Strategic training and development is an important construct in the human resource part of business management. The current study examined this element with reference to Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation. The study sought to outline the benefits of strategic training and development in comparison to operational model. The study adopted an exploratory research methodology where literature review, surveys, and interviews were used to collect data. The study found that ENEC stands to benefit from the strategic model through improved levels of skill, efficient production, and improved safety measures. Recommendations were made to the effect that ENEC should adopt the strategic training and development model. The study illustrated that strategic training and development is more efficient compared to the operational model.
The current study revolves around the subject of training and development in a contemporary organisation. The company whose training and development is examined is the Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation (ENEC). Specifically, the study seeks to illustrate why the role of training and development at ENEC should be strategic, rather than operational. Chapter one prepares the ground for this study by examining background information on this issue. The statement of the problem is later highlighted, after which the purpose and significance of the study are established (Raelin, 2000). The chapter concludes by providing, assumptions, limitations and the delimitations associated with the study.
The 20th and 21st centuries saw the institutionalisation of business organisations in the society. Since then, training and development has remained a core factor in relation to management. Raelin (2000) suggests that historically, training and development was used to promote effective completion of tasks in an organisation. It is noted that the business environment is dynamic and keeps changing on a daily basis. The rapid changes experienced over the years have created the need for innovativeness. Raelin (2000) points out that the changing times have brought about competition in the larger business landscape. Consequently, companies rely on the said innovativeness and reinvention to gain competitive advantage in the market.
The need for training and development notwithstanding, it is important to note that the effectiveness of this strategy depends on the approach adopted by the given company. According to Noe (2005), many companies prefer an operational approach to training and development. Noe (2005) cites such organisations as British Petroleum and Apple, which owe their success to an operational kind of approach to training and development. However, Noe (2005) argues that a strategic model is the best alternative if a company is to attain market dominance.
In recent times, strategic training and development has gained favour in many companies and is practiced in various sectors. Noe (2005) suggests that the approach has a direct impact on the core objectives of the company. Unfortunately, a number of companies have not developed a framework through which the best talents and skills are selected in relation to the position of the organisation in the market.
Statement of the Problem
The Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation plays a crucial role in the country’s energy sector. It is tasked with the responsibility of supplying electricity through the national grid of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Once commissioned, the nuclear power plants at ENEC are expected to add 5.6 Giga Watts into the national grid. According to the World Nuclear Association (2014), the estimates suggested will be a great boost to efforts geared at meeting energy demands in the UAE. To this end, training and development is necessary to ensure that the company meets its projected targets.
One of the problems faced by ENEC in realising its objectives is the operational training and development adopted by the management. According to Noe (2005), an operational angle development of skills focuses on the actual design and production roles of a company. Today, many countries are adopting renewable sources of energy. Given this emerging trend in electricity production, a strategic training and development module would be ideal for ENEC.
ENEC stands to improve on its performance by adopting strategic training and development in its management. The approach will be more beneficial that operational training and development.
The current study was guided by a four research questions. The questions are as follows:
- What is training and development?
- What is the difference between strategic and operational training and development?
- What are the benefits of a strategic training and development program?
Purpose of the Study
The findings made in a study like the one reported in this paper have far reaching implications in the specific field in reference. Raelin (2000) argues that many organisations need an effective training and development program to attain growth. The strategic model proposed in this study will have an impact on the overall knowledge that exists around this subject. The following are the objectives of this study:
To help in the prediction of future scenarios
Noe (2005) suggests that training and development is important as it ensures that a business focuses on its performance. To this end, ENEC will rely on the strategic approach proposed in this study to predict trends that may affect the relevance of such an enterprise.
To compare and contrast various technologies and strategies
One way of ensuring that strategic training and development is a success is by making sure that there is a wide array of models that an organisation can choose from (Noe, 2005). The diversity of strategies and technologies enables an organisation to settle on the best alternative.
To carry out an analysis of the various economic trends affecting the company
The objective is realised through an assessment of an organisation’s management styles within a given corporate culture.
Significance of the Study
A given research undertaking is associated with a number of benefits. While reiterating the importance of training and development, it is important to appreciate that the findings of this study will help to provide answers to the question of why the problem is yet to be resolved. According to Noe (2005), information pertaining to the role of strategic training and development in the business world is relatively scarce. The findings of this study will aid in future studies of business management in general. In addition, the findings will add onto the existing knowledge about the subject.
As already mentioned, ENEC is expected to play the important role of meeting the rising energy demands in the UAE. Information on strategic planning and development is of great importance to the company. Raelin (2000) argues that a shift from an operational to a strategic mode of training and development is essential. The reason is that such a move is an efficient means of realising the objectives of the company. To this end, the current study will be of great value to the company in reference. The management at ENEC cannot afford to fail in delivering their goals.
The study is also beneficial to professionals with a vested interest in human resource. Noe (2005) points out that strategic training and development is rarely used in many organisations. One of the reasons cited for its non-usage is the complexity of this approach. However, the current study simplifies the model by dissecting all the constructs surrounding the subject. Consequently, the findings will be broken down in a manner that can be easily understood by human resource professionals in all fields. In the long run, the research undertaking will prove beneficial to many individuals who have previously shunned the subject. In addition, the study will provoke further research into strategic training and development with the intention of addressing any possible gaps in literature available on the subject.
Assumptions made in the Study
A study is built on a number of assumptions to ensure the realisation of most, if not all, of its objectives. In point form, the following are some of the assumptions made in this study:
- That ENEC requires training and development to realise its core objectives of addressing the high demands for power demands in the UAE.
- That ENEC will perform better by adopting a strategic training and development framework as opposed to an operational model.
- That the information obtained from secondary sources is accurate.
- That strategic training and development is suitable for most energy companies.
Limitations of the Study
- The study largely relies on secondary sources of information. Primary sources account for a small portion of the study.
- The research on strategic training and development is restricted to human resource management. Other aspects of the subject matter are not addressed in this study.
- It is noted that primary sources of data like interviews and surveys are ideal to a study of this nature. However, some literature on the subject contains information that is equally credible. The study involves interviews with executives of the company at a small scale. Their responses are considered as credible.
- Human resource is an integral part of an organisation. The study opted for the same given its direct interface with the operations of contemporary firms.
Chapter 1 lays the foundation for the actual study to be undertaken. A brief background on the study was outlined. The chapter also provided a statement of the problem. The statement was used to illustrate why the study should be undertaken. In addition, the purpose and significance of the study was outlined. The assumptions, limitations, and delimitations of the study were also highlighted. Chapter 2 provides a review of the literature touching on the topic.
Training and development is an age old element of business management. Over the years, several studies have advanced this notion from a general perspective. The various benefits of this model of management have been identified (Raelin, 2000). In this section, a number of sources pertaining to training and development are consulted to provide more information on this subject. A historical background is provided with a view of tracing the development of strategic training and development over the years. In addition, the current state of affairs with regards to the subject is illustrated. To this end, examples of companies that practice strategic training and development are provided. The literature review also involves a discussion on the various factors that affect this model of human resource management. Studies related to the topic addressed in the current research are analysed. The literature review concludes with a section illustrating the gaps in literature and how they can be filled.
Training and development has its roots in strategic planning. According to Kodama and Shibata (2014), strategic planning highlights the need for training and development in the management of the firm. The approach helps the company to create and sustain competitive advantage in the market. Kodama (2005) carried out a study to understand knowledge creation through strategic communities. The study was used to examine the creation of new products among companies based in Japan. Prior to the study, Kodama (2005) had argued that understanding the origins of strategic planning and its subsequent transformation provides insights into its development over the years.
For the longest time, training and development has been associated with the military. According to Raelin (2000), many military outfits in the 6th century were keen on coming up with new fighting techniques. At the time, training and development was associated with the planning and preparation part of a battle. In their study, Kodama (2005) compares the operations of business firms to warfare in military settings.
As already mentioned, strategic training and development takes its bearing from strategic planning. In a study to evaluate the transformation of strategies, Kodama and Shibata (2014) focused on Fanuc. Historical accounts made in the study found that strategic training and development was already in use as early as 1950. Noe (2005) reports a similar timeline by arguing that businesses at the time would ensure that the workforce was properly trained on budget planning and financial control. According to Noe (2005), in the 1950s, businesses relied on financial prediction to formulate strategies used in rising above the competition.
The concept of strategic positioning, and by extension strategic training and development, later became an important theory in business management studies. Raelin (2000) supports this assertion and credits the introduction of this theory to Harvard Business School. According to Noe (2005), Harvard Business School played an instrumental role in advancing the benefits of strategic positioning way back in the 1960s. With the help of the knowledge generated by the institution, businesses were able to identify the tools necessary for the improvement of productivity and realisation of profits.
Strategic training and development was largely practiced in the United States of America (USA). The situation was evident given the country’s economic growth between 1960 and the 1980s. Studies by Kodama and Shibata (2014), Kodama (2005), and Raelin (2000) indicate that the country had realised the benefits of strategic planning and saw the need for its use in human resource management. However, the approach had its share of shortcomings. For example, it was a complex model of business management. In addition, it was realised that in the 1980s, returns on investments in many businesses were diminishing, even with the adoption of strategic positioning.
The popularity of strategic approach to human resource development started to decline. To address the issue, a number of surveys were carried out to determine the relevance of the subject. Raelin (2000) reports that the decline notwithstanding, many businesses relied on books like ‘The Art of War’ to understand the importance of strategy in business. To illustrate this point, Kodama and Shibata (2014) make reference to the Chairman of General Electric, Jack Welch. According to Kodama and Shibata (2014), this technocrat relied on strategic management to inform the nature of training and development programs in his company. The approach helped the company to gain a competitive edge in its niche market owing to its focus on innovativeness.
The business age of the 1990s brought about a renewed interest in strategic positioning in the corporate world. Noe (2005) points out that at the time, strategy was required in the management of businesses. The same was necessitated by the increase in mergers and acquisitions during this period. Consequently, the need for innovation was realised. At the turn of the 21st century, competing business interests increased the clamour for innovation. Noe (2005) points out that a company can effectively gain competitive advantage by introducing a new product in the market. Many businesses realised they need to invest in research and development to survive in the market. However, the complex nature of strategic training and development persist today.
The Current State
There is no doubt that strategic training and development has a direct impact on the achievement of an organisation’s core objectives. MacPherson, Homan, and Wilkinson (2005) carried out a study to examine the implementations and subsequent application of an e-learning program in a corporate university. The study was prompted by the need to create a universal access to education, while at the same time maintaining quality standards. One of the key findings made in the study was that a competent workforce is needed for the implementation of a relatively new mode of education (MacPherson et al., 2005). Consequently, the study concluded that the onus of implementing strategic training and development programs lies with the human resource department of an organisation.
In the current business environment, training and development has become a trend. O’Toole and Lawler (as cited in Noe, 2005) suggest that the process should be ‘continual’. In their support of this opinion, Kodama (2005) suggests that organisations should focus on a continual training and development regimen to keep up with the rapid changes in technology. Other studies suggest that exportation of jobs forces stakeholders in the affected industry to emphasise on strategic training and development. Noe (2005) emphasises that training and development needs to be a continuous process to sustain the generation of new ideas. It can be used to address the various shortcomings associated with formal education.
Most organisations appreciate the need for a well trained workforce. Kodama and Shibata (2014) are of the opinion that many companies ignore the development bit of this approach and focus more on training. Neglecting this aspect has a negative effect on innovative measures undertaken by a company. There is an emerging trend where career development is emerging as a key concept of strategic and development (Kodama & Shibata, 2014). However, owing to harsh economic times, the expenses incurred in the process of individual career development makes it hard to sell this idea to many companies. In spite of this, a significant number of companies undertake a comprehensive strategic training and development program for their employees.
Today, many companies are taking steps to gain a competitive edge in the market. Jelinek and Schoonhoven (as cited in Kodama & Shibata, 2014) reiterate the notion that innovation is brought about by a strategic training and development model. According to Jelinek and Schoonhoven (as cited in Kodama & Shibata, 2014), many businesses in the early 1990s relied on an operational training and development platform. The result was stagnated growth since many organisations operating in a niche market produced similar goods and services. Strategic training and development has significant impacts on business operations, particularly in the manufacturing sector. Noe (2005) argues that as a result of career development strategies undertaken by various companies, innovations have increased. An upsurge in innovations, particularly in the telecommunications sector, is evidence of the benefits of strategic planning and development.
There are a number of companies that can be used as examples of success brought about by innovation. Such organisations include Apple and Samsung. The study by Kodama (2005) cites the two companies as entities that effectively respond to the ever dynamic demands in the communications market. MacPherson et al. (2005) found that unlike the traditional operational model, a strategic mode of training and development requires constant forecasting to meet the market demands. The same explains the stiff competition recorded between Apple and Samsung. It is noted that each of these companies is involved in constant research to come up with new and improved communication technology (Kodama & Shibata, 2014). The investments made by these companies appear to yield results owing to the market share of the two organisations. However, it is important to appreciate the fact that in the absence of a strategic positioning to training and development, the research undertaken by the two organisations will amount to nothing much owing to inadequate knowledge.
Organisational Learning and Related Practices
The development of human resource can be achieved through a number of activities. In a research carried out to determine the effects of human resource development, Gilley and Eggland (as cited in Tseng & McLean, 2008) found that the workforce in any given organisation requires constant training. Effectively, the study established that the training and development of a workforce should be regarded as a structured learning activity. Noe (2005) supports this notion by arguing that the ‘learning activity’ referred to by Gilley and Eggland (and cited in Tseng & McLean, 2008) is needed to improve the performance of a company. The benefits of strategic training and development extend to the improvement of skills among individual employees. The benefits of this approach involve enhanced business operations in the firm.
Strategic training and development is closely associated with practice. According to Tseng and McLean (2008), the employees of a given organisation are required to engage in constant practice. On their part, MacPherson et al. (2005) observe that the implementation envisioned using a strategic training and development platform necessitates innovation. An organisation’s workforce is subjected to endless research and development through which new technologies are realised.
The return on investment (ROI) is another concept associated with strategic training and development. Raelin (2000) underscores this notion by making reference to the fundamental aspect of focusing business activities on where profits matter. To this end, MacPherson et al. (2005), Kodama (2005), and Tseng and MacLean (2008) are in agreement that a company expects to realise tangible results after the implementation of a training and development program. Noe (2005) posits that one of the reasons why many companies today opt for an operational training and development regimen is the fact that it has a faster ROI compared to a strategic model. The ROI brought about by a strategic approach is unpredictable, especially when too much forecasting is to be carried out.
According to Tseng and McLean (2008), strategic training and development should be regarded as a learning process. To this end, the underlying objective is the improvement of a company’s performance. As already mentioned in this paper, the improvement is realised through the adoption of new technologies brought about by the various innovative endeavours. In light of this, Perez (as cited in Tseng & McLean, 2008) recommends that the knowledge acquired from the training endeavour must be seen to improve the entire performance of a business. The same necessitates the categorisation of organisational learning programs. Tseng and McLean (2008) found that organisational learning can be classified as follows:
- Acquisition of information.
- Dissemination of information.
- A shared interpretation of the information.
- The development of an organisational memory.
Organisational knowledge involves the migration of information into a given enterprise. Tseng and McLean (2008) argue that the process of classifying organisational learning into the four dimensions above indicates that information has various characteristics. For instance, Tseng and McLean (2008) are of the opinion that the acquisition of information implies that knowledge can be transmitted from one person to another. Consequently, its percolation into an organisation becomes feasible.
Given that training and development is regarded as a learning process, it follows that there are phases involved. MacPherson et al. (2005), Tseng and McLean (2008), and Noe (2005) acknowledge that there are five phases in the learning process. Preparation is the first phase. According to Noe (2005), every organisation must prepare for the introduction of new knowledge. The second phase is the information exchange where a company’s employees are allowed to obtain the necessary information that will improve their skills (MacPherson et al., 2005). The third phase involves the acquisition of the new knowledge and the necessary practice. The final phase is the transfer and integration where the information acquired by the staff is required to reflect on the performance of an organisation.
Strategic training and development is not necessarily a new concept in business management. There are several studies, carried out to illustrate its relevance in relation to an operational framework. Kodama and Shibata (2014) provide a similar research when the company, Fanuc, is used as a case study. The study presents the concept of strategic innovation which is a by-product of the strategic training and development. Kodama and Shibata (2014) point out that operational training and development lacks an innovation capability.
The benefits of strategic training and development were able to assist Fanuc gain a competitive advantage in the numerical control market. Kodama and Shibata (2014) were able to illustrate that operational training and development ensured that Fanuc met their short term needs. However, the size of the numerical control market is large enough for further penetration. Kodama and Shibata (2014) argue that forecasting is necessary for innovativeness to thrive. To this end, the study recommends strategic training and development to most companies in the manufacturing industry as opposes to the operational alternative.
As mentioned earlier, training and development is regarded as a learning process. Tseng and Mclean (2008) carry out a study to analyse human resource development practices. The study was developed against the backdrop of factors associated with organisational learning. The study is particularly important given its in-depth analysis of strategic training and development. Tseng and McLean (2008) rely on an extensive literature review to carry out their research. In relation to the current study, Tseng and McLean (2008) are able to illustrate how the knowledge acquired through training and development is incorporated into an organisation. Effectively, the innovative aspect of training and development is realised.
At the heart of strategic training and development is the emergence of new products to the market. Kodama (2005) was able to illustrate that many Japanese companies credit their innovation to the strategic position of human resource. However, in their study Kodama (2005) points out the importance of networking in strategic training and development. The study envisions a scenario where there is a pool of knowledge, regarding a given subject, where companies tap into and realise growth. The Japanese companies, featured in the study, all point out to the reliance of case studies as the reason for the success in creating new products.
Once a given company has implemented a strategic training and development framework new knowledge on how to develop a new product becomes available. Kodama (2005) argues that once the new product is developed, companies in a similar market niche tend to use the ‘successful’ company as a point of reference. Under such circumstances, emphasis is usually on the aspects of strategic training and development that a given company employed to realise the success.
The studies outlined are some of the many which have covered the area of strategic training and development. The importance of such studies cannot be overlooked. According to Raelin (2000) many companies are yet to adopt the strategic mode of training and development due to the complexities associated with the framework. To this end, the existence of multiple studies touching on the subject acts as a means through which more information becomes available. An increase in information is able to unlock any complexities associated with strategic training and development.
Gaps in Literature
As previously discussed many organisations shun strategic training and development owing to the complexity of forecasting. Noe (2005) suggests that the effectiveness of this framework relies on the ability of an organisation to forecast trends in a market to enable it come up with the necessary products. Unfortunately, most of the studies do not mention how such a forecasting should be carried out. Instead, the studies focus on the benefits. Whereas the benefits of strategic training and development are important, an insight on forecasting will increase the desire to apply the framework in more companies.
The chapter provides a literature review on training and development with emphasis on the strategic training and development. A historical perspective of the topic is outlined. Thereafter, the current state of affairs, pertaining on the subject, is outlined. The literature review outlines related factors associated with the topic by outlining organisational learning and the related practices. Also, studies carried out, in the past, touching on the subject are illustrated. The chapter concludes by illustrating the existing gas in literature. The next chapter provides an account of the research methodology employed in the current study.
The current chapter outlines the details of how the actual study was carried out. To this end, the research design, adopted by the study, is outlined. Also, the chapter outlines the structure of the questionnaire administered to the interviewees. The objectives of the study are revisited in this chapter. Details touching on the research sample and the data collection technique are outlined. Creswell (2008) highlights the importance of a research design to a research undertaking. The methodology selected depends on the study problem presented.
The study assumes a research design that is qualitative and quantitative at the same time. Creswell (2008) argues on the possibility and subsequent benefits of adopting such a research design. Creswell (2008) argues that such a design is needed when the intention is to test a hypothesis. However, in certain circumstances the design proves useful in affirm a given thesis statement. The objectivity of the research design, proposed, makes it suitable for a study like the one carried out in this paper.
Qualitative and quantitative methods of research are common when a study is required to take an exploratory orientation. In the current research undertaking, there are several aspects that require exploring which in turn force the author to settle for an exploratory research design. Creswell (2008) argues that the same is essential in studies where there is an abundance of literature touching on the subject but with crucial gaps in literature.
In terms of data collection, an exploratory design prefers a systematic approach. To this end, the current study adopts a systematic approach to data collection by focusing on qualitative information. Creswell (2008) posits that the data collected using this format, tends to retain the descriptive aspect of discussion. Consequently, the current study will, on most occasions, rely on description to outline the information collected.
The systematic and descriptive form of data collection is illustrated in the literature review section. Creswell (2008) argues that such methods of data collection are essential in cases where the primary sources of information inadequate. Under such circumstances, information is obtained from secondary sources. Examples of such sources of information include academic journals, books and peer reviewed articles.
In the literature review section, previous studies on strategic training and development are outlined. The discussions resulting from the secondary data was essential in advancing the thesis statement. For instance, MacPherson et al. (2005) argue that the strategic training and development improves the performance of an organisation. The same is in line with the thesis statement of the current study. Consequently, the exploratory design will rely on both primary and secondary sources of information.
The exploratory research design adopted in this study is allows for the incorporation of information from other organisations which have implemented strategic training and innovation. To this end, the study opts for a locally based company and international company to provide benchmarking information for ENEC. According to Tseng and McLean (2008), organisational learning is beneficial especially when applied from organisations which have seen the results.
In both cases, information from Abu Dhabi Company for Oil Onshore Operations (ADCO) and General Electric (GE) with regards to strategic training and development is illustrated. The following information was generated with the help of a literature review:
- How to implement a strategic training and development program.
- Whom to incorporate in the program.
- Timeline for the cycle of training and development.
- Effects of strategic training and development at an individual level.
- Effects of strategic training and development to the organisation.
Surveys are a means through which opinions about a company’s performance are illustrated over an extended period of time. The current study obtains opinions surveys from ENEC employees dating some years back. According to MacPherson et al. (2005), the performance of a company in terms of training and development is realised through examining its previous performance. The opinion surveys relied upon in this study examine the following areas:
- Meeting of targets.
- Safety standards.
- Level of innovativeness.
- Competitive advantage.
- Potential for growth.
Primary Data Collection Method
Description of Participants
As already mentioned, the primary sources of information will be obtained from interviews. Creswell (2008) argues that in the selection of an interview panel, the size settled upon will necessitate the duration of the study. Given the short timeframe of the current study, 8 participants were sufficient for the research undertaking. The 8 participants are all employees of ENEC, occupying various executive positions.
Owing to the small size of the research group, it is essential that the participants have a firm grasp of strategic training and development (Creswell, 2008). To this end, the participants selected included the finance director, the operations director and two representatives from the human resource department. Also, there were two representatives, each, sourced from the research and development & sales and marketing departments respectively.
Gender proportions were factored into the study. Creswell (2008) argues that at all times participants to a study must exhibit gender diversity. To this end, there were 5 male participants and 3 female counterparts. By virtue of their executive roles in the organisation, all participants were above 28 years. In terms of experience, all of the participants had a minimum of three years of experience in an executive decision making position. In addition, all participants were conversant with the strategic training and development principles
The participants, who made up for the primary source of information, took part in interviews. According to Creswell (2008) interviews can be administered orally or by asking the participants to respond to a series of questions presented in a questionnaire. The current study relied on a questionnaire from where the participants were required to respond to a series of questions. Basing on the core objective of the paper, the questionnaire had a series of questions meant to illustrate the need for a strategic training and development.
In the first instance, participants were gauged on their familiarity of training and development. Creswell (2008) argues that such a question is important to enable analysis of the data reflect responses based on one’s familiarity of a subject. The first question was divided into two parts. The first part sought to find out whether the participants are aware of the general notions behind training and development. The second part sought to establish whether the participants knew the difference between operational and strategic training and development. To gauge the familiarity levels the participants were required to respond based on the following degrees:
- Fully aware.
- Partially aware.
- Completely unaware.
The second part of the questionnaire sought to discover the elements which make up strategic training and development. Noe (2005) argues that the reason as to why strategic training and development differs from the operational alternative is based on what each entails. To this end, the questionnaire proposed the following as the components entailed under the strategic training and development:
- Skill development.
- Continuous training.
Similar to the first set of questions the responses in the questionnaire relied on the 3 degrees of responses illustrated.
The third part of the questionnaire involved the benefits of strategic training and development. Noe (2005) argues that when a company intends to introduce a policy, it is in their interest to compare new policy’s benefits to the one currently in use. Consequently, the benefits sought after are in comparison to operational training and development. In point form, the benefits are:
- Efficient production
- Increased profits
- Improved skill levels
- High quality products
- Greater market penetration
The fourth part of the questionnaire sought to examine the importance of strategic training and development, particularly at ENEC. The participants were required to respond to the following suggestions:
- To guarantee clean electricity production.
- To ensure the required electrical output is realised.
- To ensure only the highly qualified workers are employed.
- To ensure high standards of safety are met.
- To guarantee the future of nuclear electricity production in the face of competition from renewable energy alternatives.
Whenever a study requires primary sources of information, the participants must agree to take part voluntarily. Creswell (2008) recommends the invitation of the participants. To this end, an invitation letter was sent to the management at ENEC, inviting willing participants to take part in the interview session (see appendix A). The current study required a maximum of ten participants. However, only 8 committed themselves to taking part in the interviews.
The next step involves proof of voluntary commitment to the study. Participants to an interview session must not be coerced into taking part in the study (Creswell, 2008). Consent forms become necessary under such circumstances. In the current study, all the eight participants were given consent forms (see appendix B). The consent for illustrates the voluntary commitment made to the study by each of the participants. The participants append their signature affirming that their participation is not under any form of duress and that they can withdraw at any time.
Once all the consent forms are returned, the interviews can take place. Given the short window for the study to be completed, the interviews took place on the same day. Creswell (2008) recommends a group or individual interview session. The researcher in this study opted for an individual based interview session. The questionnaire (see appendix C) was distributed to all the participants with the interviewer having one as well. The same would allow for a thorough insight into the questions presented. The researcher spent a maximum of 30 minutes per participant by asking them the questions and allowing them 5 minutes, at most, to respond to the question. Where there was no clarity, the researcher repeated the questions.
The information obtained from the interviews was presented in tabular and graphical formats. According to Creswell (2008), the magnitude of information obtained from primary data is best analysed through such a presentation. The data analysis of the current research undertaking comprised of three different stages as follows:
- Developing an analysis of the survey through the necessary graphs and tables
- Benchmarking strategic training and development to ENEC as depicted by Abu Dhabi Company for Oil onshore operations and General Electric.
- Analysing the relationship between the responses from the primary sources and the secondary sources.
The current chapter highlights the methodology employed to carry out the research in this study. The study adopted an exploratory research design. Details pertaining to the same are illustrated in detail. The chapter also illustrates the primary data technique, pointing out that the same will be carried out using interviews. The instrument used for the data collection technique is a questionnaire. The chapter concludes by highlighting the steps taken in conducting the primary research. The next chapter illustrates the results of the study and provides a discussion on the same.
Results and Discussion
ADCO is a local energy company whose central objective is the exploration and subsequent operation of onshore oil within Abu Dhabi. The company has an almost core objective with ENEC, which is the supplementing of energy to the UAE. Information obtained from the ADCO website suggests that the company employs a strategic training and development program to carry out its operations (Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations, 2014).
Upon thorough scrutiny, the information obtained indicates a chronology of how to implement strategic research and training in an organisation. Figure 1 indicates the process of implementing the program. According to Noe (2005), the first step of implementing the same is through a budgetary process. The same was carried out by ADCO prior to the implementation of its own strategic training and development. A budget will allow the company to ensure that the process is without any hitches.
The second phase of the implementation involves the awareness of the staff. The staff sensitisation at ADCO involved a seminar, involving all the employees. During this phase, the importance of strategic training and development is advanced (Noe, 2005). The next phase of the implementation involved specialisation (Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations, 2014).
In this phase, the interested staff members are categorised into their area of specialisation. At ADCO, the two clusters of employees who undertook this strategic training and development include the research and development personnel alongside their sales and marketing counterparts (Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations, 2014). Finally, the process concludes with a review of the performance of a company with the strategic training and development.
ADCO realised success in their operations owing to the specialisation illustrated in their implementation framework. According to Kodama (2005), strategic training and development bears fruits in a company when the right personnel are incorporated in the program. Table 1 is an illustration of the persons whom ADCO incorporated in the program. As illustrated the company incorporated the Human Resource Director, the interested staff within the company, consultants and the research and development director.
The introduction of training and development to a company requires a given time frame for implementation. At ADCO, the timeframe given was 3 years (Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations, 2014). According to Tseng and McLean (2008), the implementation of such a framework requires phasing out of the existing operational training and development. To this end, a cycle is necessary. Figure 2 is an illustration of the three year period for which the cycle is to take place. ADCO adopted the cycle as part of their rapid results initiative.
The first year is the laying of foundation of the strategic training and development. During this phase, issues like the intended roadmap, for the company, are illustrated. As illustrated in figure 2, the second year involves focus on new products. The same is realised once the specialisation mentioned earlier is set up. Finally, the cycle terminates with a review of the performance of the company in the duration of the strategic training and development. The cycle starts all over again. However, in a company with an on-going training and development, the first year is often regarded as a time to create a new blue-print for a company and not an introduction par-se.
The effects of a strategic training and development program are realised in two levels. The primary effect s felt by the employees who later transmit it to the company Table 2 is an illustration of the effects of strategic training and development to ADCO and GE. The effects of the training and development framework, to the employee, are as follows:
- Improved skill levels.
- The creation of an innovative culture.
- Awareness of high standards of safety.
- Improved efficiency at work.
The strategic positioning of a company’s workforce allows focus to be on the performance. Noe (2005) suggests that the knowledge acquired from the strategic training and development improves the skills of an individual. Considering the sensitive nature of the operations at ENEC, a highly skilled workforce is necessary. To this end, the adoption of strategic training and development by ENEC as practiced at ADCO will bring about a highly skilled workforce.
In the literature review it became apparent that strategic training and development is an avenue through which innovation, in a company arises. General Electric, courtesy of the strategic training and development, witnessed an upsurge of inventions due to the new knowledge on future client demands. MacPherson et al. (2005), further point out that strategic training and development promotes innovation by insisting on the need to produce better products. To this end, GE has had a competitive advantage against its competitors owing to the positive effects of the strategic training and development in the company.
ENEC relates to GE and ADCO given the company’s interests in energy. The operational training and development currently undertaken by ENEC is beneficial only in the short term. According to Noe (2005), operational training and development ensures that a company carries out its normal operations. However, the same does not cushion the company against dynamism that presents itself n the market. The two companies illustrated in this study have demonstrated that strategic training and development is, indeed, beneficial both to the employees and the company in general. The future of nuclear energy in the gulf region is uncertain owing to the competition from renewable energy sources. To this end, strategic training and development will give ENEC a competitive advantage.
The employee surveys relied upon in this study was built against the backdrop of the Fukushima disaster in Japan. The employees were polled on their familiarity on the safety measures associated with nuclear power plants (Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation, 2011). Figure 3 is a representation of the confidence level among the staff members.
The graph represented in Figure 3 is a representation of the confidence level associated with nuclear energy. The survey was carried out in 2009, 2010 and 2011. As illustrated, there is an increase in percentage of the confidence levels. According to the World Nuclear Association (2014), the disaster in Chernobyl and Fukushima made energy players rethink the safety associated with nuclear energy production. Consequently, the need to improve the quality of production and increase safety are concerns by most key players in the industry.
One of the ways to increase consumer confidence is through quality assurance. According to Kodama and Shibata (2014), proper training and development has the potential to improve the overall quality of production associated with a give product. Given the importance of the energy sector to the UAE, economy, the country’s energy sector sought to assure their citizens that safety standards are a priority in the production of energy. Also, the country’s top brass assured their citizens that training and development is a prerequisite for any nuclear facility.
Figure 4 points out the reasons why the staff members at ENEC have confidence in their nuclear energy production. The survey found that there are four reasons for the high confidence already mentioned. The assurance of training and development, the peaceful nuclear program, high energy demands and investor confidence contribute to the increased confidence levels among the employees. As illustrated, 60% of the employees associate their confidence levels to the assurance of training and development. The other three reasons did not cover more than 15% of the employees polled.
Training and development, is indeed an assuring factor that production is efficient. However, Noe (2005) argues in favour of strategic training and development. Noe (2005) suggests that strategic training and development promotes innovations and the emergence of new products in the market. Noe (2005) appreciates the place of operational training and development but insists that its inability to forecast trends inhibits high innovation. The World Nuclear Association (2014) indicates that nuclear energy production still requires innovativeness in terms of the processes involved leading up to the waste disposal. Strategic training and management appears to offer the solution.
Figure 5 is an illustration of the employees’ preferences to strategic training and development. The survey outlines three main reasons as to why the employees associate quality assurance to strategic training and development. The high levels of innovation, emergence of new products and improved safety were the reasons given. 52% of the employees polled support strategic training and development owing to the innovativeness that emerges. 29% of the employees supported the strategic framework due to the emergence of new products while 19% were in favour due to the improved safety levels that would emerge.
The surveys carried out by the company are an indicator that strategic training and development is the best framework to incorporate at ENEC. Kodama (2005) supports a similar opinion and argues that core operations in a company are improved courtesy of innovation. The dynamic nature of the market will always necessitate the introduction of new products. Unfortunately, operational training and development has a weak response to the market dynamics. The surveys carried out reflect the rapid response to the market demands courtesy of a strategic training and development.
The following is a general overview of the reasons why the employees prefer the strategic model to the operational framework:
- Helps a company meet their targets.
- Safety standards are improved.
- Level of innovativeness is high.
- It gives a company a high competitive advantage.
- Potential for growth is relatively high.
Awareness of Strategic Training and Development
All the 8 participants took part in the interview sessions. As illustrated, the questionnaire the participants were required to respond to 2 questions to gauge their awareness to strategic training and development. Table 3 illustrates that 6 of the participants had complete knowledge of the subject while 2 had a partial knowledge. According to Creswell (2008), participation in an interview requires the participants to have a grasp of the ideas pertaining to the study. The same was satisfied by the respondents pointing out the relevance of the training program in reference.
In the second phase of awareness, the participants were required to illustrate, in their opinion, what they believed strategic training and development entails. The questionnaire provided the following suggestions as responses:
- Career development.
Table 4 depicts the responses given to the second question on awareness. 50% of the participants suggested they were fully aware that strategic training and development entails innovation while another 50% were partially certain of the similar response. 7 participants were certain that strategic training and development entails training while 1 person was uncertain of the same. All the 8 participants were certain that strategic training and development entails education. 6 participants responded with certainty that strategic training and development entails career development.
The results of the questions gauging the participants’ knowledge on strategic training and development imply that the same has an effect on a company’s operation and performance. Tseng and McLean (2008) argue that strategic training and development fosters innovation in a company. The same is brought about by repeated knowledge being incorporated to an organisation’s staff. To this end, it is essential that ENEC needs to familiarise their staff with the concepts behind strategic training and development. Such a move will outline the shortcomings of an operational training and development and create grounds for adoption of a strategic positioning.
The Benefits of Strategic Training and Development
The participants to the study all indicated that strategic training and development had an overall benefit to the company. However, the interview provided a set of suggestions which illustrate some of the common benefits of strategic training and development. The participants were required to respond with their certainty level, on the same, as in the previous questions. The following are the suggested benefits:
- Improved sales.
- Increased profits.
- Improved quality of production.
- Efficient production.
As illustrated in Table 5, 7 participants were completely certain that strategic training and development improves the sales of a company while 1 participant was not sure. All of the participants support the view that strategic training and development brings about increased profits. A similar number support the view that strategic positioning improves the quality of production in a company however the certainty levels are different. 3 of the participants were completely certain while 5 were uncertain. Finally, the participants supported the view that efficient production, in a company is a result of the strategic training and development. 2 of the participants were certain while 6 were partially certain.
From the responses given, it is evident that strategic training and development is beneficial to an organisation. According to Noe (2005), the benefits of strategic training and development have a direct impact on a company’s performance. ENEC is an energy producing company. However, given the increased energy demands, the company does not have a challenge in terms of sales. Strategic training and development, in this case is sees as an avenue through which the skills of the personnel will be improved.
A nuclear power plant, like ENEC, requires highly skilled personnel to handle the delicate processes of the electricity production. The World Nuclear Association (2014), places ENEC as an important nuclear facility in the gulf region. However, increased activity, in terms of clean and renewable energy, pause a danger to the posterity of ENEC as an energy producer. To this end, innovative measures are required to ensure that the company gains a competitive advantage over other energy companies. From the results of the study carried out, it is evident that strategic training and development can spur innovation in a company.
The production of electricity, through nuclear technology, has become a controversial subject. According the World Nuclear Association (2014) controversy surrounds the dangers posed to the environment in the event of a disaster like the ones experienced in Chernobyl and Fukushima. To this end, high standards of production are required. The results of the interview suggest that strategic training and development improves efficiency of a company’s production. At ENEC, efficiency in production touches on safety measures and new technology in operating the nuclear plant. Strategic training and development ensures that personnel are constantly supplied with new information touching on their operations. Consequently, efficiency in production is inevitable at ENEC.
The Importance of Strategic Training and Development at ENEC
ENEC is currently running on an operational training and development framework. However, the discussions in the current study have, so far, demonstrated that strategic training and development has a better effect on a company’s performance in relation to the operational framework. A similar question was posed to the interviewees who participated in the study. The questionnaire gave a number of suggestions which provide a rational for the adoption strategic training and development at ENEC.
The following are the suggestions provided for in the questionnaire:
- Improved production.
- Increase in the skill level of the employees.
- Improved safety standards.
- Better methods of disposing nuclear wastes.
Table 6 provides an overview of the responses to the question seeking to find out the reasons in support of the adoption of strategic training and development at EMEC. A look at the responses indicated that more than half of the participants supported the strategic positioning envisioned in this study. On average, 6 participants had a reason as to why the company needs to adopt the strategic training and development framework. 5 of the participants were in support of the framework owing to associated improvement in productivity.
From table 6 it is also evident that 6 of the participants support the view that the strategic framework would increase the skill levels at EMEC. In terms of improved safety standards, 5 of the participants support the same as a reason for the adoption of the strategic framework. Surprisingly, all the 8 participants would want to see the company adopt the said framework since it tends to provide better methods of nuclear waste disposal.
The reasons provided for in the current study are all part of the benefits associated with strategic training and development. However, the World Nuclear Association (2014) insists that nuclear facilities are best suited to compete against other energy producers by focusing on high quality of production and improves safety measures. To this end, the suggestion that strategic training and development will provide better methods of waste disposal to the company, support the view of quality as envisioned by the World Nuclear Association (2014).
High quality of production is advantageous to a company that is engaged in large scale production. ENEC is tasked with supplementing the electricity need of the UAE by producing 5.6 giga watts of electricity (World Nuclear Association, 2014). Such a large scale production of energy requires high standards. To this end, strategic training and development will provide the employees with information on the latest in terms quality assurance. Such an organisation would do well to adopt a strategic training and development framework.
The current chapter illustrates the results of the exploratory design adopted in the study. The benchmarking, proposed in the previous chapter, illustrates the benefits of strategic training and development to General Electric and ADCO. The same are suggested for application at ENEC. Also, the chapter highlights the results of the interviews carried out. Discussions on the same are examined where the overall benefits of strategic training and development are outlined. The subsequent chapter concludes the study by providing the necessary recommendations.
Recommendations and Conclusion
The discussions in this paper illustrate that strategic training and development is a crucial construct in the general management of a business. ENEC, as already outlined, has an enormous task of delivering energy to the UAE. The operational training and development relied upon by the company prevents ENEC from gaining a competitive advantage while maintaining high quality of production. The current study appreciates the said challenges and provides a raft of recommendations as illustrated in this section.
The Adoption of Strategic Training and Development
ENEC is required to meet its projected energy target while at the same time ensuring high standards in order to gain a competitive advantage in the energy market. To this end, the current study recommends the adoption of a strategic training and development framework to supplement its core operations. According to Noe (2005), such a framework has the potential of improving the company’s competitive advantage while ensuring high quality in terms of operations.
Competitive advantage, in a company, is realised when the company improves on the skill level of its employees. According to Tseng and McLean (2008), strategic training and development offers the employees a chance to sharpen on their existing skills. In reference to ENEC, the operation of the equipment in a nuclear plant requires highly skilled personnel. Courtesy of the strategic training and development, recommended, the staff will be opened up to the latest in terms of nuclear power plant operation. To this end the company will be better placed to meet the projected energy targets and still maintain high standards in its operations.
The companies that have implemented strategic training and development have realised success by focusing on specific departments. Kodama and Shibata (2014) support a similar opinion and add that the implementation of this framework must ensure that the personnel are clustered according to their skill level. To this end, the current study recommends, specialisation in the implementation of a strategic training and development. The specialization in reference involves providing each department with their own unique strategic training and development (GE Capital India, 2014).
In the formative stages of the implementation, there needs to be focus on the research and development and quality assurance. According to the World Nuclear Association (2014), many nuclear plants fail to realise their core objectives by not adhering to the current technology. The research and development department of an organisation is seen as an avenue through which new ideas, in terms of quality assurance and general operations are realised. The recommendation made to that effect will ensure that ENEC not only meets its core operational objectives but that the employees get to acquire new techniques relating to quality assurance.
A comprehensive training and development is one that is regular. Noe (2005), proposes that employees in a company should be subjected to a continuous education framework to ensure a constant flow of new information. To this end, the current study recommends that ENEC should ensure that the strategic training and development is a continuous endeavour. The company can come up with a quarterly training session within a year.
Companies like General Electric, credit their success to regular training and development (GE Capital India, 2014). Kodama (2005) appreciates the importance of training and development form an operational perspective. However, such a perspective is restrictive to regular training. The same provides a rationale for a strategic framework since regular training ensures freshness in a company.
Currently, ENEC does not have a strategic training and development framework. Consequently, the company faces an uphill task in the adoption of the strategic framework. Kodama and Shibata (2014) argue that such a move will require a company to make necessary consultations. There are several organisations which provide such services. To this end, the current paper recommends that ENEC engages the services of a human resource consultant to guide it in the implementation process.
Consultants provide a company with a wealth of advice pertaining to the implementation of a given policy. Noe (2005) argues in favour of consultancy by pointing out the benefits a company would realise by engaging their services. For instance, many companies opt for an operational training and development owing to the absence of forecasting. Forecasting is a complicated affair. However, a consultant can make the process much simpler by pointing out the techniques to apply. ENEC, is in a good position to engage a consultant to enable them navigate through the hurdles of strategic training and development.
Whenever a company introduces a policy, its effectiveness is realised through a series of evaluations. General Electric and ADCO have an internal mechanism that evaluates the performance of the respective organisation in relation to training and development. Kodama and Shibata (2014) support a similar view by pointing out that regular evaluation will enable a company gauge whether its training and development is effective. Consequently, the current paper recommends that ENEC adopts a regular evaluation of their training and development framework.
A suitable evaluation is one that is in line with the periodic training schedule created by a company. Noe (2005) gives a hypothetical example of a company with a biannual training and development cycle. Such a company would evaluate the effectiveness of their training framework at the end of their cycle. Similarly, ENEC can consider evaluating their training framework once per year. According to Noe (2005), such a method of evaluation will ensure that a company detects any hitches, to the implementation, early enough.
Research and Development Manager
Training and development requires a central coordinator who will give directions on matter touching on policy of implementing the program. The study recommends the introduction of a Research and Training manager. The officer will be responsible for planning, organising, controlling and coordinating matters touching on policy and strategic planning within the company (Noe, 2005). The research and development manager will be directly responsible for the implementation of the strategic training and development sought after by the company. To this end, such roles as periodic training and evaluations will be carried out by the office holder.
The introduction of a new department requires a competent office holder. Noe (2005) argues that academic qualification, experience and the ability to innovate make up for the skills required for a research and training manager. The current study recommends a minimum of a Bachelor’s degree as the main academic qualification. An experience of 5 years in a similar position can be used to substitute the academic requirements. However, a combination of both would be an added advantage.
A research and training manager is required to ensure that a company produces new products in response to market dynamics. According to the World Nuclear Association (2014), ENEC requires to supplement its quality assurance measure by addressing the disposal of nuclear waste. To this end, the Research and Development will be required to demonstrate their ability for innovativeness. Also, the manager is required to demonstrate their ability to manage employees, making human resource management a required competence.
The study recommends the following training and development programs:
- Quality assurance.
- Human resource management.
- Nuclear waste disposal.
- Nuclear plant operations.
Assessing Performance Improvement
The benefits of a training and development program are realised once an effective assessment technique is in place. The study recommends a regular and continuous assessment framework in terms of performance and overall response to the training and development program settled upon. A regular and continual assessment framework ensures that the employees meet both all the short term requirements of the training and development. Noe (2005) argues that once the short term objectives are met, they eventually supplement, and help realise, the core objectives of a company. The assessment will have a 3 moth cycle such that the evaluation is carried out quarterly per year. Such an assessment criterion will influence a culture of continual improvement. Consequently, the strategic objectives will be met with consistency.
Return on Investment Strategy
Strategic training and development, as aforementioned, has a number of benefits. However, the benefits are only meaningful if they bring about profits to an organisation (Noe, 2005). To this end the study recommends coming up with a cost effective training and development program. The same is realised by specialising in a given area. For instance, rather than engage the entire workforce in a general program the research and development manager can focus on specific areas like plant operations and safety. Such a training and development framework will ensure not much is spent on training but at the same time there are tangible results.
The chapter reviewed most of the discussions that took centre stage in the study. Recommendations were made to ENEC suggesting the company adopts a strategic training and development. Additional recommendations include the specialisation of the training framework and consulting. The recommendations section of this chapter also reiterated the importance of regular training and devaluation of the strategic framework proposed. The chapter concludes by emphasising on the benefits of training and development, particularly to ENEC. Also suggestions for further research on the subject are illustrated. The chapter is in support of the thesis statement advanced in the study.
Every company requires training and development to be embedded in their core objectives. According to Raelin (2000), training and development equips an organisation’s workforce to respond to the emergent challenges in an industry. The study has demonstrated the existence of more than one type of training and development. Raelin (2000) adds that depending on an organisation’s objectives, an operational or a strategic training and development framework would be ideal. The study appreciates the role of operational training and development. However, in the context of ENEC, a strategic approach is more suitable.
The benefits of a strategic training and development suit the core objectives at ENEC. Noe (2005) suggests competitive advantage as one of the benefits realised from the strategic positioning envisioned in the study. Through the recommended framework, ENEC stands to increase the skill level of its workforce who will in turn translate the same into tangible results based on the organisation’s objectives. In addition, the strategic positioning helps an organisation to innovate and come up with new products and techniques. ENEC should come up with environmentally friendly solutions to nuclear waste. The strategic framework can provide the same.
In conclusion, strategic training and development, as demonstrated in this study, is an important aspect of business management. Noe (2005) points out that the forecasting, associated with this construct, is the only inhibiting factor. To this end, future studies on the subject should focus on how companies can incorporate forecasting into training and development. Such a move will justify the benefits that are inherent in strategic training and development. The future of business growth requires the organisation to gain a competitive advantage.
Appendix A: Invitation Email
Date: 9th June, 2014
Subject: Invitation to Participate in an Interview
I am carrying out a study on the effectiveness of strategic training and development. To this end, I would like the opinions of members of your staff on the same. This is an open invitation to all the members of staff in your organization. I appreciate your indulgence.
Shouq Al Sobaihi
Senior Specialist-Compensation & Benefits
Member in Talent Management Project
Human Resources Department
Appendix B: Consent Form
A Study to Assertain the Relevance of Strategic Training and Development
Participant Identification Number:
Mark with an ‘x’ in the boxes
- I confirm that I have read and understand the information sheet dated ___ for the above study. I am conversant with training and development and can answer the questions satisfactorily.
- I understand that my participation is voluntary and that I am free to withdraw at any time. I need not explain my reasons should I decide to leave.
- I understand that relevant personal information will be required for the study. I give permission for any required records to be accessed.
- I agree to my employer/dean/business partner to being informed of my participation in the study.
- I agree to take part in the above study.
Name of Participant
Name of Person Taking Consent Date Signature
Appendix C: Questionnaire
A Questionnaire to Determine the Importance of Strategic Training and Development
Section 1: Personal Data
Section 2: Awareness of Training and Development Concepts
- Are you aware of the concepts relating to Training and Development?
Certainty degree: Completely (1) Partially (2) None (3) [Please mark with a ‘X’ where applicable]
Yes———————————————————————————-   
No ———————————————————————————-   
- What does Strategic Training and Development entail?
Innovation —————————————————————————-   
Training——————————————————————————–   
Education——————————————————————————–   
Career Development——————————————————————-   
Section 3: Benefits of Strategic Training and Development
- What are the benefits of strategic training and development to an organisation?
Certainty degree: Completely (1) Partially (2) None (3) [Please mark with a ‘X’ where applicable]
Improved sales —————————————————————————-   
Increased profits —————————————————————————-   
Improved quality of production———————————————————–   
Increased skill levels————————————————————————   
Efficient production————————————————————————   
Section 4: Strategic Training and Development at ENEC
- Why is Strategic Training and Development necessary at ENEC?
Certainty degree: Completely (1) Partially (2) None (3) [Please mark with a ‘X’ where applicable]
Increase in the skill level of employees —————————————————-   
Improved safety standards ——————————————————————–   
Better methods of Disposing waste———————————————————-   
Improved production—————————————————————————–   
Appendix D: List of Figures and Tables
Table 1: Personnel Incorporated for Strategic Training and development at ADCO.
|Human Resource Coordinator||Responsible for mobilising staff|
|Interested staff||Staff members are asked to volunteer for the program|
|Consultants||External consultants of repute in implementing research and development|
|Research and Development Team||Responsible for implementing the strategic Training and Development|
Table 2: Effects of Strategic Training and Development at GE and ADCO.
|Improved skill levels||The employees increased their knowledge through training|
|Creation of an innovation culture||The two companies encouraged innovation|
|High standards of Safety||Both companies had increased safety standards|
|Improved efficiency||Employees become more efficient|
Table 3: Awareness to Strategic Training and Development.
|Completely certain||Partially certain||Uncertain|
|Number of participants||6||2||0|
Table 4: Awareness to the entails of Strategic Training and Development.
|Certain||Partially Certain||Not Certain|
Table 5: Benefits of Strategic Training and Development.
|Certain||Partially Certain||Not Certain|
|Improved quality of production||3||5||0|
Table 6: Reasons for adopting Strategic Training and Development at ENEC.
|Certain||Partially Certain||Not Certain|
|Increased skill levels||8||0||0|
|Improved safety standards||3||5||0|
|Better methods of disposing nuclear wastes||2||6||0|
Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations. (2014). Technology. Web.
Creswell, J. (2008). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches. London: Sage Publications.
Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation. (2011). UAE poll shows continued support for peaceful nuclear energy program. Web.
GE Capital India. (2014). Training and development. Web.
Kodama, M. (2005). Knowledge creation through networked strategic communities: Case studies on new product development in Japanese companies. Long Range Planning, 38(1), 27-49.
Kodama, M., & Shibata, T. (2014). Strategy transformation through strategic innovation capability: A case study of Fanuc. R & D Management, 44(1), 75-103.
MacPherson, A., Homan, G., & Wilkinson, K. (2005). The implementation and use of e-learning in the corporate university. Journal of Workplace Learning, 17(1/2), 33-48.
Noe, R. (2005). Employee training and development (3rd ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Raelin, J. (2000). Work-based learning: The new frontier of management development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Tseng, C., & McLean, N. (2008). Strategic HRD practices as key factors in organisational learning. Journal of European Industrial Training, 32(6), 418-432.
World Nuclear Association. (2014). Nuclear power in the United Arab Emirates. Web.