In their quasi-historical study, Bird and Mendenhall (2016) view cross-cultural management as a part of a global leadership development agenda. The authors note that this phenomenon is an algorithm that provides for the creation of a management environment with an emphasis on the cultural practices of all the parties involved (Bird & Mendenhall, 2016). In addition, the formation of a cross-cultural approach is assessed against standard leadership practices.
The importance of cross-cultural management is assessed from different perspectives. Bird and Mendenhall (2016) argue that in today’s competitive business environment, addressing the unique characteristics of a particular work environment is significant. Building a reliable and productive team is viewed from a cross-cultural perspective. The value of the study lies in evaluating the impact of the considered type of management on global leadership and an opportunity to compare traditional methods of personnel management with those focused on cultural aspects.
Rahiman and Kodikal (2017) review different aspects of cross-cultural management, highlighting not only its merits but also its demerits. The aspects of relationship building, negotiation, and respect are seen as benefits of the considered type of leadership. However, at the same time, the authors draw attention to the negative aspects of this concept (Rahiman & Kodikal, 2017). They are the underestimation of individual employees’ work, the difficulty of establishing effective non-verbal communication, as well as distinctive approaches to the interpretation of conflict situations.
As the goal of their research, Rahiman and Kodikal (2017) set out to determine how to use cross-cultural management as effectively as possible. Maintaining a supportive work environment among employees with distinctive cultural backgrounds is seen as the ultimate purpose that team leaders should achieve. The practical significance of this work lies in an opportunity to assess the potentially negative aspects of cross-cultural management and be aware of its unwanted implications.
The study conducted by Dietz et al. (2017) aims to show what nuances the training of future managers involves in the framework of a cross-cultural approach. The authors draw attention to the nature of the training of specialists and mention specific crucial criteria of this field, including motivational practices, adherence to diversity, and creativity (Dietz et al., 2017). In addition, barriers and constraints are presented, which allows assessing this leadership principle comprehensively.
Cultural diversity is presented as a key aspect that leaders should pay attention to when working in a diverse environment. The value of this study lies in a comprehensive assessment of the requirements for compliance with cross-cultural conditions of inter-professional interaction. Moreover, real examples from the world practice are given, and this method contributes to studying specific mistakes and, therefore, assessing the ways to avoid them.
As an example of a company promoting the principles of cross-cultural management, Coca-Cola is analyzed, and Baah and Bohaker (2015) review the corporation comprehensively. In particular, the authors mention the history of the development of this brand, its organizational structure, as well as leadership and cultural practices that are promoted in the company (Baah & Bohaker, 2015). Coca-Cola’s management strategies are assessed by using real-world examples.
One of the strengths of this review lies in the application of effective analysis models, including the SWOT concept and Porter’s Five Forces model. Baah and Bohaker (2015) summarize the key principles of management and note leaders’ attention to the cultural characteristics of both the target audience and employees. Business solutions are viewed as steps taken after careful analyses, and the value of appropriate management practices is emphasized.
The study by Hou et al. (2018) provides the analysis of the effectiveness of cross-cultural training and the significance of this activity. As the strength of the study, one should note the global context of the review, which allows assessing the general principles of training and delivering relevant skills. The disadvantages of neglecting this leadership mechanism are highlighted, and how stakeholders interact is mentioned.
In the context of cross-cultural learning, Hou et al. (2018) discuss training as an integral component that provides an opportunity to deliver the necessary interaction skills in a multicultural environment. In addition, the authors offer a specific guideline that includes essential points to follow (Hou et al., 2018). As a target audience, not only future managers are mentioned but also other stakeholders, for instance, ordinary employees, which is also the strength of the study.
As an individual aspect of cross-cultural management, the promotion of diversity plays an important role, and Mateescu (2017) analyzes this phenomenon. The researcher notes that adherence to appropriate principles of interaction with personnel allows a leader to create a productive and creative work environment with a rich cultural base (Mateescu, 2017). Both global and organizational contexts are analyzed, and conclusions are drawn about the merits and demerits of specific approaches.
The research in question is valuable as a study that offers the critical assessment of cross-cultural management. The concepts of workplace diversity and open communication are discussed, and building relationships with employees is evaluated within these criteria. The perspectives and manifestations of cross-cultural management are offered on the example of unique situations that describe potential outcomes and the use of specific approaches to interaction with personnel.
To assess the parameter of motivation as the aspect of cross-cultural management, Odukah (2016) analyzes the experience of Coca-Cola’s Kenyan subsidiary and, in particular, bottlers’ labor. The researcher argues that performance recognition, providing favorable working conditions, and proper training are the key drivers of employee motivation (Odukah, 2016). In addition, the organizational culture of Kenya is examined, and its typical and unique features are highlighted.
The value of the study is enhanced by real-life feedback from employees and their assessment of management approaches based on adherence to cross-cultural practices. From a practical perspective, the findings may be utilized as a guideline for individual organizations to implement the necessary HR practices. The study of motivation is assessed as an essential aspect of cross-cultural leadership and a factor that can influence performance significantly.
In their research, Jenifer and Raman (2015) examine the barriers to cross-cultural management and ways to overcome them. The authors draw attention to the need to maintain communication in the workplace, promote knowledge transfer, and provide training to achieve positive inter-professional interaction in a diverse team (Jenifer & Raman, 2015). Stereotyping, anxiety, ethnocentrism, and some other barriers are assessed as obstacles to maintaining productive cross-cultural management.
In a culturally diverse setting, mutual benefits can be achieved if an organization adheres to appropriate management principles, and Jenifer and Raman (2015) emphasize the importance of creating a corresponding leadership background. Cross-cultural management is seen as a new and in-demand tool for ensuring high productivity. The value of the study lies in assessing many leadership competencies and their role in removing barriers to normal interaction in the workplace.
Baah, S., & Bohaker, L. (2015). The Coca-Cola Company. Culture, 16, 1-20.
Bird, A., & Mendenhall, M. E. (2016). From cross-cultural management to global leadership: Evolution and adaptation. Journal of World Business, 51(1), 115-126. Web.
Dietz, J., Fitzsimmons, S. R., Aycan, Z., Francesco, A. M., Jonsen, K., Osland, J., Sackmann, S. A., Lee, H.-J., & Boyacigiller, N. A. (2017). Cross-cultural management education rebooted. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, 24(1), 125-151. Web.
Hou, N., Fan, J., Tan, J. A., Hua, J., & Valdez, G. (2018). Cross-cultural training effectiveness: Does when the training is delivered matter? International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 65, 17-29. Web.
Jenifer, R. D., & Raman, G. P. (2015). Cross-cultural communication barriers in the workplace. International Journal of Management, 6(1), 348-351.
Mateescu, M. V. (2017). Cultural diversity in the workplace-discourse and perspectives. Modelling the New Europe. An On-line Journal, (24), 23-35. Web.
Odukah, M. E. (2016). Factors influencing staff motivation among employees: A case study of equator bottlers (Coca Cola) Kenya. Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies, 4(02), 68-79. Web.
Rahiman, H. R., & Kodikal, R. (2017). Cross cultural issues and human resource management of expats. Indian Journal of Scientific Research, 8(6), 17834-17840. Web.