Leadership is described as the ability to motivate and make possible for others to realize shared goals. In the last century, several leadership styles and theories were formulated and analyzed (Bass & Riggio, 2006). Currently, there is no single theory that is perfectly suited for all circumstances. Notably, the basic principles of leadership such as inspiring and directing others to realize shared goals underwent through little changes in the past decades. However, leadership context, complexity, and diversity in institutions progressed immensely in the last century.
Leadership has conventionally been vested in an individual with many supporters. In his book, Raelin (2003) offers a new prototype of mutual leadership that converts leadership from a single person’s accountability into the public’s responsibility. The book exhibits the advantages of this model. Similarly, the text illustrates many companies that are already using the prototype. Through the above model, Raelin offers approaches to attaining the 4 C’s of leaderful practice. The four C’s are concurrent, collective, collaborative, and compassionate leadership.
Cooperation as a leadership situation makes intrinsic sense. Raelin (2003) states that when persons who execute alterations are engaged in the design of these transformations they put more energy towards the accomplishment of their plans. When people are completely involved in the execution of change, they tend to obligate themselves to see the amendment through to the end. Raelin (2003) recognizes that there are worries that leaderful leaders cannot succeed in the nonleaderful culture. Although there are many challenges in such environments, leaderful managers should advocate their outlooks to their best. Through this, they can change the minds of their followers and enhance changes in their organizations.
Raelin (2010) asserts that with increased globalization, the world is increasingly becoming interconnected. The global economy requires innovative types of leadership. Therefore, these forms of management should be collective and collaborative. The above imply that everyone should be involved in the formulation and implementation of solutions and vision. Raelin (2010) suggests that it is apparent that the growth of leaderful establishments cannot happen instantaneously. Go-betweens should be established to aid us understand how to modify long-lasting degenerating organizational cultures into better leaderful groups. Raelin (2010) notes that leaderful refer to management practices, which are cooperative and synchronized. Through this type of approach, employees can be able to serve as leaders in their respective roles.
Influence without Authority emphasizes on means of swaying uncooperative members of an organization. Cohen & Bradford (1989) suggest that a major issue in such situation is identifying approaches to progress mutual stimulus without the official power to command. According to the authors, a friend cannot direct a peer to transform priorities, adjust a tactic, or execute a new idea. In the article, the authors insist that influence can only be attained in the absence of official authority with the help of the law of reciprocity. The law presumes that persons should be remunerated based on what they do. Cohen & Bradford (1989) assert that internationally the belief is upheld by primeval and not-so-primitive societies.
The Norm of Reciprocity explores the concept of reciprocity (Gouldner, 1960). According to the author, influence is boosted with the help of strategic alliances to employ in reciprocally valuable interactions with possible allies. Although, it is not steadily probable to be effective the likelihoods of attaining victory can be greatly increased if the strategies are adopted.
Gouldner (1960) suggests that the current real world challenges require new styles of leadership. Workers today are highly qualified and autonomous. As a result, they can benefit an organization in many ways other than being submissive. Nobody is expected to lead unaided since the relations between the employees and employers are continuously changing.
Comprehensive theory of collaboration in education
Towards Multi-Dimensional Values in Teaching focuses on the role of morals in business education. In the article, Wood & Gray (1991) offer a philosophy of education based on the standards’ positions. They suggest that there is an upsurge in radical and ethical concerns being raised in the business community. Therefore, value-oriented features should be incorporated in the business education syllabus. They inspect how morals affect conflict management and illustrate some of the conflict-handling models. The prototypes are competing, cooperating, compromising, avoiding, and accommodating. Wood & Gray (1991) end by analyzing the necessity to come up with teaching plans that accommodate dissimilarities in strengths and flaws between learners. He believes that the students can benefit the most from the approach.
Toward a Comprehensive Theory of Collaboration offers a summary of hypothetical and practical outlooks on the process of cooperation and the types of collaborative associations. In the article, Thomas (1977) provides research findings focused on the topic. The results are evaluated with respect to overarching concerns vital to an inclusive theory of collaboration. They first two issues are the definition of collaboration and sponsorships under which collaboration is assembled and the role of the assembler. The third issues are repercussions of the cooperation for environmental intricacy and members’ control over the setting. The last issue is the relations between individual members’ egocentricity and the mutual interests of all participants engaged in the collective alliance.
The Stolen Idea Case Engaging in Collaborative Behavior permits students to analyze a variety of appointment styles, particularly when they encounter difficulties over how collaboration may end up. Raelin (2010) asserts that further than facilitating a person enhance his or her self-esteem coaches help their students to understand that personal identity is also shaped by others. Therefore, private discourse is significant as a method to discern understanding through other people’s perceptions. The collaborating style adopted will lead to a higher rate of leaderful conduct when compared with other substitute methods. According to Raelin (2010), being too discreet, pleasing people, or endeavoring not to disappoint associates may aggravate evocative communication and the energy to attain common objectives.
In conclusion, it should be noted that leadership is defined as the ability to motivate and make possible for others to realize shared goals. In the articles illustrated above, authors offer new prototypes of mutual leadership that converts leadership from a single person’s accountability into the public’s responsibility. As such, the authors suggest that the current real world challenges require new styles of leadership. Workers today are highly qualified and autonomous. Equally, the global economy requires innovative types of leadership. Therefore, leadership styles should be collective and collaborative. The above imply that everyone should be involved in the formulation and implementation of solutions and vision. Currently, there is no single theory that is perfectly suited for all circumstances. Notably, the basic principles of leadership such as inspiring and directing others to realize shared goals underwent through little changes in the past decades. However, leadership context, complexity, and diversity in institutions progressed immensely in the last century.
Bass, B. & Riggio, R. (2006). Transformational leadership (2nd ed.). Mahwah, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates.
Cohen, A., & Bradford, D. (1989). Influence without authority: The use of alliances, reciprocity, and exchange to accomplish work. Organizational Dynamics, 17(3), 5-17.
Gouldner, A. (1960). The Norm of Reciprocity: A Preliminary Statement. American Sociological Review, 25(2), 161-164.
Raelin, J. (2003). Collaborative Leadership. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
Raelin, J. (2010). The Stolen Idea Case Engaging in Collaborative Behavior. London: Nicholas Brealey.
Thomas, K. (1977). Toward multi-dimensional values in teaching: the example of conflict behaviours. Academy of Management Review, 2 (3), pp.484-490.
Wood, D. & Gray, B. (1991). Toward a comprehensive theory of collaboration. Journal of Applied Behavioural Science, 27 (2), pp.139-162.