Effective management is the ability to influence others to work together in the search for organizational success. Effective management and leadership are envisioning what the company must do to prosper. Training programs are often used by companies to improve the skills and knowledge of employees and improve their productivity. Personal development plans and programs need effective leadership and support to lead and motivate employees. Leadership style enables a person to be accepted by others. To deal with this problem, many different approaches have been employed in the search for ways that encompass effective leadership. Giving up on the trait method, critics turned their attention to observing what effective leaders do. People pursue careers to achieve stability, security, relationship with others, personal growth, and ultimately status, prioritizing these goals according to their value system. For much of the past century, when the drive for careers matured as a goal in offers of employment and vocational development, this was a very tenable and fulfilling pursuit. Careers provided opportunities for individuals with potential and determination to aspire toward goals that enabled them to achieve comfortable economic status.
The job analysis of a team leader position will involve analysis of needs and expectations and current practices followed by the team leader. The person under analysis is the facilitator of my team. The situation under analysis suggests that the main problem is the authoritative leadership style followed by the leader. Dominance and high ego, lack of strategic vision, and inability to delegate authority to lead to performance deficiencies and poor performance of the team. I know this person for 6 years and can objectively describe the advantages and disadvantages of his style and approach to coaching. The problem is that poor communication and lack of coordination prevent the team from effective performance and positive outcomes (Aldrich 2006). One of how executive leaders co-opt stakeholders is through their relationships with the members of their boards of directors. The main problems are caused by an inability to forecast possible problems outside the team and a lack of coordination between the facilitator and the team. If the team is required to develop a project plan, update it as necessary, monitor the progress of the project, compare progress to initial projections taking necessary corrective action to stay on schedule, they can fail because they are not informed about changes and expectations of the team leader. The team listened to the owner’s expectations, made a project proposal to the owner, discussed/evaluated project targets with the owner, and declared in writing the team’s commitment to the project. An examination of the task bank for the software development team shows you must operate at the People negotiating level in dealings with the product owner and the other team members. You will have to be tactful, tolerate others, listen to their concerns, share ideas with team members in an acceptable manner, and deal constructively with conflict. The main problems that need to be addressed are communication and cooperation between the facilitator and team members, a delegation of authority, and a change in leadership style (Brocato 2003).
The proposed plan is based on leadership strategies and management tools which help to motivate, inspire, and direct employees during training sessions. During the first stage of training, it is important to inspire and motivate trainees. Several decades ago, it was a common belief that team formation was the root of many problems, therefore it was an accepted practice to do whatever was necessary to break up these teams. Today leaders realize that team formation is a very natural phenomenon, and that effective leadership techniques dictate that we encourage subordinates to work in teams. Effective motivation is the core of team formation and effective training. The main tactics used at this stage are a friendly working environment, helping employees to set goals, open-door policy (Robbins, 2002).
The training initiatives often manifest themselves in very cohesive teams affording greater productivity. The leader is often referred to as the manager that holds the productive work team together. The tighter the team is held together, the more productive the team should be. To improve the cohesiveness of the work team there are many things the effective leader should do. Just like team formation, team conflict, earlier on, was also believed to be of no benefit whatsoever to an organization and was to be prevented at any cost. However, we now realize that team conflict is also inevitable and on some occasions can be beneficial to the greater well-being of the organization. While it is still a good course of action to prevent misunderstanding when it does arise the effective leader needs to understand the nature and the causes of the conflict and then choose an appropriate action to deal with it (Robbins, 2002).
Effective motivation will help managers and leaders to improve productivity and ensure effective training. Another facet of transmitting messages, which is as equally important to effective communication as is the selection of the medium, is the direction of the medium. An effective communicator will focus on the desired outcomes of the message and then envision possible consequences to the direction of the message. For example, to accomplish a particular goal, a trainee might be well-advised to communicate the message upwardly into the organization to enlist the support of top management (Schuler, 1998). In other situations, it may be more prudent to communicate the message down to one’s employees to obtain the feasibility of accomplishing a particular task before approaching top managements being unprepared for their questions (Robbins, 2002). After the medium and direction of the message have been selected, the sender then transmits the message. Upon receipt of the transmission, the receiver will then begin the image reproduction process (Harrison, 2008). The effective communicator will not allow the communication process to terminate here. He or she will elicit feedback to ascertain to what extent the original image transmitted is the image that the receiver reproduced. This processing and reprocessing of feedback is an activity that requires some very well-tuned behavior, sensitive skills, and a little more processing time than some managers are willing to give (Storey, 1989).
The next step is to set goals and strategies for employees. To be an effective manager, a person must have an idea of where one wants to go and where one wants to be. To do this, an effective manager must anticipate the future so that his or her organization may play a role in that future, rather than being subject to it. When envisioning the future, one should attempt to see what new opportunities will be there that will allow their organization to prosper and to grow (Price, 2004).
Though, the extra time spent will pay benefits in time saved later on in not having to correct the problems that arise from ineffective communication. In this script, feedback has been asked for in an indirect way that did not belittle the receiver. In addition, the opportunity to make suggestions enhanced the receiver’s sense of self-worth and provided some valuable new ideas. It took more time on the part of the manager to envision the communication process in his mind, but the probability of success for the project has been dramatically improved. This training program accomplishes at least two main functions. First, it makes people more aware of the communication process that, in and of itself, should have some impact on improving communication effectiveness. Second, it allows employees of different functions and levels to appreciate the variation that occurs in the communication process as one move across and up the organization (Fulton and Maddock 1998).
Coaching Analysis Flow
The problem is worth solving because it will help to improve communication and performance outcomes. Most of the likes and dislikes, preferences, and displeasures experienced in carrying out particular activities are registered on a subconscious level (Reid et al 2004). People tend to become aware of them only when questioning certain choices and decisions. To some extent determinations about who we are and how we got that way may be a theory that we test from time to time by trying new things, undertaking new experiences, pushing ourselves to extremes, and in the process affirming or disconfirming theories about ourselves. In the course of growing up, people focus on particular interests and content areas. But perhaps more importantly, they develop behavioral styles, preferred ways of functioning, and preferred environments to be in (Brocato 2003).
The performance deficiencies are that nobody knows obstacles outside the team members’ control. If problems occur, team members are not ready to solve or prevent them. In some cases, negative consequences follow the good performance. It de-motivates employees and brings anxiety and depression. People learn to make numerous other adaptations to such matters as punctuality, dress, impulse control, cordiality, and the like. Some of these adaptations come naturally, perhaps because of what people have grown accustomed to in their families or among their friends (they have passed through the appropriate development stage). Thus, if all their efforts result in negative outcomes, they become passive and inactive (Brooks 2006). The root causes of performance deficiencies are inadequate leadership style and lack of communication between the team facilitator and team members. This lack of confidence increasingly begets action. Ineffective type of leadership can be explained as follows: a leader has unchecked power to hire, order about, punish, and fire the production workers they supervised (Redford 2006).
Lack of delegation and poor coaching is the main cause of this deficiencies. Other adaptations take discipline and self-control and become part of skilled performance and assumption of responsibility (because people are still grappling with specific developmental issues). There were no individual jobs to be analyzed. Instead, individuals involved in the development of an advanced software product destined for worldwide distribution were organized into a team, which included not only staff members from the computer company but experts from the user and vendor groups that would eventually use or sell the product. This was a project-based team that would be disbanded after the software was developed and unveiled by the head office (Brooks 2006). Counselees need to be encouraged to recall and describe their previous work-related experiences and personal achievements including those in the current organization if they are employed. The counselor should then summarize and give back these thoughts in a way that helps individuals to gain insight into their behavior and suitability for various work situations. Using the JFA model as a guide, the counselor asks questions about what individuals have done in previous jobs as well as how and why they got to their present job. By encouraging individuals to describe those peak periods when they were stretching their potential beyond present circumstances, the counselor can also uncover intriguing and productive possibilities for future growth (i.e., worker potential) (Aldrich 2006). The task banks in the hands of job-knowledgeable helpers serve as a rich source of information to ground the self-assessment coming out of the career development and coaching interview. Workers will be better helped to see any gaps between their present skills–functional or adaptive–and those required in the contemplated employment situation. If they wish to grow beyond their present employment situation, task banks for more highly skilled jobs, roles, or teams in the organization will be of great help in pointing the way to necessary additional training or experience (Redford 2006).
Knowledge and skills do not have a great impact on the problems and deficiencies because the facilitator is a real expert in his field. Thus, personal characteristics and the inability to predict communication problems affect the outcomes and performance. What was once seen as a long, steady progression up an organization’s ladder or professional hierarchy to positions of higher pay and responsibility has become unrealistic for most people (Aldrich 2006). The career pattern of the future will more likely resemble a web, an interconnected series of lateral moves within and among employers by workers taking responsibility for themselves as they move between employers. In such an environment, workers require personal flexibility and self-insight that can be honed by career development coaching. The reality is that fewer and fewer employers are likely to be of a mind to give it. Without categorically ruling out the helpfulness of psychological tests in the hands of qualified professionals, it is important to note that job analysis allows career counselors to devote more of their very limited time to direct contact with workers and counselees. The goal is to empower workers to navigate their way to career integrity through a process that helps build initiative and confidence in taking control of their career and the life course (Liberman 2006; Armstrong 2003).
The worth analysis suggests that the solution is worth ousts and money because it will help to improve communication and performance outcomes. Also, it will help to reduce the number of errors and mistakes made during the project phase. If the team will live with the problem, it will have no chance to develop and grow, improve its career progression and performance (Mayo 1998). Terminate or outplace employees is impossible because this solution will worthier the problem. Management has come to recognize the benefits of sharing information with workers. In recent years it has implemented this recognition with workers through quality circles, self-managing work teams, management worker committees, and similar devices to boost productivity, often with salutary results. These efforts fit under the umbrella of kaizen. However, there are numerous reports of situations not measuring up to expectations. One possible explanation is that they were undertaken on a piecemeal basis without fully exploring the system-wide implications of their introduction (Liberman, 2006).
Leadership training is required because it will help to change leadership style and improve communication between the leader and his followers. The result reflects the values added to fulfill the objectives, goals, and purpose of the organization. Insofar as the objectives, goals, and purposes of an organization are communicated to workers, they have a better understanding of what the results of their work mean to the organization. Employee development-related practices can involve career progression and the personal development of employees. Non-training actions can involve better work design and coordination between the vacillator and team members. Additionally, management should give workers access to the vital resources, including money, required to effect the improvements; for example, an anticipated work redesign may require a training program to familiarize workers with new technology (Redford 2006).
If the proposed actions are introduced, it will help to improve communication and reduce the number of errors and mistakes made during the project development. Sometimes losses can reveal significant management neglect and point to remedial measures. As part of each worker’s training and induction into the organization, he or she must be alerted to the potential consequences of error inherent in failure to perform according to training and orientation (Armstrong 2003). Workers experience their jobs in-depth and with an intimacy rarely appreciated by their managers (Brooks 2006). After all, jobs are a significant part of workers’ lives, providing not only a livelihood for them and their families but often also providing the basis for the expression of their potential. As a worker makes sense of the work and grows in the work situation, he or she modifies the work in ways both large and small to suit personal style and growth needs and to make the work-doing system more productive–most often without the awareness of management. To expect workers to do any less is to deny their need to express their sense of self and their competency. Unfortunately, worker efforts to improve the workplace often go unrecognized and unappreciated by management. Even worse, management frequently censures workers when they redesign their work in ways management has not foreseen. This is not to say that managers should not be involved in job design.
The training program will need effective leadership and management policies to ensure its success and positive outcomes. The main method used by leaders will be the result-based leadership method. If too much stress is placed on getting the work done, human motivation will suffer. The main strategies applied to the program will be motivation and inspiring employees, cooperation, and support initiatives. If all of the emphasis is placed on workers’ satisfaction, then productivity will suffer. Further, a leader can share this expertise with other managers and employees, so that the total organization expands and articulates its images of the future in preparation for that future. The effective leader will reduce the occurrence of these types of unpleasant situations by using strategies and leadership tools to open up the communication channels and airing these differences. During the training program itself, it will be crucial t sustain the interest and show the expertise and professionalism of the leader/manager. The main training strategies required for effective training program implementation are competency, willingness, collaboration, In particular, the organization wants to ensure adequate attention to the HR aspects of the intended changes. The leaders are aware that many technological advances have been made since the system is installed. The main competitors are already in the process of upgrading their in-house information processing capability. Enhancing the system at this time would also allow the leaders to serve clientele better. Since the leaders realize that making the decision to update the system and doing it are two different things, he/she begins to predict how he might go about the process. In this situation, a leader sees himself helping to prepare a memorandum detailing the decision and the need for it
List of References
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Brooks, W. (2006). Managing to learn. Training Journal; Dec; ABI/INFORM Global. pp. 35-39.
Brocato, R. (2003). Coaching for Improvement. Journal for quality and Participation. Spring. Web.
Fulton, R. L., Maddock, R. C. (1998). Motivation, Emotions, and Leadership: The Silent Side of Management. Quorum Books.
Harrison, R. (2008) Learning and Development, CIPD.
Mayo A. (1998). Creating a Training and Development Strategy. London: Institute of Personnel and Development.
Liberman, K. (2006). Evaluate Training. Credit Union Management; ABI/INFORM Global, pp. 42-44.
Redford, K. (2006). Feedback. Training & Coaching Today; ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry, pp. 6-7.
Reid, M. A.; Barrington, H. and Brown, M. (2004) Human Resource Development – Beyond Training Interventions. 7ed. London. CIPD
Robbins, S. (2002). Organizational Behavior. Pearson Higher.
Price, A. (2004). Human Resource Management in a Business Context, 2nd edition. Thomson Learning.
Schuler, R. (1998), Managing Human Resources. Cincinnati, Ohio: South-Western College Publishing.
Storey, J. 1989, New perspectives on Human Management, Routledge, London.