Communication is a human and venture, the process of conveying or exchanging ideas and the information constitutes communication in general. Communication consists of different types oral and written, and messages. For communication to be effective it needs to be clear and precise, conveying the meaning to the intended audience. If communication is not clear the effect becomes nullified and the purpose gets defeated. Communication is used for several purpose such as information, commemoration, persuasion and interpretation. “Research is often defined as the systematic inquiry into a subject; the key word is the definition, points to examine the topic rather to accuint step by step approach” (Rubin, et al, 2009, p.3).
Communication with in an organization is essential for different purpose. It contributes to the success of the organization. It should be designed in such a manner as to create pact with the employees and also to help them to think beyond the usual arena. The prones and cons in the entire system should be analysed vividly to avoid chaos and perplexion.
There are different of kinds of organizational changes. Organizational plans that are unclear may threaten the change process. Lack of communication can affect changes in different ways. Change is an ongoing process and it never has a saturation point. It is quite difficult for people to grasp new changes according to the arising trends. The organizational norms and the changes are to be conveyed in a specific manner to avoid frustration where the employees may think themselves as inadaptable to the new culture and also face much problems in obtaining the fruitful results.
The core of the article here deals with major communication research and the issues relating to them. The article mainly includes the study or the review of the manuscript of JoBEM. The author after reviewing the manuscript, finds that the methods of data collection is lacking in the material and much emphasis is given to the survey and interviews conducted. The main aim of the JoBEM is to implement human subjects to the academic curriculum with the help of the institutional review board (IRB).The need of the human subjects is of key importance to the curriculum was subjected to much argument and debate among scholars and associates.
The author points out in the article that the IRB mandated protocol in the study is at a disadvantage and the needs of the communication and the human subjects are much at the disadvantage.
The author illustrates the Georgia public school where admission was sought for parental permission for the individual consent of the 8th grade participating in the survey of online social media. After tremendous effort and the survey, the turn out percentage of the people was about 30% of the whole. Conversely, the review at JoBEM, the research obtained the permission and explained the study to the students and the turn out was about 85% of the total population.
Anxiety about IRBs has been established scholarly consideration. A particular subject of Journal of Applied Communication Research was dedicated to study Institutional Review Boards. So far it relates to the foundation for the special issue, the editors acknowledged the significance of defensive and informed human subjects. Further, they approved the improvement many IRBs have made to rationalize the support process for communication research.
Quite a few communication scholars backed conflicting criterion for social science and humanitarian research. According to the essay, various scholars emphasis on the role and the necessities of research and how they become advantageous.
Methodologies are used to make various researches and data are collected from the study and various methods are incorporated in the research study for the analysis of the variables. The data is collected by the various methods for the analysis of the study. “Data Collection helps your team to assess the health of your process. To do so, you must identify the key quality characteristics you will measure, how you will measure them, and what you will do with the data you collect” (Data collection, n.d, p.2).
Surveys method it is the most common method to measure customer satisfaction in the health care industry. “Good reasons for doing a customer satisfaction survey include: To find out where to focus process improvement efforts; to determine whether previous improvement efforts have worked; or to see whether strategic advantages or disadvantages exist” (Dr. Nandi, n.d, para.3).
Interview is another most method used to measure the customer satisfaction. The factors affect the customer satisfation in healthcare, the facilities and customer service. “In personal interviews it is vital for the Interviewer to have empathy with the Interviewee. In general, Interviewers should try to “blend” with respondents in terms of race, language, sex, age, etc. Choose your Interviewers according to the likely respondents” (The survey system: Other general tips, 2010, para.30). If data are collected directly from group through interview, it will help to acquire the fundamental and original information straightly from the population.
Such data is known as the primary and the secondary source. The primary sources of the data collection consists of a well prepared questionnaire, sent to the specific group. The collection of data through the primary research is appropriate for gathering the information. The secondary data are the sources that are collected from internal and external sources. Internal data are obtained from frequently visited customers and magazines annual report and other sources. External sources consists of the internet and website sources as the information providers “Primary data collection is necessary when a researcher cannot find the data needed in secondary sources” (Duval, 2005, p.2).
Hypothesis is considered as the principal instrument in research. The main function of hypothesis is to suggest new experiments and observations. Such experiments are conducted by deliberate operations of the testing hypothesis. “If you know a lot about the topic, you can develop a research question based on your own knowledge. If you feel you don’t know much about the topic, think again.
A topic is what the essay or research paper is about. It provides a focus for the writing. Of course, the major topic can be broken down into its components or smaller pieces” (Developing a research question, n. d, para.3). The study here is based on the topic The Effect of communication in various modes of operation and how they influence various communication process and in implementing the humanitarian subjects. The different questions that are posed are for the research to take place and in retrieving of different informations and the data that are available from the questions that are: The different questions that are possed are like
- What is reliability to human subjects in communication?
- What are the factors affecting communication?
- Does communication affect the human behaviour?
- Will the idea of survey be able to make a correct judgment on communication?
- Will the variable factors be always be in the same proportion with the communication?
- The influence of human subjects in communication and career?
- What all measures have to be undertaken to increase the communication?
- What are the steps taken to increase the effectiveness in communication?
Hypothesis being tested and how it was operationalized
The hypothesis question that the author asks is whether, firstly, the country where the research is being conducted can vitiate the elements of non-bias and non-discriminatory aspects in research, especially while dealing with human subjects? Secondly, does the research conducted in the United States base itself on human subjects and take into account the Institutional Review Board (IRB) Protocol besides whistler if suffers disadvantages when compared to research conducted in other countries, especially about IRB protocol? “The Temple University Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) are responsible for the regulation and monitoring of all University research on or involving human subjects” (Institutional review board (IRB), 2010, para.1)
These facts are not too far to seek. For one thing, research on human and animal subjects conducted outside United States are conspicuous by the absence of IRB protocol, and, therefore, it is possible to quickly identify that these are conducted outside the United States. For another, the author questions the strict implementation of IRB protocols in the US, which perhaps may be relaxed, or even not enforced in the context of human research conducted in other countries outside the US. “In any aspect of life, the well being of oneself comes before any other considerations” (Animal and human research ethics paper, 2009, para.1).
Thus, the question of whether enforcement of IBR protocol in research conducted in some countries, while not being enforced in others, has in effect, created discrimination and lack of consistency in global research on human and animal subjects. In operationalizing, the testing of the hypothesis that IBR protocol, in effect, discourages the rate of participation of human subjects. The author has relied on certain direct and indirect observations based on individual assessment.
In the first place, she places reliance on the paper published in the Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media. “This contains timely articles about new developments, trends, and research in electronic media written by academicians, researchers, and other electronic media professionals” (Journal of broadcasting & Electronic Media, 2010, para.1). She states that the aspects of analyzing the research in the context of the protocol of human subjects was conspicuous by its absence, thus leading to the conclusion that this kind of research subject fell much below the requirements of American research standards.
Secondly, she writes about the direct observations made by her in research conducted in a Georgian public school relating to parental approval and consent on the topic of social media networking of 8th grade students. The participation rate in this case was only 30%. She compares this with study reviews published in Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, in which the participation rate was 80%. She attributes these differences in participation due to the stricter enforcement of IRB protocol in the first research in Georgia.
Summary of the findings, and how the authors interpreted them
According to me, the findings of the direct and indirect research designs are suggestive of the fact that enforcement of IRB Protocol does dampen the spirits of research promotion in the American context, so far it relates to testing of human subjects under IRB Protocols. “Minimal risk means that the probability and magnitude of harm or discomfort anticipated in the research are not greater in and of themselves than those ordinarily encountered in daily life or during the performance of routine physical or psychological examinations or tests (45 CFR 46.102(h)(i))” (Information for NIH IRB members, 2007, para.2).
Thus what I feel is that, in the event of comparisons of US related research with research conducted in other non US countries, the researches are not based on equal footing and thus cannot be subjected to correct comparisons.
Further, the author believes that stringent IRB protocols, basically stemming from norms arising from medical research needs, could impair major aspects of research in the US context. Therefore, what the author suggests is that there should be a consistent pattern for researching non US countries, based upon the use of prior permission, briefing the subjects on the modus operandi of research, not forcing or compelling them to become samples for voluntary studies, ensuring that research studies conducted in non US countries also enforce similar standards as laid down by IRB Protocol. “It is essential to ensure that the child understands the negative as well as positive consequences of consenting to participation in the research process, be it an interview, a focus group discussion or any other activity related to doing research on children” (Edmonds, 2003, p.8). It is only if such kind of consistent and reliable parameters are enunciated and enforced that non US based research and US based research could be amenable for comparison purposes.
Is the hypothesis testable, and does the operationalization make sense? Were the independent and dependent variables well-chosen?
I, for one, feel that while the author has discussed about the consequences of non enforcement of IRB in global research, she has not commented about what are possible advantages of IRB enforcement, level playing fields aside. According to me, she should have also commented about the real advantages and benefits of IRB protocol, especially in the context of international research.
Again, she has asked several questions rearranging from whether the IRB Protocol truly protects human respondents or not, in real terms, or whether the primary objective of IRB standards is to underpin research studies or mould scholarships. According to me, she has raised an important question when she asks, that given the powers conferred on IRB, who supervises the IRB which supervises research. There is a need for an Audit Committee that could judge and control the IRB itself. Finally, the most important aspect of the fact that direct involvement of IRB in the very process of research process is not really desirable and could indeed vitiate the proceedings and outcome of research.
While these relevant points have indeed been raised by the author, it is important that she also provides some answer to these queries herself. Only in such case could this paper could be said to be truly and fully complete.
However, in all fairness, I believe that the hypothesis is testable through independent research studies of a primary nature, and not of a secondary nature as has been done in this case. From reading this article, I cannot help but discern that perhaps the author wished to lament about the non enforcement of IRB protocols in other countries outside the US, rather than providing solutions to ensure a level playing field in the context of global research on human and animal subjects. Further, the independent variables like the country of origin, number of research participants, etc and even the dependent variables like participation and outcome rates are well chosen and well drafted.
Conclusions presented by the author
According to me, the conclusions presented by the author are well grounded although the research methods and designs chosen could have been improved. For a research study of this kind, it is necessary to compare a robust and sound US research study on the topic of human and animal research, and its considerations for the protection of moral and ethical rights of human and animal subjects, vis-a –vis similar research conducted in non US countries of the world. It must analyze to what extent human and animal rights in terms of consent, full knowledge about the implications of research and proper usage of IRB kind of research protocol is maintained. This is because “The use of animals in scientific research has become an increasingly controversial topic over the past decade” (Pifer, Shimizu & Pifer, 1994, p.1).
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