The world of business is in the midst of revolution in which the key ingredient is control and Management. Every company that wants to move forward must embrace Information technology based.
The purpose of businesses is maximization of goals especially this era of corporate sustainability and achieve this companies will need to move with technology otherwise the train of existence will leave them. Companies need to develop capacity to utilize Information Technology to improve product and services choice among customers in order to give pleasure and satisfaction. This independence, pleasure and satisfaction will be determined by individual perception of the chosen product or service and the preference in the choice of the same.
Therefore, to accommodate the rapid changes occurring in business world, information technology web-based information sharing should be utilized in the management of information. This case study describes the role of IT and the implementation of a prototype IT developed by XXX a student at the University of kkk aiming to help GREG to develop technology-based management of information. Collaborating with the management of GREG, XXX investigated this tool in the context of networking. The main purpose of information management is to ensure the company has the right information circulating.
I conclude that the Information technology system enhances companies managing of knowledge, increases collaboration and sharing of information among employees, and increased profitability by reducing cost
Networked workstations are the active intranet, which allows the sharing of information, training, communication and other operation to be effective. Most are facing rapid changes regarding service and product delivery and the nature of knowledge management systems operated. To cope with the changes occurring in the information technology and to be able to serve their customers well, knowledge management system must be in place. The use of information technology will improve and increase service delivery to the customers.
Knowledge management is the implicit, explicit and systematic organization of important and shareable information within and with external environment of an organization. It involves organizing information, finding and investigating, selecting necessary information, filtering and presenting to groups, individuals or to entities with an aim of improving understanding of specific areas of business interest.
Some knowledge management activities that have been implemented by business organizations have helped them to focus on acquiring, storing, and utilizing knowledge for such things as problem solving, dynamic learning, strategic planning and decision making ( Graduate School of Business, University of Texas at Austin,2000 and Blue Ridge Academic Health Group. 2000). In this regard Greg has decided to implemented
Work stations intranets to enable this knowledge sharing to take place.
My focus is on the Management Information System (MIS), which has been used extensively by both empirical and theoretical researchers. My aim is to explain the driving forces for using information system for knowledge management. Here I have discussed major developments with respect to customer requirements, organizational hierarchy, and organization knowledge sharing.
When a new system is to be introduction in the organization we must have a number of factors which should be considered before the actual work or actual implementation is put down into consideration. So for us to have a mature and strong plan which will definitely sustain or support a new project we have to consider the following factors; the cost of implementing the project materials required, both the hardware and the software required for the project and power consumption not forgetting about the labor which must just be skilled manpower
We must first check on the capital we have at hand before we talk about implementing plan for the project to be introduced in the organization. The second thing about the project is the promise reciprocated in the final profit for the organization without any problem that may occur to the company or the organization.
The case must have a direct impact to the profit and the general well being of the company as a whole. Hardware when we talk about a hardware mean physical tangible parts of the computer, which can an individual can, touch, see and at the same time feel. Packages are application software.
Software on the other hand must be checked and thorough comparison has to be made based on their general performance and behavior on how they operate. They must have some features that can support the business as a whole since we applications are programs that are installed by the users depending on the type of work he or she would like perform with the machine in order to satisfy his order goals.
The general users of the programme to be implemented that is the operators of the machines and the phone must be those people who have thorough knowledge based on what is to be performed and how the machine works.
The Internet Advantage
Access anytime, anywhere, internet access can now be found in even the farthest reaches of the world, which means you can get to your information from home, work, or even across the continent, if and when you need it, offsite storage of the information which means that no matter what happens to your computer, your property, or even the surrounding community, you’ll still have your complete information to assist you, no special software to install or upgrade, all that’s required is a web browser. You can access it from any computer that has a web browser and an Internet connection.
By establishing an intranet Greg can maximize their information investment to meet their unique business requirements. So it can be termed as the best choice for knowledge management, as this intranet system provides the organization
Configuration management deals with “the development and use of standards and procedures for managing an evolving software system” Sommerville (2004). Requirement changes may take place during the development and operation of the system. So it is important to originate a consistent plan for the inclusion of such new requirements into the new system versions.
There are certain specific items that will be managed for the development of the Greg IT Project, GUI and peer-to-peer network, which are as follows: – Risk Plan, Project Budget, Requirements Specification, Logical Systems Design Specification, Implementation Plan and User Documentation.
Technical issues would deal with the necessary elements to be considered in order to develop and network the proposed project and system. Furthermore, technical issues are broken down in hardware and software issues.
Hardware Issues:- The following is a list of important hardware to be considered while developing the physical proposed system: HP or Dell Dimension or any other brand desktop computer, HP laserJet Printer, Crimping tool kits, Category 5 Cables, Packs of RJ45 connectors
Software Issues:-The following is list of important software components that were used in the system; Microsoft Access 2003, Microsoft Windows XP Professional, website developer software, and other software for project management
The following was the project cost, clearly outlining the cost of each new component that was purchased:
|Dell Dimension Computer||93||3500||325,500|
|HP LaserJet Printer||10||1200||12000|
|Crimping Tool Kit||10||80||800|
|30ft Category 5 Cable||50||50||2500|
|Pack RJ45 Connectors||20||15||300|
|Visitors chairs( two for each manager)||12||350||4,200|
Review of Budgetary Distribution
The goal is to utilize the funds and implement intranet that enables the sharing information. The projected costs for the project is 533,500. This amount is distributed as follows software, hardware, and furniture management and miscellaneous.
Business options:- The company’s perception is to recover cost and gain profits by computerizing the system to minimize processes so as to increase efficiency and effectiveness. This should capture the various activities taking place. In this case, the company would provide auto parts (mainly transmission parts) and accessories to public customers.
Cost/Benefit Analysis:- According to Powers, Adams and Mills (1984), cost/benefit analysis must ensure that “Identifiable benefits must equal (or preferably exceed) identifiable costs” So each cost should be weighted against each benefit received.
Requirements Specification: This stage deals with the production of a summary of the proposed network and system. The purpose of the design and implementation of a network, graphical user interface and peer to peer network for Greg, was to improve efficiency and increase productivity while managing the knowledge sharing processes within an organization.
The proposed knowledge sharing system is projected to support staffs in running their tasks in a convenient and more manageable way by minimizing processes, so that it may increase motivation and lessen workload. It also helps the organization to earn profit and run the business smoothly.
For this purpose, a graphical user interface will be developed in order to assist employees in supervising the new system, thus creating a user-friendly environment to validate the effectiveness of the system. Moreover, a peer-to-peer network will be developed to permit two users to access the server, share data and print common reports and other documents.
The design of a new system for Greg was segmented into following areas:
Logical Systems Specification
The logical systems specification will deal with the identification of ninety three (93) hardware and fourteen software combinations, comparison of the three and the selection of the most suitable option
The logical design will deal with providing textual descriptions followed by a high-level functional design and Graphical User Interface Design. Furthermore, such a GUI design will include logical design for screens, forms, and reports.
The physical design will show the design of screens and reports for specific pages. Furthermore it would also show how normalization of data for the stock inventory database will be done.
Work Breakdown Structure
Work Breakdown Structure is a decision tree likee that takes into account all the work of a project in a prearranged approach. It is shown in graphical way and is normally derived from the Gnatt. In this project of Greg project, it is normal to find oneself shortly overwhelmed and confused, when one begins to grasp the details and scope of even a modest size project. The way to get beyond being overwhelmed and confused is to break the project into pieces, organize the pieces in a logical way using a WBS, and then get help from the rest of your project team.
This section is concerned with the actual formation (development) of the Graphical User Interface and Peer-to-Peer network for Greg. Additionally, development would rely on the requirements in terms of analysis, and design. It is important to note that implementation of the system would focus on the actual setup, installation and configuration of the network.
Testing and Implementation: In this stage, we need to test the new system and after that we will go for implementing it. The implementation plan consist the following tasks:
- Site preparation; Check power outlets availability and Layout office furniture
- Installation of Hardware; Crimping of cables, Running of cables, Placement of computers and printer and Connecting crossover cables to Personal Computers
- Installation of Software: Ensure that all necessary software is installed
- Testing of Hardware: Test network compatibility using database, Test network connections and Printer Connection
- Training; Role and Purpose of new system, Rules and Regulations of system, Questions and Answers, System Demonstration, User/System interaction, User comments and evaluation, Distribution of User Guide, Conclusion of Training Sessions
- Cut over- Covert to new system; Data entry – old data copied to system, Remove of parallel system and Sign off Peer to Peer network
The system designed will be required to assist Greg in knowledge sharing and management. By the click of a cursor the employees will be able to have information that is required for smooth running and decision making. The system will work as knowledge sharing base of the organization.
“The aim of this project is WBS is to achieve the following goals:
- Be compatible with how the work will be done and how costs and schedules will be managed.
- Give visibility to important or risky work efforts.
- Allow mapping of requirements, plans, testing, and deliverables.
- Foster clear ownership by managers and task leaders.
- Provide data for performance measurement and historical databases.
- Make sense to the workers and accountants.
There are usually many ways to design a WBS for a particular project, and there are sometimes as many views as people in the process. Experience teaches that everyone takes a slightly different slice of the apple, so make sure WBS arguments seeking metaphysical certainty are quickly brought to closure. Simple practicality combined with enlightened trial and error usually is the best approach”
Risk Management and Plan
To define Risk Management, Sommerville (2004) said “the process of identifying risks, assessing their severity, planning measures to put in place if the risks arise and monitoring the software and the software process for risks”. In this sense, risk must be identified, analyzed and dealt with by putting in place counter measures to deal with any potential threat to the project objectives. This fact of risk management is an essential matter for all projects as they can be vulnerable to potential risks. Therefore, I have tried to identify all the possible threat and plan contingency to avoid and deal with possible risk factors. A risk plan is needed to be formulated to assist in such management of risks.
The table below is an illustration of the risk plan that will be used for the project. As seen, it clearly shows the type, nature, probability and impact of some potential risks together with strategies to deal with all identified threats.
|Risk ID #||Risk Item||Category||Probability||Impact||Avoidance Strategy|
|1||Staff turnover||Human||50%||5||Present document to staff explaining that I am doing project that requires consistent data and proper networking.|
|2||Absenteeism of staff||Human||50%||4||Consult other staff or continue work on other aspects of project.|
|3||Budget going over limit||Human/Organization||60%||4||Planning, organizing and monitoring accounting schemes for purchasing or items.|
|4||Management change||Human||20%||9||Research and document management history.|
|5||Existing computer system(s) unavailable||Technical||40%||7||Ensure systems secured in safe place. If Damaged, repair or purchase new system.|
|6||Requirements change||Organization||40%||8||Implement change management policies, adapt to new changes.|
|7||Project size underestimated||Human||50%||10||Dedicate more working hours to each remaining day|
|8||Priority change||Human||40%||8||Constant contact with business, continue work on other aspects.|
Figure: Risk Plan.
A parallel implementation strategy is to be used with single cutover. According to Adams, Powers and Owles (1985), “both systems are operated concurrently for some period of time.” Parallel implementation will be used as both current and new systems will be operated concurrently. This will be done to allow all users already trained in the manual system to continue using the current system until the new system has proved itself.
Information technology systems permeate organizations, supporting almost everything–apart from managing IT items themselves. Although software-configuration-management systems can provide some management assistance, they aren’t designed to handle the totality of a distributed enterprise or to act as a management information resource. Software sources constitute major organization assets, but they can’t be treated as such until they’re inventoried.
Software inventorying is one of a set of integrated technologies developed to address problems of managing constantly changing technological and business processes. Those technologies are aspects of an evolving business paradigm called the paradigm of change. Creating an enterprise IT intranet is a complex task requiring large amounts of information, but such an investment can produce considerable payoff.
In this report, I have tried to develop an Information system network for the knowledge sharing and Management of Greg through developing an intranet, Graphical User Interface and Peer-to-Peer network. The new system allowed for the achievement of all objectives set out. This included the creation of a database with functionality providing for data integrity and security, a Graphical User Interface to provide an organized and manageable view of information, and a Peer-to-Peer network, which was configured for security and the provision for simultaneous usage.
The importance and effect of the Information System (IS) in day-to-day operations management, especially in knowledge Management has widen and explored the present dynamic and heterogeneous business environment. But these are yet to implement, operate and exploit it fully in a formal and professional manner so as to enable them to derive maximum business gains out of it.
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