Nearly every organization today is faced with a challenge of coping with constantly changing information systems and needs (Air-force Research Labs, 2007). Businesses that have been around for a long time have had to adjust from ledger cards to keeping up with big volumes of information generated in the digital era. The speeds at which information flows in today is making it hard for organizations to keep up. “As we move rapidly into the future, leaders face the challenge of being effective in a global knowledge environment” (Awad and Hassan, 2004). “Today, leaders have to undertake the responsibility of helping their organizations cope with the challenges they face from expanding knowledge and knowledge systems” (Hislop, 2005).
Knowledge management and innovations are of of paramount importance in businesses today. They comprise of many tasks and initiatives to enable an organization create, represent, distribute and adopt data and information (Thompson and Strickland, 2000). It is also the process by which data is collected, converted to information and then to knowledge and finally to expertise (Ford, 2010). As a part of their business strategy, many businesses today have a department and resources strictly dedicated to knowledge management. There are also many consulting companies coming up to help businesses understand the role of this significant aspect of business. Knowledge management is concerned with creating competitive advantages and innovations to improve performance (Datamonitor, 2009). It also plays a major role in ensuring continuous improvement and accurate interpretation of data.
Knowledge management seems to be attracting a lot of attention in both small and big organizations today (Fleisher, 2003). This comes from the realization that it is impossible for a business to succeed in today’s constantly changing markets without proper investments in knowledge and information. In order for organizations to become and stay truly globally competitive, it is important for them to recognize that information is required to support decisions at various levels of business. “In a world overloaded with information, there is need for emphasis on not just more information but actionable intelligence that is capable of guiding decisions in a business” (Beccerra-Fernandez, Avelino and Rajiv, 2004). Therefore, knowledge management, which creates competitive intelligence in a business, must be positioned in a way that it can easily identify threats capable of negatively impacting the business in its external environments (Kessler, 2000.).
Knowledge management application concepts
Data on its own is not valuable to a business. There has to be capability to convert it to information and intelligence for full benefits to be felt (Economic Intelligence Unit, 2011). At the same time, a business must be able to utilize the intelligence through available application devices such as iPhones. For effective application, some concepts have to be in place. As Jashapara (2005) points out, “confidentiality, integrity, availability, authentication and non-repudiation are the core principals of information application”. Other important principals of information application include the organization’s ability to posses the information through privacy ensured by the iPhone design.
Integrity involves proper handling and management of all data systems to ensure safety. According to Alee (1997), “integrity is the quality of information systems reflecting logical correctness and reliability to the operating systems; the logical completeness of the hardware and software implementing the protection mechanisms of different data structures”. The iPhones’ design ensures integrity by creating enough security features such as pins and security codes, which only the owner knows. Even though integrity is mostly about people, it encompasses other technical aspects of handling information such as the reliability of security measures put in place (Cook, 2002). Integrity in information applicability is supposed to ensure that any confidential information is only accessible to authorized people and it is protected from modifications by unauthorized people (Hallgarten, 2004).
In today’s world, specific information is important for proper management of different aspects of an organization (Dark, 2010). With a realization that not all information is useful, converting information to knowledge is an important aspect in information management and application. Information applicability requires that a person be able to access and use specif information at the time when it is most needed (Council of American Technology Association, 2010). For a phone user to fully benefit from information, he/she must have a timely and reliable access to it (Euromonitor International, 2011). The information itself, Apple Inc.’s computing systems and its security measures must be protective but at the same time, they should not make it impossible to access information. Denial of access, a common attack on people, can mean that a person’s wealth of information is useless for the period it is inaccessible (Johnson, 2001).
According to Cronin (2009), authenticity means that the information available for a person’s use must be genuine, trustworthy and its credibility must be undisputed. The iPhone manufactures must ensure that the information sent to a person is what they receive. The manufacture’s security measures must be able to validate any information received and establish the validity of its sources. Authenticity is important to ensure that both the sources and users of any information have evidence for a transaction. In an era where information sharing has become extremely easy, authentication breaches easily occur among people and organizations, compromising their information assurance standards (Cunningham and Fried, 2002). Any information application systems must make it hard for unauthorized personnel to duplicate information or to send it to other destinations without the user’s approval.
“Information non-repudiation is the assurance that the sender of data is provided with proof of delivery and the recipient is provided with proof of the sender’s identity, so that neither can later deny having the transaction” (Gutl and Victor, n.d). It is a very important information application concept to ensure users of iPhones and other communication gadgets don’t get into any legal consequences associated with improper conduct during information management. Technologies available to facilitate this include digital signatures, which can also be used to establish information’s authenticity.
The implementation of knowledge & innovation in iPhones
“The iPhone is an internet and multimedia enabled smart phone marketed by Apple Inc. since 2007” (Miller, 2010). The phone has today evolved from 2G to a 3G gadget, making it common as an internet device. The iPhone has also been designed to provide good speed to its use hence the iPhone3Gs, where ‘s’ standing for speed. Its exceptionally thin and stainless steel body makes it a beautiful and trendy product, especially for the young.
The iPhones have been used to transfer knowledge in organizations and they have become knowledge worker’s tool kits. It has enabled employees to transfer knowledge quickly and have mobile access to personal and public information at any place they may be in (Bach, 2010). They allow employees to have mobile access to personal, organizational and public information at any particular time and place (Daft and Dorothy, 2009). They have also been effective in transferring and sharing knowledge between individuals.
When selecting reporting technologies, it is important for a business to understand who the users are and where the information is to be applied, something that Apple Inc. has mastered. As Alee (1997) puts it, “the assumptions and technical decisions made by vendors shape the capabilities, performance, reliability and scalability of their products and clearly reveal that application technologies are not all created equal”. Information application tools are supposed to give users self-sufficient powers to convert data into intelligence that will allow them make proper management decisions (Groucutt, Patrick and Peter, 2004). The applications systems discussed below support rich internet applications in iPhones, making it possible for information to be shared and accessed on a global scale.
According to Griffins (2008), “defense-in-depth strategy is a term borrowed from military tactical doctrine that suggests deploying war-fighting resources in a manner that presents successive lines of defense”. This application tool is intended at ensuring that information’s application is done in a safe manner without exposing it to any potential threats. In this type of strategy, a user increases their resistance to deny the enemy any chance of penetration. For example, a company will deploy enough preventive measures at the early stages of a product’s development to make it more difficult for the enemy to access personalized information (Chen, 2002).
These barriers can be enhanced by creating access control to ensure that access is only allowed to known and authorized users. Measures such as internet protocols are able to ensure that data in only fed from know sources (Johnson, 2001). Defense-in-depth strategy commonly uses tools such as demilitarized zones and other detection methods to help a user identify and deal with a threat before it causes any damage to a his/her data warehouse. Users are required by the system to scan their data and information before using it in their gadgets. In this strategy, it is common for a product to have monitoring tools and traffic control measures to ensure that all information is verified before being fed or retrieved from the information storage gadget such as the iPhone (Garettson, 2007).
Defense-in-depth strengths include a fast deployment speed and its ability to adapt to dynamic threats (Karami, 2009). The strategy offers high levels of flexibility and speed since more people can feed, access and use information at the same time. This element makes it easy for iPhone users to access its applications at the same time. Its weaknesses include increased expenses arising from the required equipment and security tools such as access-control devices and firewalls. Major processes in the strategy such as configuring, implementing and monitoring information and the systems are complex and involving, creating more loopholes for mistakes.
“A system-high approach strictly controls access to vital systems and forces all people applying the information in different places to comply with a meticulous clearance process that notionally eliminates the need for security barriers” (Cunningham and Fried, 2002). iPhone users for example will have anti-virus software installed in their phones. Apple Inc. has also been able apply this strategy by ensuring that information is only applicable through one specific terminal, hence eliminating all other external connectivity.
This strategy’s strengths include the fact that data application and protection are done at a lower cost since it does not require all the security technologies used in defense-in-depth strategy (Chaston, 2009). The applicability and protection levels are high since information can only be accessed through one controlled terminal making it easier to monitor. The approach also reduces the number of equipments needed, making it less technical and more cheaper. Its weaknesses include rigidity and its inability to respond to other dynamic threats that may arise. The strategy makes deployment more slow since access is controlled.
These two processes of knowledge management and security innovations are designed to allow high levels of safety when using and applying information. “They both provide an integrated development platform required to create data driven rich information application, object oriented re-use and multi-project support” (Hislop, 2005). The defense-in-depth system allows on-demand access to users since it does not have a lot of restrictions for users (Cronin, 2009). The system-high system on the other hand offers content from a unified platform ensuring consistency and uniformity (Dutka, 2004). Since it does not require a lot of complex equipment for application, it slashes cost and streamlines financial interaction processes, allowing better customer satisfaction at an affordable rate (Etzioni, 2002).
Management influence and organization dynamics
Apple Inc. has focused on the differentiation strategy by developing unique products with attributes that keep its customers loyal. The products’ uniqueness adds value to them, making the favourable regardless of their price. As a result, Apple is able to charge a premium price for some of them. This way, the business can easily afford the costs that go into making its products unique and invest as much on innovations. When the company’s cost of production goes up, it is able to easily pass it down to the consumers, who may not be able to enjoy the services anywhere else other than in Apple’s products. The iPhone is one product where the business has been able to implement major innovations it is are not hindered by costs.
Apple has been able to succeed using a differentiation strategy by implementing several internal strengths. It has established a good reputation for quality for itself and has ensured it stays as the best firm in terms of innovations. The company’s stable financial position allows it access to the best research technologies. The position also allows Apple the privilege of being able to hire and retain the best designers and software developers. As a result of such a position, innovations have been one of the company’s strengths and its products stand out.
The role of information management and innovation has never been more vital than it is today in boosting any company’s performance (Capparell, 2010). The nature of information technology is constantly changing with more abundance and accessibility being established each day (Cronin, 2009). The uses of information technology are equally expanding due to new and better technologies of collecting, sharing and applying information. As this happens, the need for information security and assurance gets bigger. All these developments have combined forces to give businesses, governments and other institutions many unprecedented opportunities to create high performances in information applications (Competitive Intelligence Foundation, 2006).
Where the application concepts lack, information may not be valuable to an organization and when it is, its application and use may expose a business to major risks (Gansler and Hans, 2004). The world today has gone digital and undergone a revolution which makes information easily accessible (Jashapara, 2005). The iPhone is among the innovations that have made this possible.Following the efficiency of the internet and its applicability in US department of defense, its use has since then proliferated to every part of the world. The increased need for more efficient information application strategies to ensure customers and businesses are satisfied has encouraged the innovation of devices that can offer more than phone calls and that is what iPhone has excelled in.
For an organization to ensure maximized productivity and customer satisfaction, they must invest in a strategy that offers protection, flexibility and does so in a cost effective manner (Boyce and Dan, 2002). Apple Inc. has made it easier for individuals and companies to do this by providing a mobile product that can now be used for all their communication needs. Such innovations enable businesses to create observation and monitoring measures, ensure only authorized access to a a personalized date warehouse, provide sufficient scans for all information being fed in the system and protect valuable information from regular users (Hallgarten, 2004).
It is important to note that before a business decides on which application tools to use, there are many factors to consider (Goldberg, 2000). Prior to implementing any strategy, architects of the process should ensure that they fully understand the goals and objectives an organization intends to achieve from the process (Alger, 2001). For Apple Inc., it is evident that the business is driven by the users’ needs, convenience and personalized experiences with their products (Cunningham and Fried, 2008). There should also be measures to address major challenges in information applicability today such as being able to accommodate diverse values and cultures, as well as being able to accommodate different global systems (Blyth and Gerald, 2006).
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