Women and Men Leadership Styles Comparison

Introduction

Many organizations, as well as societies, are in need of different leadership styles to achieve their desired interests. The modern day feminists accuse the existence of the glass ceiling because it impedes the chances of women ascending to higher positions, but this article would be concerned with gender differences in leadership only. In the recent decades, women have done well in leadership because they have entered into lower and mid-level managerial positions1.

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However, they still face the greatest challenge whereby their participation in senior management is problematic. Several studies claim differences in leadership styles between the two genders exist while some do not establish any variation. This article does not venture into the debate, but instead it aspires to present an overview of the differences in leadership styles between women and men with an aim of providing a synthesis of the existing literature. Many studies in the fields of management, political science, sociology, and psychology focus on the role of women in leadership and management.

This paper would not go into the details of what the articles say apart from summarizing the studies under the literature review section before moving on to suggest a method of data collection to determine whether indeed differences in leadership styles between the two genders exist. In the first section of the paper, a summary of female leadership would be looked at, as well as the effects of sex-role stereotyping. For this to be achieved, the historical perspective of female leadership would be given, as it would facilitate the understanding of the changes on gender differences. The second section of the paper suggests a methodology that would be employed in collecting the views of various participants on female leadership. The last section is the conclusion based on the reviewed literature and the collected data on the female leadership.

Before embarking on the analysis, two clarifications are made, one being the usage of the words leader and manager2. The two have different meanings, especially in the study of management, but they will be used interchangeably in this article3. Secondly, the paper does not focus on the biological differences that exist between the two genders, but instead the emphasis would be placed on the social roles, particularly in the modern society, as they are often influenced by culture.

Women as Leaders

Several women are slowly taking over the responsibilities that were initially reserved for men in the traditional labour market. However, the idea of women as leaders is uncommon in many quarters, irrespective of gender and things are not expected to change any soon due to the rigid structure held in many modern societies because the traditional norms of leadership are deep-rooted4. In many societies, including those of the developed nations, leaders are known to be men with very few exceptions meaning women were only allowed to fill the leadership positions in the organizations that only served them, such as sonorities, convents, and the feminist institutions of learning.

Unfortunately, institutions of high learning meant for women had men as their presidents implying that female leaders were still expected to report to male presidents. In many communities, it is often assumed that leadership belongs to men and this is imbedded in people’s thinking and language. A good leader is described using adjectives, such as spirited, hard liner, and dominant, which are all associated with masculinity. In case a woman manages to achieve the leadership status, she would be regarded as an abnormal and many female employees who attain high positions are likely to be compared to men instead of giving them credit based on their achievements5.

The achievements of Margaret Thatcher could not be compared to any of other prime ministers in the century since she turned the country into one of the economic hubs in the continent with her policy of privatization of public enterprises. Instead of appreciating her for the economic achievements, she was referred to as the “best man” in Great Britain, with some terming her the “iron lady” meaning she ruled with an iron fist.

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Societies all over the world are trying to increase female participation in leadership through formulating laws that allow them to be incorporated into leadership, such as affirmative action. Surprisingly, stereotypes are still existent since women will still be rebuked while serving their societies at the high positions. In fact, some studies suggest that stereotypes are to blame for the many problems that female leaders face in their positions. In this case, it is often viewed that women do not fit the formulaic leader pattern and those intending to try their lack have to be highly qualified, posses proven records of performance, and be well prepared to face all sorts of challenges.

Once a woman attains the leadership position in society, whether in an organization or the public, she is expected to behave just as a male leader would do instead of trying to come up with a different style that would change the societal living conditions or improve the performance of the organization. It is observed that a woman would be in a position to bring change if allowed to bring in new talent and fresh approach to issues. In early 1960s and 1970s, many studies were conducted to establish whether women and men had similar styles of leadership6. Many of these studies concluded that men are more competent while women tend to be warm and expressive in what they do as far as leadership and management is concerned.

This implies that masculinity and femininity were viewed as opposite and each person was expected to fall in the correct category while anyone who would be seen as being in the middle would be considered maladjusted7.

Many scholars underscore the fact that the process of socialization and the rigid social structure are to blame for the low position that women hold in the field of management and leadership. The researcher uses the term to explain how the society could destabilize the gender system to benefit each person in society. In the end, he formulates a theory based on the term whereby he notes that reframing the questions is mandatory in case the society is to achieve its desired interests in terms of gender equality. First, all studies on gender roles should place much emphasis on the time and the way in which social interactions turn out to be gendered.

Additionally, studies have to focus on the issue of social interactions in relation to gender differences in leadership. In the same analysis, the scholar wanted to establish whether gendered interactions have any influences in inequality. While insisting on the importance of his assumption on doing gender, he suggested that it has changed the way scholars approach the issue of female leadership in at least four ways. First, it dispels the notion that the process of socialization is to blame for the problems that female leaders, as well as other women face in the modern society. In this case, the idea that children internalize a set of rules, standards, and practices as issued by parents and teachers is misplaced instead men and women tend to generate social relationships as their interact throughout in life. Based on the assumption, gender is dynamic in the sense that the most important behaviour is likely to change with time8.

The socialization theories postulate that individuals have a tendency of internalizing gendered norms, especially those that were salient in childhood, but the new theory of doing gender has a different postulation suggesting that individuals simply respond to the changes taking place in the modern society. In this regard, changing the gender relations does not need re-socialization of the entire generation, as many people would think. The second contribution of doing gender is its exposure of the weaknesses of psychological theories, as it mainly exposed the flaws of deterministic structural accounts of gender.

The psychological theories made people believe that gender differences come from the different resources that could be accessed by both men and women. For psychologists, the domination and subordination of women is a result of the superiority of men economically because they contribute a lot in the funding of family budgets. However, the theory has a different suggestion since studies confirm that women are still oppressed even though they might be contributing half of the family budget. Third, the notion that some differences are natural is highly disputed by the new theory. The scholar claims that the difference has to be reconstructed repeatedly in order to maintain the appearance of naturalness9.

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A new concept referred to as hegemonic masculinity was developed in 2008, which has an influence in gender roles. In the early 1980s, the idea has been influencing the views of men on gender and social hierarchy. Through their analysis on the positions of men and women, it is possible to give accounts on feminism and sociological models of gender in general. In this case, masculinity is employed effectively in the study of inequalities in education, as well as violence, which facilitate the provision of counselling services, particularly on the health. In their view, gender relations could better be understood through functionalism meaning viewing gender roles as a self-contained and self-reproducing. In this regard, each element has to function properly in order to make the entire system complete. It is noted that male dominance and female subordination could better be understood through an assessment of the historical process and it cannot be self-reproducing.

However, the scholars underscore the fact that masculine domination is a concept that is open to challenge, which implies a considerate effort has to be placed in order to maintain it. Women are deliberately excluded from the public affairs through homo-sociality, as suggested by Bird’s research. In this study, they prove that hegemonic masculinity is not self-reproducing, as it entails a social creation that members of society decide whether to uphold it or discard through habit or any other available mechanism. In case men would want to maintain any pattern of hegemony, policing has to be initiated, which includes exclusion and discrediting of women. Women are mainly issued with security threats that make them scared leading to homophobic assaults and murders. The education system is also structured in the way suggesting that boys should be tested for masculinity.

Historical Perspective of Gendered Roles

The current state of affairs cannot be understood without visiting the previous status of women regarding leadership. Several changes have taken place, with the main aim of including women in leadership, but they are not enough to realize the objectives of women aspiring to be leaders. Before 1980s, the gendered differences in leadership were a neglected topic that many researchers were never interested in exploring it. It was assumed that a leader had to possess certain characteristics that would make him or her effective manager10. For some scholars, it would be difficult to develop the qualities of an efficient leader through the process socialization in the sense that they are inborn, universal, and mixed.

The study of gender differences in leadership was never important because of the existence of the great man theory, which suggested that any leader had to be a man with exceptional qualities. In 1940s, new theories of leadership were developed, which effectively displaced the trait theory that had perhaps neglected the contributions of women in leadership11. By then, situational leadership had gained root suggesting that different situations called for different styles. With time, psychological studies started examining the role of gender in management and leadership, with much emphasis on the personality and behaviour patterns since they were responsible for the low status of women in society. In this case, person-centred variables were seen as playing an important role in trying to explain the participation of an individual in society12.

Many studies encouraged women to focus on changing their behaviour and ensuring that they suit in the society instead of changing the organizational behaviour. It was later identified that women were suffering because of men’s power that never provided any opportunity to them. Women lack what many scholars term as leadership qualities because they are never given any opportunity in organizations to play their roles freely since they always hold positions of little influence with no opportunity to develop professionally. The behaviour that any woman espouses pertaining to leadership reflects lack of power meaning the behaviour is not natural, as many men have always suggested. Organizations adopt unethical cultures that disenfranchise women to an extent that they cannot have the needed features that determine success. In studies focusing on communication, researchers observe that women and men are given specific instructions on the usage of language.

Children are taken through different experiences based on gender, which encourage them to value different things. For men, they are often instructed to value status, independence, and personal power while a woman is simply shown how to develop connections, respect authority, and value the power of the community. When children grow up, their values are radically different meaning their behaviour will definitely vary.

Literature Review

Masculinity played an important role for the governor in capturing the California gubernatorial seat. The actor turned politician had developed a violent persona in 1980s that played a role in reshaping the culture of the American man after the Vietnam War. Soon after, the masculinity culture was considered illegitimate, as many viewed it as mockery to the culture of women13. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the actor managed to form an image of masculinity, but they seen as self-mocking. He focused mainly on care and shielding of children through body building training. In the latest movie referred to as the Kindergarten Commando, he notes that hegemonic masculinity plays a major role of foregrounding muscles, sturdiness, and mitigating the threat for violence.

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In the US politics, the Republican Party always makes effective use of masculine imagery to convince voters to accept its policies, especially when the country is faced with national security threats and rising insecurity. For liberals, they are viewed as feminine because they often insist on peaceful resolution of conflicts instead of sending troops to intervene militarily14. As soon as president Obama was declared winner, many analysts commented that the country would be peacefully since the party is never interested in aggressive foreign policy. At the time, Bush, together with his Republican Party, was viewed as being masculine in the sense that they insisted in the mantra policies15.

The roles of women have traditionally been constructed around motherhood meaning female members of the family should ensure the family is taken good care of, especially when it comes of accomplishing the household chores16. However, the scholar notes that the current trend suggests something different in the sense that many women prefer remaining childless as opposed to giving birth, as this would subordinate them. The researcher conducted a study on at least twenty-five women who chose to remain childless voluntarily17. The study came up with stunning conclusions because many women were interested in living childless, as this would definitely increase their bargaining power in any relationship. Again, the scholar established that women have specific roles to play in the family set up, irrespective of the type of society be it rural, urban, or industrial18.

A new generation of women exists in the modern society and a number of them are interested in joining the military, with quite a number wanting to take over senior positions. The idea to include women in the professions that were traditionally reserved for men is viewed as a radical one with an aim of changing the gender relations. The researcher undertook a study that collected the views of thirty-eight women and men in the military branch referred to as ROTC. The study aimed at establishing how women are able to manipulate through a tight system that does not recognize their contributions. In other words, the scholar sought to understand the way in which a woman would find her way in the military yet it is mainly a masculine profession. Additionally, the researcher is interested in knowing some of the strategies that would perhaps offer an opportunity to a woman to achieve her interest in the military19.

The military is a very strict organization that calls on the member to be courageous always since it entails defending ones country. In war against terrorism in Iraq, at least eleven women lost their limbs fighting for the interests of their country. In her view, these women had a set a stage for the new generation of women who would do everything possible to ensure that the y achieve what is believed to belong to men only20. However, the case of the eleven women raises a question on whether the military is prepared to accept change in the sense that women should be allowed to occupy high positions.

Many researchers are asking whether the government is proving adequate opportunities for female soldieries by empowering them with sufficient programs. For some scholars, the military is doing nothing to help women apart from exploiting their labour in the same way private and public corporations are doing all over the world. For some analysts, the inclusion of women in the military is an enabling factor since its structures demand a physically powerful person, irrespective of gender, a mentally stable individual, goal-oriented employees, and aggressive people who have the potential to survive in a violent environment, use weapons, and be prepared to die any time.

Methodology

Data-collection Process

Research performed in a rigorous manner could lead to more effective practices than decisions based mainly on intuition, personal preferences, or common sense. Based on this, this study will utilize the views garnered through the interviews in order to develop a sufficient platform from which effective and above all accurate conclusions can be developed. The data-collection process will actually be quite straightforward. Preparation for the data collection process will also be necessary to assure the participants of the safe storage of information before the interview begins to encourage them to give genuine answers. Responses will be more favourable if the interview is conducted privately. This approach will mitigate accommodation costs, thus making the project more cost effective.

Evaluating the Questionnaire Responses

Two methods may be used to score the test, including raw score and relative score. Both will be used for comparison in the study. The raw-score method is a simple sum of the responses within each scale. This involves merely examining which responses seem similar to each other or which are widely divergent. The relative-scoring method compares scales for relative contribution to the overall score. The relative proportion for each scale is found by dividing the individual mean score for the scale by the combined means for all scales. Unlike other types of questionnaires administered through similar studies, this questionnaire does not utilize a score or point system wherein responses are limited to a set amount.

The reason behind this is quite simple meaning the researcher is attempting to gauge the individual accounts of the research subjects in the form of data, which involves their own personal accounts and experiences regarding the participation. One must note, though, that the researcher did take into consideration the use of a generalized research questionnaire form. However, based on the necessity of personal responses, this study considers generalized questionnaire a method that would divulge the type of data needed given the necessity of examining individual experiences at the local level.

Data Analysis – SPSS

The data-analysis program known as SPSS for Windows will be used for purposes of analyzing the quantitative data. The basic initial steps will include data coding, entry, cleaning, analyses, and interpretation. Univariate analyses aimed at generating frequency distributions and descriptive analyses will be used to assess the leadership chances of women in society. The data resulting from the frequency distributions would further be harnessed before presenting it using pie charts, tables, and bar graphs in order to present the needed data for this study. The data from the study will also be analyzed using t-tests and ANOVA in order to determine any correlations between female leadership and gender relations. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis will be conducted with social interaction conditions acting as the moderator.

Reliability and Validity

Reliability in any research process implies that the same set of data would have been collected each time in repeat examinations of the same variable or phenomenon otherwise referred to as consistency of measurement. To realize reliability of the study findings, the researcher will certify that items incorporated in the survey schedule will only capture data that are of interest to the broader objectives of the study. The range of measurement of the sets of the survey schedules will also be adjusted upward to enhance internal consistency of the study findings. In addition, the researcher will utilize multiple indicators to ensure the collection of objective and unabridged data.

Validity is a measurement that is used to describe a measure or instrument that correctly reflects the variable or phenomena it is intended to evaluate thus reinforcing the conclusions, assumptions, and propositions made from the analysis of data. Internal validity, which denotes the soundness of a study or investigation, will be achieved through the establishment of a framework for the application of effective sampling techniques and employing a validated and reliable survey schedule for the proposal of data collection. The same procedures in combination with the recruitment of a representative sample size will be used to achieve external validity hence ensuring that the study findings can be generalized to other settings.

For this reason, the involvement of other professional colleagues to review the data will contribute to the validity of the study. The researcher will determine the validity and integrity of the study with appropriate attributes of trustworthiness, rigor, and quality. Trustworthiness is the degree to which the reader can trust the findings. Trust is not established but instead built and nurtured. This study will first try to cultivate trust in the study participants by conveying to them that the research goal is simply to determine how they feel about female leadership and their views on it, as well as its impact on their daily lives.

The rigor of the study must be evident when the researcher presents the findings. A rigorous study has to be designed, conducted, and analyzed properly (Shank, 2006). The researcher will demonstrate the study’s rigorous design by reporting in the method section that the study was developed with the expert guidance of University faculty, was reviewed, and approved by the board and that the study would be conducted by closely following the approved design.

Mailings would be sent to the individual institutions, agencies, and businesses organizations explaining the main objective of the study and requesting their consent for participation. Further communication will proceed via e-mail between those who agree to take part in the survey and the researcher to ensure that all individuals understand the requirements of the study. The researcher will also take time to elaborate the rights of participants during the study process including the right to informed consent and the right to confidentiality. By addressing these concerns through guidelines on proper ethics and research, it is expected that few ethical concerns will need to be addressed.

Conclusion

According to the National Democratic Institute chairperson Madeleine Albright, each society deserves the best leadership meaning women should be given a chance to participate in decision-making at various levels, both nationally and globally. The chairperson is of the view that each member of society, irrespective of gender, should be allowed to compete in elections. Going contrary to this would be depriving people of their rights and freedoms. Providing an enabling environment for individual fulfilment allows both genders to engage in politics and formulation of policy in government, which result in the development of democracy and its subsequent sustainability21.

In many parts of the world, women are underrepresented in leadership positions whereby they are never considered for high positions. During an electioneering process for instance, the society tends to appreciate the views of men while neglecting the ideas of women, yet they play a major role in socio-economic and political development. Feminists underscore the fact that society cannot achieve its desired interests in case half of its population is underrepresented in policy formulation22. Women face similar challenges globally ranging from political to socio-economic, but the solution lies with the government, as it is expected to formulate a stronger policy that will see many women participate in political activities. In this regard, women must be well represented in social movements, political parties, and government, as this would facilitate the creation of a stronger and effervescent society.

This article looks at how the society discriminates women in political activities. Regarding elected positions, women rarely find chances to participate fully while public appoints are skewed towards one gender. The paper starts by observing the importance of incorporating women in socio-political and economic development before analyzing the challenges facing their participation.

Why Involve Women

Studies show that many women across the world are interested in helping their societies reduce the conditions that bring about suffering through policy formulation and idea generation. Through this, social problems are likely to be addressed, especially those facing women, children, and the disadvantaged23. For instance, many women across the world have special problems that would better be addressed by women leaders, including issues to do with reproductive health and security. The issue of abortion is purely a female problem because it mainly affects them, but it is unfortunate that only men are involved in the debate in various parliaments leading to discrimination. Again, participation of women in leadership and political activities is likely to promote honesty, as it has already been proved in South America and Europe that a female president does not support any act that would lead to misappropriation of funds. Based on this, the instances of corruption are likely to go down with the involvement of women in leadership.

One of the global problems facing the many governments is the issue of security since instances of terrorism and inter-ethnic wars are in the increase24. Terrorists and other belligerent actors in the international system believe that women are soft sports and are likely to be targeted with an aim of intimidating the state and world leaders. If women are involved in peace building initiatives, a likelihood that these conflicts will reduce and the society will be a peaceful place for everyone to live is high25. World leaders are constantly engaged in talks to end conflicts, but better results would be achieved in case women are included in reconstruction and reconciliation efforts.

In fact, peace agreements would be sustainable given the fact that they would be inclusive. Studies show that no female leader would be supportive of a policy that insists on war because she knows that women and children would be the sufferers, as men have the ways of defending themselves. Recently, it has been proved that female leaders have the capacity of resolving conflicts. The US secretary of state, Hillary Clinton, strongly opposed the idea of sending troops to Egypt and Libya with claims that children and women would suffer. In this case, he insisted on dialogue forcing the US to take a back seat in handling global issues for the first time in history.

States with women as presidents are known to support programs aiming at improving people’s educational levels, road and rail network, healthcare standards, and financial power. Germany is one such country that has one of the strongest female leaders in the modern times and she is supportive of economic and social development. Germany is a country with a long history of technological development, but its leadership has always let down the people because resources are channelled to military development and proliferation of weapons instead of developing the infrastructure.

Hitler was among the leaders to have misused the country’s resources to engage in unnecessary wars that affected the economic development of the state for several years. Currently, Germany is one of the economic powerhouses in Europe to an extent of requesting to bail out states facing economic challenges with men as their leaders. Britain achieved several economic objectives under Margaret Thatcher as the prime minister since she ended corruption by insisting on the privatization of public corporations that were almost being declared bankrupt because of mismanagement and misallocation of funds. In various Scandinavian countries, women leaders are mainly associated with socialist parties with the major aim of promoting health, education, and equality. In the Latin American region, Argentina and Chile made history by electing women to positions of influence when they voted for female presidents.

In Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago, women were elected as prime ministers and their achievements are incomparable since they almost eliminated the problem that have been facing the region since independence, which is drug trafficking26. Brazil and Costa Rica are among the latest countries to have elected women as their heads of states and their performance confirm the assertion that women are never interested in conflicts, but instead they have the interests of the community at heart meaning they simply want to change things in society. Spain and Sweden are among countries in Europe to have elected female presidents when the society needed them most since they brought tremendous changes that proved the critics wrong.

Challenges

Women are engaged in all sorts of campaigns to ensure they are involved in political processes, as well as top position in government, but they have to do something extra to force their way out since they are trapped in unproductive culture, male chauvinism, and a complex social structure that do not support their normal living. Right from childhood, a woman knows that she has to respect men meaning they live under a state of false consciousness since physical features should not be used to subjugate a section of society27. The percentage of women both in elected and appointed positions is always varies in several countries in the sense that it always below par. Based on this, women do not have the numbers needed to bring about changes in political processes and leadership in government.

Many countries have realized the problem whereby affirmative action is meant to bring fairness, but women are still faced with the challenge of convincing society to accept them as genuine leaders aiming at instituting reforms that would benefit each individual. When women seek political offices, they are always viewed negatively since many are accused of trying to change the social structure radically, which would result in anomy or formlessness28. In Argentina, at least forty percent of all positions were taken over by women in the lower house in 2009, but it is unfortunate that only eight percent of all positions went to women in Colombia.

Somebody wonders why women are underrepresented in various countries, but the answer lies with the country’s electoral laws because women are not given adequate protection. In electoral systems that favour proportional representations, Paxton and Hughes (2014) are of the view that many women are likely to be elected as opposed to the majority system, which means plurinominal election districts, as well as the legislative quotas play a significant role in ensuring that women are elected to positions of influence29.

Political parties are to blame for the tribulations of women as far as election to high positions and government appointments are concerned since they ensure that only men nominated for elections and this trend is common in the developing countries whereby parties are private properties owned, financed, and controlled by a single individual. In this case, a woman is expected to bend low for her to be given nomination, something proving that internal democracy in parties is a matter of concern for many women across the world, which prevents their chances of success. In case a political party is elected to office, its members are likely to ensure that their close confidants, who helped them in campaigns either financially or morally, are awarded with prestigious positions, such as ambassador, cabinet secretaries, principal secretaries, and heads of key public corporations.

Unfortunately, women are rarely considered when making important appointments and their presence in cabinet is simply for publicity because they are given inferior positions that do not give them an opportunity to influence policy formulation process. Other issues, such as ethnicity and socio-economic statuses, worsen the situation for women. The prevailing conditions cannot allow women to participate fully in political activities because parties in the modern society play a critical role in power acquisition, something suggesting that women will continue facing the same problem unless something is done to increase their participation. A political party decides who gets the position of influence meaning they are gatekeepers of women’s progress as far as parity is concerned.

References

Books

Cragin, K., & Daly, S. A. (2009). Women as terrorists: Mothers, recruiters, and martyrs. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger Security International. Web.

Farrell, W., & Sterba, J. (2008). Does Feminism Discriminate Against Men. New York: Oxford University Press. Web.

Fuller, K. (2013). Gender, identity, and educational leadership. London: Bloomsbury Academic. Web.

Glechner, M. J. (2009). Sex Changes: Transformations in Society and Psychoanalysis. New York: Taylor & Francis. Web.

Griselda, P. (2007). Encounters in the Virtual Feminist Museum: Time, Space and the Archive. New York: Routledge. Web.

Henderson, S., Jeydel, A. S., & Henderson, S. (2010). Women and politics in a global world. New York: Oxford University Press. Web.

Klenke, K. (1996). Women and leadership: A contextual perspective. New York: Springer Pub. Co. Web.

McTavish, D., & Miller, K. (2006). Women in leadership and management. Cheltenham: E. Elgar. Web.

Paludi, M. A., & Coates, B. E. (2011). Women as transformational leaders: From grassroots to global interests. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger. Web.

Paxton, P. M., & Hughes, M. M. (2014). Women, politics, and power: A global perspective. Oxford: University of Oxford. Web.

Ridley-Duff, R. J. (2010) Emotion, Seduction, and Intimacy: Alternative Perspectives on Human Behavior. Seattle: Libertarian. Web.

Salime, Z. (2011). Between Feminism and Islam: Human Rights and Sharia Law in Morocco. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Web.

Werhane, P. H., & Painter-Morland, M. (2011). Leadership, gender, and organization. Dordrecht: Springer. Web.

Articles

Adams, R.B., & Ferreira, D. (2009). Women in the boardroom and their impact on governance and performance. Journal of Financial Economics, 94(1), 291-309. Web.

Adams, R.B., & Funk, P. (2012). Beyond the glass ceiling: Does gender matter? Management Science, 58(2), 219–235. Web.

Brescoll, V. L. (2011). Who takes the floor and why? Gender, power, and volubility in organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 56(2), 622-641. Web.

Judge, T.A., & Piccolo. R.F. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(1), 901–910. Web.

Krishnan, H.A., & Park, D. (2005). A few good women—on top management teams. Journal of Business Research, 58(3), 1712–172. Web.

Paxton, P., Kunovich, S., & Hughes, M.M. (2007). Gender in politics. Annual Review of Sociology, 33(3), 263-284. Web.

Wängnerud, L. (2009). Women in parliaments: Descriptive and substantive representation. Annual Review of Political Science, 12(3), 51-69. Web.

Footnotes

1 McTavish, D., & Miller, K. (2006). Women in leadership and management. Cheltenham: E. Elgar. P. 112. Web.

2 Glechner, M. J. (2009). Sex Changes: Transformations in Society and Psychoanalysis. New York: Taylor & Francis. Web.

3 Fuller, K. (2013). Gender, identity, and educational leadership. London: Bloomsbury Academic. P. 32. Web.

4 Wängnerud, L. (2009). Women in parliaments: Descriptive and substantive representation. Annual Review of Political Science, 12(3), 51. Web.

5 Werhane, P. H., & Painter-Morland, M. (2011). Leadership, gender, and organization. Dordrecht: Springer. P. 74. Web.

6 Krishnan, H.A., & Park, D. (2005). A few good women—on top management teams. Journal of Business Research, 58(3), 1712–172. Web.

7 Cragin, K., & Daly, S. A. (2009). Women as terrorists: Mothers, recruiters, and martyrs. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger Security International. Web.

8 Fuller, K. (2013). Gender, identity, and educational leadership. London: Bloomsbury Academic. Web.

9 Brescoll, V. L. (2011). Who takes the floor and why? Gender, power, and volubility in organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 56(2), 622-641. P. 631. Web.

10 Cragin, K., & Daly, S. A. (2009). Women as terrorists: Mothers, recruiters, and martyrs. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger Security International. P. 12. Web.

11 Griselda, P. (2007). Encounters in the Virtual Feminist Museum: Time, Space, and the Archive. New York: Routledge. Web.

12 Klenke, K. (1996). Women and leadership: A contextual perspective. New York: Springer Pub. Co. Web.

13 Brescoll, V. L. (2011). Who takes the floor and why? Gender, power, and volubility in organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 56(2), 622-641. P. 631. Web.

14 Adams, R.B., & Ferreira, D. (2009). Women in the boardroom and their impact on governance and performance. Journal of Financial Economics, 94(1), 291-309. Web.

15 Adams, R.B., & Funk, P. (2012). Beyond the glass ceiling: Does gender matter? Management Science, 58(2), 219–235. P. 226. Web.

16 Cragin, K., & Daly, S. A. (2009). Women as terrorists: Mothers, recruiters, and martyrs. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger Security International. P. 21. Web.

17 Judge, T.A., & Piccolo. R.F. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(1), 901–910. P. 904. Web.

18 Wängnerud, L. (2009). Women in parliaments: Descriptive and substantive representation. Annual Review of Political Science, 12(3), 51-69. P. 61. Web.

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