The paper aims at addressing the critical issues at Orange Motorway Services Ltd. Specifically, the analysis of Hertzberg’s two-factor theory is offered, along with the outline of how the company’s human resource manager can apply it to improve the organization’s work. Further, the general purpose of an employee records system is delineated. The benefits and limitations of such a system are discussed, and a draft of an employee record card is provided. The conclusion presents an overview of the paper and reiterates its main points.
Human resource (HR) management is gaining more and more important in any organization’s successful operating. The better the HR team is informed about employees’ needs and problems, the more effectively it can react to them, increasing the viable opportunities and eliminating the emergence of critical issues. Unfortunately, many companies underestimate the role of employee motivation in the process of gaining maximum benefits and profits. As a result of incompetent HR management, an organization may lose talented workers, which will inevitably lead to poor or even lacking progress. Hence, employee motivation should be the main goal pursued by HR managers.
Critical Evaluation of Hertzberg’s Theory and an Outline How the HR Function Can Use the Theory
Employee motivation is one of the most influential factors associated with workers’ willingness to remain with the organization. Furthermore, each person’s decision to perform his or her work excellently or merely satisfactory is also contingent on the level of encouragement received from the manager. A company cannot rely on employees’ dedication or extra efforts if it does not provide the staff with the belief in their skills and abilities. There exists a variety of definitions of motivation, but basically, they are all concerned with several common issues. Motivation incorporates the need of an employee to feel psychologically comfortable and feeling empowered to meet one’s personal needs, as well as pursue organizational goals (Conrad, Ghosh and Isaacson, 2015).
The concept of motivation emerges from the collaboration between a worker and a company (Ilciuc, 2016). If such interaction is positive, it is bound to generate elevated organizational performance. However, if there is no productive communication between the company and its workers, the indicators of success will fall, like in the case with Orange Motorway Services Ltd. There is a variety of motivation theories, Herzberg’s two-factor theory being among the most important ones.
Herzberg’s two-factor (also known as dual-factor) theory of motivation and satisfaction originated in 1959. Herzberg’s theory is applied to promote the acquisition, engagement, and retention of talent within the organization (Sanjeev and Surya 2016). According to this approach, there are two major groups of factors impacting employees’ job satisfaction: motivation and hygiene (Alshmemri, Shahwan-Akl and Maude 2017). Hygienic factors involved in the theory are company policy, job security, work environment, salary, and relationships between employees and management (Bexheti and Bexheti, 2016). Motivational factors include opportunities for personal and professional development, responsibility, gratitude, success, and progress (Bexheti and Bexheti, 2016).
The main premise of Herzberg’s theory is that the presence of motivation factors enhances job satisfaction, whereas the lack of hygienic factors leads to job dissatisfaction (Sanjeev and Surya 2016). Hence, unlike all the theories preceding this one, Herzberg’s approach divided job satisfaction, which used to be regarded as a single continuum, into two opposing extremes.
When hygiene factors are present at a workplace, they do not cause any dissatisfaction. However, if an employee feels the lack of these indicators, he or she is bound to grow dissatisfied with the workplace (Sanjeev and Surya 2016). At the same time, the lack of motivation factors does not lead to dissatisfaction, but their presence leads to satisfaction. As a result, managers have to include both sets of factors in their arrangement of work if they want their staff to be satisfied and, consequently, motivated to perform well.
It is necessary to note that Herzberg’s theory might not have turned out to be so successful if it had not been based on Maslow’s theory of need hierarchy (Sanjeev and Surya 2016). Specifically, the lower-level needs of Maslow’s pyramid (safety and physiological) are related to Herzberg’s hygienic factors, whereas the higher-level factors from Maslow’s pyramid (self-actualization, security, and belongingness) correspond to Herzberg’s motivation factors.
It is impossible to argue with Herzberg’s assertion that physical working conditions, interpersonal relations, and job security, which constitute the most influential hygiene factors, have a considerable impact on people’s satisfaction with the job. All the same, one cannot but agree that recognition, growth, and sense of achievement, which are the major motivational factors, have an impact on a person’s motivation and progress. Hygiene factors from Herzberg’s theory are also referred to as extrinsic since they are external to one’s job (Sanjeev and Surya 2016).
Meanwhile, motivating factors are considered intrinsic since they generate from within the job itself (Sanjeev and Surya 2016). The combination of these two groups of job satisfaction and motivation indicators makes Herzberg’s theory stand out and presents wider opportunities for employee-employer relationship analysis.
Herzberg’s approach may be assessed as a highly relevant one. With the help of differentiation between the two groups of factors, it is easier to arrange the managing team’s work. Particularly, the managers will be able to gain the best outcomes both for the organization and individual employees. In the situation with Orange Motorway Services Ltd, the manager can apply Herzberg’s two-factor theory in the following way. Firstly, the manager should carefully analyze the variety of factors influencing employee satisfaction and motivation within the organization. Secondly, it is necessary to group the identified factors into two parts: hygienic and motivational. Thirdly, the manager must make sure that both groups of indicators are well-developed at the workplace.
In view of the theory’s premises, it is crucial to pay attention to motivational factors first of all. Hygienic factors can be provided next, but the manager should definitely not neglect them and leave their implementation for the unclear moment in the future. Finally, the manager must make sure that both groups of factors are available for each employee and that workers understand the value of each of them. By making such arrangements, the company can expect to experience a positive change in staff motivation within a short time.
Outline of the Purpose of an Employee Records System
Employee records system enables employers to keep their employees’ data easily accessible and well-arranged. By maintaining employee records in order, one can monitor the most common trends in workers’ daily routines. Along with that, the manager can see how much time an employee actually spends working on projects, and how many hours or days are spent on vacations, sick leaves, and other non-working activities.
The overall purpose of the employee records system is to maintain all the data concerning employees’ work-related time management at hand. A typical system allows recording the number of days spent working on the schedule, vacation and sick-leave days, unpaid and paid days off, family leaves, and other significant issues concerning a particular employee’s indicators.
There is a variety of ways utilized by employers to collect data for the employee records system. The most traditional is a paper card (see the draft below), which is filled out by the employee or his or her immediate supervisor. The card contains all the crucial information about the employee’s working indicators. Since this document is highly important, it is kept within the organization. At the end of the fiscal year, such cards are collected and put in the archive for the period stated by the labor commission of the country.
Employee records systems may also be kept with the help of modern technologies. By utilizing any of modern approaches of data collection and authorization, employers will eliminate the possibility of losing important information or violating the work statute of the organization by employees. For instance, one can use the radio frequency identification to make the process of collecting data more reliable, efficient, and faster (Al-Naima and Ameen, 2016). Another way of monitoring employees’ performance is the use of android smartphone applications (Sabale et al., 2015).
This approach enables the manager to see when the employee violates the company’s codes, such as coming to work late, leaving early, or is not present in the geographical zone he or she indicated in a sick-leave card or in the business trip documentation. Other modern systems of identification and tracking include the biometric fingerprint authentication system and face recognition (Rahman et al., 2017; Rana et al., 2019). These methods allow checking employees’ identities and tracking their activities. Overall, the employee records system is a valuable instrument not only in controlling employees’ activities but also in motivating workers via a system of incentives and fines.
Benefits and Drawbacks
The major advantage of the employee records system is keeping all the employee data related to work indicators at hand. Additionally, such a system enables managers to identify the most typical issues workers are faced with and find solutions to these problems. For instance, if several employees are late for work consistently, it may be a sign that they need help in transportation early in the morning or a change in the schedule.
If a manager notices that some workers frequently request bereavement or family leaves, he or she may make two basic conclusions. Either the person needs intensified support from the company due to frequent tragic events in the family or the individual is abusing the right to ask for extra days off, and he or she should be reminded about proper work ethics.
Finally, a beneficial feature of the employee records system is that all workers are aware that their work is being monitored, and they will be promoted or fined depending on their indicators. Hence, the system serves as a powerful and effective motivational tool. However, along with evident advantages, the use of the records system also entangles some challenges. First of all, some employees may feel uncomfortable due to being controlled excessively. Secondly, some people may have personal prejudices against the most modern approaches to monitoring, such as face recognition, biometric fingerprint authentication system, or android applications.
Employee records system is not only a convenient way of monitoring one’s employees’ indicators. It is required by the Working Time Regulations (WTR) of the United Kingdom (Cliff and Fielding, 2019). According to the legislation, employers have to keep records about their workers in order to indicate whether they comply with all the requirements and limits set by the WTR. By means of the records system, any inspecting organization can check whether the employer allows workers to have enough rest during the working day. Also, the weekly and yearly rest periods can be traced. Overall, the legal implications of the employee records system are directed toward controlling employers, whereas the latter can additionally utilize the data collected to control their employees.
A Draft of an Employee Record Card
Name: ________________________ Personnel number: _____Position: ___________________
Date of hiring: _______________ Manager: ________________
Total days of vacation due:
S – sickness/accident/injury L – long-term disability
M – maternity (paternity) leave V – vacation
B – bereavement leave F – family leave
X – non-paid leave O – time off with compensation for overtime
W – workers’ compensation
Supervisor’s signature:________________ Date: _____________
Employee motivation is a crucial factor in retaining talented employees and increasing their loyalty. By using appropriate motivation techniques, a manager can eliminate turnover and increase performance indicators. Herzberg’s two-factor theory is a viable approach to be utilized by Orange Motorway Services Ltd. Additionally, the company should implement the employee records system and require each worker to fill in a record card. Collecting data on employee performance regularly will promote positive interaction between the employer and employees.
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