Leadership and Change Management in Organizations

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Introduction

Due to globalization and recent innovation in processes, organizations must adapt to changes to match the current trends in business. Most of the firms are constant in moving with the new styles and may want a rationale as to why they need to get changed in the product and services lines (Burnes, 2017). Change affects the workforce and the productivity of a given company (Carnall & Todnem, 2014). This paper critically analyses the merits and limitations of adopting either planned or emergent approaches to managing different types of changes.

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Organizational change can be evolutionary or revolutionary depending on the purpose. Evolutionary changes in an organization occur gradually because it involves a person who has to understand the change first. In the approach, people have to test and get into the change through seniority levels (Ladkin et al., 2010). In evolutionary organizational change, the management forces the change and everyone in the organization has to follow that within a short period. In revolutionary change, there is a low risk of the desired change not succeeding, and changes occur within the framed time (Knezevic & Lukic, 2016). Evolutionary change is more of a planned approach, while revolutionary changes focus on the emergent way of performing tasks

Merits of Adopting A Planned Approach

A planned approach means preparing an entire organization for the new direction of doing work in the business. For instance, Kurt Lewin’s change model is beneficial because it enables the involved groups to be aware of the new strategies and methods of doing business (Rosenbaum et al., 2019). In the model, the change enforcers can determine the practicability of the changes hence know the relevant course of action to take (Gill, 2002). The other merit of the planned approach to managing change is that it enables an organization to develop a clear vision and strategy by communicating the goals in advance. Through clear goals and objectives, employees prepare psychologically to take effect on the new methods for the task’s success (Trueland, 2019). Furthermore, planned approaches while managing changes help leverage the rigid workforce, which might be dragging the company’s mission (Senior et al., 2020). The reason is that the people responsible for managing the change force the matter to junior levels, resisting or accepting the change.

Limitations of Adopting Planned Approach to Change Management

The first disadvantage of this approach is that management may complicate the workflow and energy put towards a given goal. When people are forced to change a given method, it may bring challenges in combining the older and new ways for doing the same task (Bakari et al., 2017). The other limitation is that change happens in pre-determined steps, which might negatively impact the framework (Sullivan, 2017). There might be high staff turnovers and poor relationship quality between the management and subordinate bodies in firms during the process. When staff start moving to other companies, it means change will not take effect since the projected workforce required necessitate the aspect would have gone (Ude,2016). With planned approach to change management, the business developers will have to face difficulties in convincing staff on the new agenda.

Merits of Adopting Emergent Approach to Change Management

The emergent approach to managing change pertains convincing people to improve on a given method and pursue a different aspect in delivering duties in organizations. The first advantage is that the emergent approach is likely to have the change implemented since it involves everyone (Beer, 2021). When employees are given the liberty to turn issues in the required way, they have high chances of perfecting the framework, enabling change. Secondly, the change fits in the organization because all the players understand the situation without being forced (Lev-Tov, 2017). Lastly, due to more brains around a given issue, there are wide opportunities to have a thoughtful solution.

Limitations of Adopting Emergent Approach to Change Management

For instance, Kotter’s Eight-stage process is risky upfront since most staff will not have a motivation to change hence lack momentum. In theory, it focuses on developing a sense of urgency and creating a guiding coalition (Bolisani et al., 2016). Therefore, there will be a likelihood that people may not understand why change necessary. The second limitation in the emergent model is that there might be a haphazard perspective of change where the new ways do not move an organization towards where it is needed to go (Mas & Gómez, 2021). Lastly, it is difficult to find people who are perfect in making emergent changes since it requires skills, and many people may be reluctant to learn more about change institutionalization.

Why Organizational Changes are Often Met with Resistance

Changing how organizations operate is mostly received with negativity due to frustrations that may come alongside the process. It is recommended that executive team realize the source of resistance and leverage the correct course of action on that matter (D’Addona, 2019). First, lack of communication may be a reason why certain changes get resistance. For any new business model, the person responsible for the transformation is supposed to communicate the importance and relevance of changing processes (Devine, 2017). Secondly, employees may fear losing their jobs since some changes may omit some processes that had people in place. Downsizing and retrenchment are common factors that accompany change; hence people will be concerned about their job security. The other major reason employees resist change is that they do not understand their new roles in the product or service line (Edwards et al., 2020). When a person feels like they might be obligated more by the change, resisting will be the first reaction. For any change to occur, clarity on the roles matter significantly.

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Strategies That Can Be Used to Prevent Resistance of Change

The tactics include proper communication, sustainable employment terms and clarity in the job description. Communication means the change enforcers should detail the new methods and why they are significant in any organization. Communication should be made timely before any change process is embarked (Ethuro & Nyambegera, 2017). Sustainable employment terms are important to give employees confidence in working with the new models. New ways of performing tasks should not limit the workforce team in terms of numbers required to effect the change. Lastly, the provision of a revised job description enables workers to understand what they are required to do and why (Kendi & Kamaria, 2017). When the above issues are sorted, change will come automatically, and the organization shall thrive further. For an effective change management, the enforcers should find a way of effecting the new processes by estimating the time needed for the implementation. Therefore, it requires strategic action that would be feasible for both the company and employees.

References

Bakari, H., Hunjra, A., & Niazi, G. (2017). How does authentic leadership influence the planned organizational change? The role of employees’ perceptions: integration of theory of planned behavior and Lewin’s Three-Step Model. Journal of Change Management, 17(2), 155-187. Web.

Beer, M. (2021). Reflections: Towards a normative and actionable theory of planned organizational change and development. Journal of Change Management, 21(1), 14-29. Web.

Bolisani, E., Scarso, E., & Giuman, L. (2016). Knowledge management in client–supplier relationship: emergent vs. deliberate approach in small KIBS. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, 14(2), 178-185. Web.

Burnes, B. (2017). Managing change. Pearson Education.

Carnall, C., & Todnem, R. (2014). Managing change in organizations. Pitman Publishing.

D’Addona, D. (2019). Emergent synthetic approach for management of complexity in production systems. Cogent Engineering, 6(1), 16-18. Web.

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Devine, D. (2017). Implementation of pathogen inactivation technology: how to make the best decisions? Transfusion, 57(5), 11-19. Web.

Edwards, K., Prætorius, T., & Nielsen, A. (2020). A model of cascading change: Orchestrating planned and emergent change to ensure employee participation. Journal of Change Management, 20(4), 342-368. Web.

Ethuro, D., & Nyambegera, S. (2017). Planned and emergent change approaches in building a democratic nation: lessons from Kenya’s parliament. International Journal of Management and Economics Invention, 4(4), 23-32. Web.

Gill, R. (2002). Change management–or change leadership? Journal of Change Management, 3(4), 307-318. Web.

Kendi, B., & Kamaria, P. (2017). An investigation of factors that lead to resistance to change in the transformation process of microfinance organizations in Kenya into deposit-taking institutions. International Journal of Business Strategies, 1(2), 43. Web.

Knezevic, M., & Lukic, A. (2016). The importance of bank guarantees in modern business (business environment in Serbia). Investment Management and Financial Innovations, 13(3), 215-221. Web.

Ladkin, D., Wood, M., & Pillay, J. (2010) How do leaders lead change? In D. Ladkin, Rethinking leadership: A new look at old leadership questions (pp. 5-23). Edward Elgar.

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Lev-Tov, H. (2017). How microneedles can change cutaneous drug delivery—small needles make a big difference. JAMA Dermatology, 153(7), 631. Web.

Mas, J., & Gómez, A. (2021). Social partners in the digital ecosystem: will business organizations, trade unions and government organizations survive the digital revolution. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 162(6), 120-133. Web.

Rosenbaum, D., Taksa, L., & More, E. (2019). The role of reflection in planned organizational change. Change Management: An International Journal, 18(2), 1-22. Web.

Senior, B., Swailes, S., & Carnall, C. A. (2020). Organizational change. Pearson.

Sullivan, G. (2017). Combining philosophy and psychology in an attempt to make sense of the emotions generated when organizations change. Psyccritiques, 62(51), 4-9. Web.

Trueland, J. (2019). Blame culture: How to make a change in your workplace. Nursing Standard, 34(9), 14-17. Web.

Ude, S. (2016). Service quality, resistance to change, employees” engagement, and outsourcing in telecom enterprise organizations. International Journal of Computer & Organization Trends, 36(1), 30-38. Web.

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