; this can be achieved by creating more emphasis on management. It is the role of the manager to create a good working environment that strategically positions and shapes the mentalities of the members of the organization to make them have the correct mind-set for the execution of their duties (Barnevik, 2001, p. 430; Baruch, 2002, p. 37).
Aycan (2001) in his study argued that “the manager-centered approach in organizations has made it possible to clearly define the correlation between management and the performance of the organization” (p. 122). Other scholars have opted to explore on how to use the act of management effectively to impact the performance of the organizations. This has mainly focused on how the management paradigms or behaviors can be changed to conform with the vision of the organization to help improve the performance (Barnevik, 2001, p. 430; Baruch, 2002, p. 37). The combination of management styles, organizational culture, employees’ competence, and the level of motivation is very effective in the performance of the organization (Aggarwa, 2011, p. 55).
The studies done by previous scholars all pointed out to the same conclusion that the style of management is highly correlated to the customers’ experience, the employees’ experience, and the financial growth of the organization (Ghoshal, Arnzen & Brownlicld, 1992, p. 58). It can be noted that there is a research gap since many studies have not explored the concept of the relationship between management and the performance of the organization.
Many scholars have based their research on the relationship between the manager and the subordinates or their immediate supervisors. Other scholars have opted to explore the entire organization and its surroundings. Consequently, other researchers have argued that the management styles that are used by the manager have a direct effect on the subjects and the entire organization (Aggarwa, 2011, p. 55; Aycan, 2001, p. 122; Bartlett & Ghoshal, 1994). Ghoshal, Arnzen & Brownlicld (1992) argued that “not all the previous studies have concluded that there is a positive relationship between management and the performance of the organization” (p. 58).
Management and organizational goals
Effective management involves strategically outlining the objectives of the organization by setting up of well-designed organizational goals aimed at steering the organization to the next frontier (Aggarwa, 2011, p. 55; Aycan, 2001, p. 122; Bartlett & Ghoshal, 1994). The organizational goals should be stated in terms of results, rather than the process. Effective management emphasizes that the organizational goals should concentrate on the result, rather than the formula to achieve it. Secondly, a well-designed goal can be calculated or counted; the goals will outline how the results are calculated and what to anticipate (Barnevik, 2001, p. 430; Baruch, 2002, p. 37). Also, a well-defined goal should be precise in regards to the set deadline; it stipulates how much time it should take before the evaluation process begins. The other point is that the goal should be challenging, but very easy for the organization’s members to attain. Highly set goals provide a sense of motivation for the organization, as opposed to lowly set goals that discourage rather than motivate. Lastly, a well-designed goal should converse to all the relevant stakeholders in the organization. Everybody in the organization should be well versed with the goals to avoid conflicts and confusion (Byrd, 2007, p. 277; Caligiuri, 2006, p. 223).
The process of setting of organizational goals for effective management
The setting of organizational goals is not just a one-time thing; it is a complex process that involves various stages. The first step is to analyze the mission statement of the organization. The distinguished objectives ought to mirror the mission of the organization. The following step is to evaluate the accessible assets if they are in a position to back the achievement of the objectives. The third step is to decide the goals on a personal level or together with the colleagues. The goals must be specific, quantifiable and appropriate (Caligiuri, 2006, p. 223). After that, the goals are written down and conversed with the appropriate stakeholders who are supposed to be versed with them. Writing the goals down emphasizes the relevance and value of the goals of the organization. The final step is to examine the results regarding the performance of the organization. This will provide an opportunity to change or reset the goals that are not performing (Byrd, 2007, p. 277; Caligiuri, 2006, p. 223).
Theories of management
Scholars have identified many theories that are associated with management and motivation that bring about changes in an organization. Aggarwa (2011) argues that “out of the many theories, there is one theory that stands out, and that is the transformational-transactional theory” (p. 56). The two elements, for instance, transformation and transaction are considered to be the important elements of management. Transactional management represents ordinary management while transformational management represents extraordinary management.
Transactional management involves a give and takes situation, whereby the followers bring in their efforts, output, and allegiance and the manager, in turn, rewards them as per their contribution (Barnevik, 2001, p. 430; Baruch, 2002, p. 37). On the other hand, transformational management is whereby the manager inculcates a sense of awareness and consciousness regarding the vision of the organization and offers a sense of motivation and inspiration to the followers to achieve them (Aggarwa, 2011, p. 55; Aycan, 2001, p. 122).
The performance of the followers of a manager is boosted by their emotions, intelligence, and morality; these enable them to accomplish goals and exceed their anticipations. Transformational management is whereby the manager makes strategic changes regarding the culture of the organization to equip the followers with the correct mind-set to attain the objectives and the goals (Barnevik, 2001, p. 430; Baruch, 2002, p. 37). The main difference between transactional managers and transformational managers is that the transactional managers rely on the laid down strategies and procedures to manage the organizational culture, while transformational managers manage the organizational culture in conformity with the new reset strategies and procedures (Ghoshal, Arnzen & Brownlicld, 1992, p. 58). Change in any organization is inescapable, and the manager must launch and bolster this change process.
The process by which a manager persuades the supporters draws the line between transformational management and value-based management. A transformational manager uses his attributes such as his character and his values to inspire and motivate the followers. On the concept of transformational management, the manager and the followers work together to elevate each other (Barnevik, 2001, p. 430; Baruch, 2002, p. 37). Motivation from the manager will make the followers trust the manager and be loyal and respectful to him. Motivation also helps the followers prioritize by concentrating on the goals of the organization rather than their own goals for the sake of the development of the organization. Transformational management is aimed at providing the followers with a new mindset so that they change the ways and procedures of operations to achieve the desired results (Aggarwa, 2011, p. 55; Aycan, 2001, p. 122; Bartlett & Ghoshal, 1994).
Bartlett and Ghoshal (1994) argue that “transformational managers have outstanding characters that set them apart” (p. 35). According to the scholars, transformational managers are charismatic, motivators, intelligent and concerned. Being charismatic helps the manager to have a clear vision and a strategy for the organization and plants the same in the minds of the followers so that they can have the same mission. In the same way, the charismatic management enables the followers to have confidence and pride in the organization and the manager and, therefore, choose to serve the interest of the organization rather than their interest (Barnevik, 2001, p. 430; Baruch, 2002, p. 37).
The second character of the manager, which is being a motivator, normally comes together with being charismatic. The manager is capable of setting up higher standards in the organization which act as a source of motivation or inspiration to the followers. The followers, in turn, will identify the manager as a reference for higher standards. The followers normally look up to the manager as he is the source of hope and confidence to them. The manager inspires them that increases their loyalty to the organization and enables them to understand the organizational goals better (Barnevik, 2001, p. 430; Baruch, 2002, p. 37).
The manager offers inspiration to the followers by telling them success stories and also by being confident and hopeful about the future of the organization. He encourages the followers that the future is always bright and that with hard work and dedication, all things can be achieved. Motivation comes from assigning the challenging task to the followers. These challenging tasks are aimed at opening up the followers’ minds and strategically positioning their mind-set to open up for new ways of operations (Aggarwa, 2011, p. 55; Aycan, 2001, p. 122; Bartlett & Ghoshal, 1994). The third attribute of a transformational manager is to be intelligent. The manager typically exhibits this by deliberately presenting and regulating new thoughts and ideas to the organization and in the meantime, moving gradually from the old methods for doing things. Knowledge empowers the manager to grant to the adherents with key considering, sensibility, and critical thinking abilities (Barnevik, 2001, p. 430; Baruch, 2002, p. 37). The followers will now be equipped with better ways of handling situations and examining the facts that had previously been under looked. The intelligence of the manager fosters invention and innovation, which are very essential for improving the performance of the organization.
The fourth attribute of the transformational manager is being concerned for the welfare of the followers. The followers need to be empowered through appropriate training and mentoring programs. The manager is in a better position to be the mentor by providing exceptional management to the followers (Bartlett & Ghoshal, 1994). The manager should understand the followers fully so that he can determine what kind of empowerment is relevant to them. The manager should treat the followers with respect and dignity and guide them to follow the correct path to attain both their individual goals and the organizational goals (Barnevik, 2001, p. 430; Baruch, 2002, p. 37). Showing concern to the followers will enable them to reach a certain level of maturity and increase their productivity in the organization.
Transactional management involves a give and takes a scenario whereby the manager offers rewards to the followers concerning the value-added to the organization. The followers are rewarded for their compliance and commitment to the goals and objectives of the organization. The manager directs and oversees the finish of undertakings in the organization by the devotees to guarantee that the objectives of the organization are met (Ghoshal, Arnzen & Brownlicld, 1992, p. 58). The transactional manager spells out the correct path to follow to achieve organizational excellence. Also, the manager puts mechanisms in place to eradicate all barriers and hindrances that might limit the followers from achieving these goals (Aggarwa, 2011, p. 55; Aycan, 2001, p. 122; Bartlett & Ghoshal, 1994).
Transactional managers normally demonstrate both profitable and remedial actions. Profitable actions involve rewarding the organization’s members, while remedial actions involve defining the code of conduct in the organization. The manager provides incentives that act as rewards to the followers because the followers expect to be recognized for exemplary performance. The setting and definition of the organizational goals combined with the availability of proper incentives to recognize performance will motivate the followers to perform beyond expectations (Ghoshal, Arnzen & Brownlicld, 1992, p. 58). Remedial actions involve defining the principles of compliance and how to handle mediocre performance. Also, it entails the clear definition of what to do as a punishment for a job poorly done (Barnevik, 2001, p. 430; Baruch, 2002, p. 37). Transactional management is a type of management that requires constant supervision to check for inefficiencies, mistakes, or faults and defining the remedial actions that are relevant to correct the errors. The excellent performers are adequately rewarded in proportion to their contributions (Ghoshal, Arnzen & Brownlicld, 1992, p. 58).
Situational management is also called contingency management. In this case, the manager tries out various management styles to manage a situation at hand (Ghoshal, Arnzen & Brownlicld, 1992, p. 58). The management style that will finally be adopted by the manager is the one that is supported by the followers and also relevant to the situation at hand. The followers should have an appetite for development, and their level of development will determine the direction of the management style. The personal traits of the manager will also influence the management style that is chosen in contingency management. Therefore, in general, situational management is dependent on the relations between the manager, his followers, and the situation at hand (Ghoshal, Arnzen & Brownlicld, 1992, p. 58). Some scholars have criticized situational management by arguing that it focuses much more on the production of the task at hand while giving less attention to the members of the organization (Aggarwa, 2011, p. 55; Aycan, 2001, p. 122; Bartlett & Ghoshal, 1994).
This kind of management is associated with teamwork because it is considered to be a collective team effort. Organizational management brings about innovation and introduction of new concepts and ideas of performing tasks (Barnevik, 2001, p. 430; Baruch, 2002, p. 37). Organizational management first starts with the individual’s abilities and traits as a manager. This enables him to garner trust and confidence from the followers who support him in all ways. Organizational management makes it possible to formulate strong organizational culture and increases the level of commitment of the organization’s members to achieve the organization’s goals (Perlmutter, 1969, p. 12; Okoro, 2012, p. 133; Lussier, 2005).
Case study: Gulfport Transit
The transportation business is right now encountering various changes in many parts of the globe. A considerable lot of these progressions exude from adjustments in social-social, political, financial, and innovative components. In an offer to reveal more insight into this subject, this paper will investigate the difficulties and opportunities confronting Gulfport Transit as it tries to extend its procedures to take care of the current demand inside the vehicle business in the US.
Areas that should be addressed by the CEO
The Gulfport Transit gives us various pointers that help characterize how it works in assorted places in California. Firstly, Gulfport Transit looks to procure an aggressive edge by enhancing its market to different districts through vital cooperation with palmetto Transit. This technique encourages market infiltration. Furthermore, Gulfport Transit’s human resources grasp differences in the enrollment exercise, as this improves inventiveness and advancement inside the. The vicinity of differences is affirmed by the vicinity of an administrative group that is contained laborers from diverse ethnic gatherings, sexes, and ages. In any case notwithstanding these practices, it is apparent that Gulfport is confronted with assorted difficulties, particularly in the HR administration. It is from this foundation that Barges, the CEO, ought to recognize the difficulties confronting Gulfport Transit in the HR, considering the two noteworthy levels: department and individual levels.
At the hierarchical level, it is apparent that the Gulfport Transit is confronted with a test of incorporating different offices in the association. For example, even though the upkeep division can perform it meets expectations, especially, it is clear that the office is exceptionally self-ruling and does not have a suitable method for institutionalizing its methodology with whatever is left of the divisions, particularly with the Engineering office. Also, the Engineering office communicates disappointment after it neglected to be acclimatized into the workers’ parties, expressing that the laborers are dealt with as peasants. This position is in opposition to Fayol’s value rule, which expresses that value ought to be seen in an authoritative setting, as it advances faithfulness, prompting the long haul administration.
At an individual level, it is obvious that the difficulties confronting the association are assorted. For example, while Steve Douglas, the Director of Operations, had broad involvement in unionized and travel operations, it is still obvious that he had an individual shortcoming while placing the needs of the administrators, as he neglected to consider the expense included simultaneously. Also, Gulfport Transit depicts the difficulties given individual relationships, as affirmed by the absence of collaboration, even among laborers in the same division. As indicated by Fayol’s administration standards, an organization can’t attain its objectives and goals without embracing a typical vision.
Analyzing the Forces for and Forces against Changes at Gulfport Transit
As indicated by Daft and Marcic (2010), the power field examination is an improvement device that highlights the powers that bolster changes and also, the strengths that restrict the proposed changes inside a specific association. Along these lines, this instrument encourages survey the degree to which an association is prepared to embrace the proposed changes. The Gulfport Transit contextual investigation furnishes us with various components that help secure the strengths for changes and the powers against changes. Table 2.1 below summarizes the forces.
The methodology is the process of instructing the ways to do the research. It is, therefore, convenient for conducting the research and for analyzing the research questions. The process of methodology insists that much care should be given to the kinds and nature of procedures to be adhered to in accomplishing a given set of procedures or an objective (Yin, 2009, p. 242). This part includes the research design, the sample and the methods that were used in gathering information. It also contains the data analysis methods, validity and reliability of data and the limitation of the study.
There are three types of research design: exploratory research, descriptive research and causal research (Yin, 2009, p. 242). Exploratory research mainly explores the nature of the problem to draw inferences. In this scenario, the researcher is in a good position to understand the problem under investigation. The flow of exploratory research involves identifying the problem and seeking to find the appropriate solutions and new ideas. Exploratory research is mostly applicable in circumstances where the structure of the research problem is not definite. The interview is a good example of the methods that will be used to gather information in this kind of research.
On the other hand, descriptive research is mostly applicable in circumstances where the structure of the research problem is explicit. This kind of research is used when the researcher expects to distinguish the various observed facts in a sample or a population. Also, descriptive research is normally used by the researcher when the researcher has a prior understanding of the problem under investigation. Causal research is the kind of research whereby there is a clear structure of the research problem. In this case, the researcher is interested to explore the cause-effect relationship. The causes are identified, analyzed and the extent of the effects is reviewed (Creswell & Miller, 2000, p. 127).
In any research that is conducted, there are basic stages that are involved in regards to the shaping of the research. These stages include: understanding the research problem, the conceptual framework of the research, data collection, data analysis, and interpretations, and drawing of inferences and making recommendations. In this study, a quantitative research method was used to test the hypotheses that were formulated (Yin, 2009, p. 242). The quantitative research method is very instrumental in harnessing mathematical models that are enshrined to natural facts. This type of research can be measured and the researcher can construct a conceptual framework using the existing theories.
Reliability and validity
The validity of the data represents the data integrity and it connotes that the data is accurate and much consistent. Validity has been explained as a descriptive evaluation of the association between actions and interpretations and empirical evidence deduced from the data. The reliability of the data is the outcome of a series of actions that commences with the proper explanation of the issues to be resolved. This may push on to a clear recognition of the yardsticks concerned. It contains the target samples to be chosen, the proper sampling strategy and the sampling methods to be employed (Creswell & Miller, 1997, p. 43).
Case Study Approach
A case study is an approach of methodology that is applied when comprehensive research or investigation is required. A case study is widely applied in sociological studies, but of late it is commonly applied in research institutions. The case study approach has procedures to be followed; hence, the researcher is required to stick to the guiding rules and principles to produce the best results. Through the case study approach, the researcher has access to a wide range of data sources; as a result of this, case study results are always very comprehensive and in-depth (Yin, 2009, p. 242).
Case study research does not entail sampling; hence it is beneficial to select the cases in a relevant manner to maximize what should be learned. Through a case study approach, relevant issues that form the basis of the study are thoroughly exploited. Also, issues that appear to be more complex are brought to light through the use of a case study as a research approach. The basic steps to be followed when structuring a case study approach are:
- choose the cases and the data collection and analysis techniques;
- the research questions should be clearly stated and defined;
- arrange to gather data;
- process and analyze the collected data; and
- make a report regarding the analyzed data.
In this research, the case study covered the study site, Gulfport Transit Company. The Gulfport Transit gives us various pointers that help characterize how it works in assorted places in California. Firstly, Gulfport Transit looks to procure an aggressive edge by enhancing its market to different districts through vital cooperation with palmetto Transit.
There are two popularly used procedures for sampling. The sampling procedures include prospect sampling and non-prospect sampling. In a probability sampling procedure, the samples are representative of the population. This is because all the entries have a chance of being selected. On the other hand, items in the non-probability sampling do not have an equal chance. In this scenario, all the items in the population do not have equal chances of being selected (Yin, 2009, p. 242).
The data for the study was collected among the employees of the organization under study. The employees were used because their profiles fit the context of this study. Therefore, the employees were an excellent choice because many of them have had employment experience. Since all the employees could not be accessible, a non-probability sampling procedure was employed in this study. Out of all the 450 issued questionnaires, only 237 got a positive response. A pilot test was conducted to ensure that the questionnaires were reliable and valid. The test was conducted with a sample of fifty respondents. The respondents were not aware that it was a pre-test. After the pre-test, the questionnaire was edited by removing and changing some words. A pre-test was done again to ten additional respondents just to be sure that the questionnaire was now very reliable and very valid.
Limitations of the study
There has been a considerable measure of concerns on extra-budgetary costs for the gathering of the information, paying little mind to whether the accumulated information is truly genuine or not and whether there may be an unequivocal conclusion when translating and breaking down the information. What’s more, a few representatives were hesitant to offer some data that was private and perilous in the hands of their rivals. This represented an extraordinary test to the examination as the specialist needed to take a more drawn out time to discover workers why they should willing to give out sufficient data.
Findings, Data Analysis, And Interpretation
This section covers the analysis of the data, presentation, and interpretation. The results were analyzed using SPPS, ANOVA, regression and correlation analysis.
Field force analysis: a case study of Gulfport Transit Company
Training and improvement in a firm are expected to add to specialists’ capacities as per hierarchical parts and obligations. The best way to deal with training and development is by adjusting the projects to fleeting and long haul objectives. Group learning hypothesis is one of the best speculations that can help Gulfport Transit to attain this end. Receiving this hypothesis would be discriminating since it would help Gulfport Transit to add to a solid authoritative group with imparted vision amongst all the divisions. Besides, it would help the administration group to create transformational authority abilities that improve collaboration.
Group development is considered to be one of the procedures planned to accomplish a focused edge. Belbin’s group parts hypothesis is one of the group improvement speculations that look to address the parts of every individual from the group. These parts are characterized as thought-arranged, individuals situated, and activity situated. Gulfport Transit ought to receive Belbin’s hypothesis keeping in mind the end goal to oversee execution at both individual and gathering levels. Accordingly, this hypothesis can be utilized as a part of Gulfport Transit’s case to build why Gulfport Transit’s staff individuals incline toward individual work to collaborate. The response to this inquiry will assume a discriminating part in taking out the difference between gathering clashes confronting this association.
Organizational development is assessed by surveying the extent to which the predominant improvements reflect hierarchical execution, hierarchical limit, hierarchical inspiration, and the outer environment. In this manner, the hierarchical improvement and change ought to take after an efficient approach to accomplish this end. The Lewin’s change model is suitable in encouraging hierarchical changes through three primary levels: unfreezing, change, and refreezing. This hypothesis can be utilized by the Gulfport Transit case to highlight the requirement for change, including difficulties experienced by the firm because of poor collaboration in the middle of people and the hierarchical groups. Consequently, the change methodology ought to be attained to by inspiring the specialists towards the proposed changes. This can be accomplished through an irregular support hypothesis. Ultimately, the firm ought to think of methods for managing change. This ought to involve expanded levels of correspondence between the staff individuals and the outer partners.
Career management involves concocting an activity arrangement of guaranteeing vocation development and advancement. This begins with evaluation toward oneself in connection to the profession being referred to. In this manner, the hypothesis of self-improvement holds a guarantee in guaranteeing professional administration at the Gulfport travel. The vocation administration system can enhance Gulfport Transit through the advancement of worker strengthening. For a valid example, even though the Gulfport has furnished the laborers with an open door for choice-making, it is still clear that a portion of the specialists don’t feel enabled since they have insufficient aptitudes in their general vicinity of operation. Consequently, career administration, through a self-awareness project, can dispense with this test.
How training and development improves teamwork
The assessment of training and development ought to be prefaced on the themes received by the Gulfport Transit. These themes ought to be following the accomplishment of the organization’s main goal and vision proclamations. Through surveys, the Gulfport can relate to preparing material with expanded levels of cooperation. The preparation viability ought to be affirmed through the accompanying quantitative pointers:
- The rate of enlistment for procuring new abilities through at work preparing projects;
- The degree to which the firm is progressing towards an imparted vision; and
- The degree to which particular individual practices are diminishing inside the association
237 respondents (52.6%) of the expected 450 respondents completed the questionnaires. The respondents had varied age distribution which is summarized in Figure 4.1 below. The respondents were the employees at the organization under study.
The figure indicates that many respondents were from the age group 40-49 years (43%, n=101). This was followed by respondents in the age group 30-39 years (24%, n=57). The third-largest age group was 50-59 years, which had 55 respondents (23%). The age group under 30 years had the lowest number of respondents (10%, n=24).
An analysis of the gender of the total respondents was made. The gender distribution is summarized in Figure 4.2 below.
The figure indicates that many respondents (60%, n=142) were female, whereas only 40% (n=95) were male employees.
An analysis of the employee qualification was made. The qualification level is summarized in Figure 4.3 below.
The figure shows that many employees (54%, n=128) hold bachelor degrees. This was followed by employees who had Higher diplomas (18%, n=42), Diploma holders (16%, n=39) and Master’s degree holders (12%, n=28) in that order.
An analysis of the employment category of the respondents was done. The employment category is summarized in Figure 4.4 below.
The figure shows that the majority of the respondents (55%, n=130) were employed permanently. This was followed by 89 respondents (37%) who were temporarily employed. Only 8% (n=18) of the respondents were employed on the contract.
Summary of descriptive statistics
Descriptive statistics using the measures of central tendencies were computed from the results gathered from the questionnaires. The questionnaires focused on the methods of transformational managerial characteristics.
Summary of results
Respondents who were majorly employees in the organization under study were issued with questionnaires to express their responses regarding the concept of transformational managerial characteristics. The summary of the results is in Table 4.1 below. The results show that from the sample of 237 respondents, the mean for having proactive decision-making skills is 113.20 with a standard deviation of 14.30. From this computation, it can be deduced that many employees believe that a transformational manager should have the ability to make quick judgments, rather than wait for the rest to make decisions on his behalf; this is indicated by the higher value of the standard deviation. The results further revealed that the adaptability nature of the manager (Mean=127.20, SD=15.30) is more effective than the confidence (Mean=114.35, SD=14.22), the ability to take risks (Mean=103.10, SD=10.80), and being visionary (Mean=102.12, SD=11.30). This implies that the transformational manager should be ready to change with the ever-evolving world of business operations.
Table 4.1 Summary of the descriptive statistics
|Proactive decision making||113.20||14.30|
The results of inferential statistics were used to establish the relationship that exists among the variables that were identified in line with the main objective of the study; inferential statistics were used to ascertain the connection among the variables. The results are summarized in Table 4.2 below.
Table 4.2 Pearson correlation matrix for the variables
|Transformational managerial characteristics|
|Pearson correlation||Sig (2-tailed)|
|Proactive decision making||0.273||0.044*|
* = p<0.05** = p<0.01
The results in the table above show that being visionary is an important element that a transformational manager should have (r = 0.598, p < 0.01). The other significant characteristic is the adaptability ability, where the manager transforms with the transforming business environment. The confidence of the manager, proactive decision making skills, and the willingness to take risks followed in that order (r = 0.386, p < 0.01; r = 0.273, p < 0.05; r = 0.268, p < 0.05).
A regression analysis to analyze to determine the relationship between the variables and transformational managerial characteristics and the results are summarized in Table 4.3 below.
Table 4.3 Summary of regression analysis
|Adjusted R Square||0.332|
|Proactive decision making||-0.2164||-0.2670||0.03969*|
* = p<0.05** = p<0.01
The result found out that the multiple R-value is 0.602. The R-Square value of 0.361 indicates that 36.1% of the variables explained the dependent variable. The F-statistic (5.295) is statistically significant at 0.01 level; meaning that the economic variables significantly enlighten 36.1% of the variance in addressing the concept of transformational managerial characteristics. Being a risk-taker is the best predictor as it has a beta coefficient value of -0.3189 and is statistically significant at the 0.01 level. Transformational managers normally trust their instincts and take the appropriate risk that culminates in desirable results. Also, being visionary, proactive decision-making skills and being confident are statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
Conclusions and Recommendations
This chapter presents a summary of the findings and discussion of the results by the objectives of this study. Also, this chapter contains recommendations that can be applied to various organizations to address employees’ resistance.
The investigation of the Gulfport Transit case demonstrates that the organization is confronted with various difficulties, which restrain the accomplishment of its objectives and targets. These difficulties are for the most part in light of incorporating different offices inside the association and poor inspiration amongst people and groups. Using the force field examination, this paper has highlighted that Gulfport travel is in a decent position for receiving change activities. Besides, the paper has highlighted the vicinity of strengths against these progressions, requiring the need to embrace historic hypotheses from four noteworthy regions: preparing and advancement, bunch improvement and change, association improvement and change, and vocation administration. At last, this paper has tended to how preparing and improvement can be assessed quantitatively, in an offer to build the achievability of the activity.
The difficulties of worldwide rivalry, corporate scaling back, mechanical renaissance, and monetary separation are the new watchwords of American business. The difficulties, be that as it may, are not confined to meeting changes in the worldwide aggressive environment, additionally to take a gander at approaches to enhancing authoritative execution and expanding individual advancement at the same time. In the aggressive scene of the 21st Century, a feasible playing point of globalization likewise relies on the abilities and capacities of a pioneer who can oversee assorted qualities and execute progressively complex business techniques. Compelling workforce assorted qualities administration is a key to worldwide business achievement. The capacity to accumulate the aggregate administrative abilities to contend in the hyper-competitive worldwide commercial center may be a standout among the most critical key errands confronting the administration of quickly extending worldwide associations (Creswell & Miller, 1997, p. 42).
A worldwide outlook is one uncommon characteristic of the universal initiative, which is connected with trust, chief representative relationship, and authoritative duty. The advancement of a worldwide attitude likewise includes social discernment and worldwide business introduction. There are expanding proof that expansive scale globalization is returning conventional methods for working together to a great extent inessential. There is an expanding requirement for directors and pioneers to end up worldwide supervisors with a worldwide point of view and mentality. It is discriminating for worldwide pioneers to improve his or her social insight. Therefore, their universal experience can be changed into a worldwide attitude. For worldwide chiefs/pioneers to be viable, they have to create and support the worldwide mentality of a framework integrator.
As the point of business movements from the local environment of the worldwide, business directors and pioneers will need to progressively search for approaches to rethink their methodologies and revamp their associations to the new and more mind-boggling worldwide substances. Viable worldwide pioneers have a tendency to have mental models that offer substantial methods for a survey and taking care of the complex issues in management. Strategy, encourage and create strong operations by which globalization can be overseen. In the meantime, they have to make suitable conditions by which the general methodology, process, culture, and structure can be genuinely adjusted to attain to hierarchical adequacy. Managers need to be liberal, think all around and act quickly to keep up their aggressiveness in multicultural associations and worldwide markets.
Effective management is an important factor in any system. The findings of this survey have revealed that effective management has an impingement on the operation of the system. With proper and effective management in place, the system is bound to receive a high return on assets. In increase, proper effective management is linked up with high profits and effective utilization of resources. Effective management also helps an organization to manage risk and uncertainty and also creating a competitive advantage for the organization. Effective management is associated with the setting of goals and objectives. Goals are very important to the organization because they provide clear direction to steer the organizational progress.
Transformational management involves setting up of goals of the organization. Also, it entails outlining in detail the strategy to employ to realize the set goals for the organization. Planning involves creating activities that conform to the activities in the organization. These activities normally justify the result that has been created by the means. Transformational management involves a good planning process that can be divided into two categories, for instance, informal planning and formal planning. Informal planning is abstract planning that is executed without being written down. Formal planning, on the other hand, is the kind of planning that is written down in advance. It focuses on the long term objectives of the organization as it entails the shared goals of the organization.
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