Managers in the 21st century should have the necessary skills which will enable them to be effective in discharging their duties (Harrison, 2005, p. 7). According to me, effective management is necessary for an organization to succeed. Management is concerned with getting people together to accomplish goals and objectives that will make the organization succeed in the long term. All efforts by managers should be geared towards the accomplishment of goals. To have good resourcing engagements, managers are supposed to manipulate and deploy the right human resources.
I noted that in a broad perspective, management is a human action that is tasked with facilitating the achievement of good outcomes. For managers to manage others well, they are supposed to, first of all, manage themselves. This will give them a good overview of how they are supposed to relate with employees.
In the 21st century, it has become challenging to subdivide management into viable functional categories. This is because the process of managing is more involving (Ones, 2008, p. 14). Besides, some various objects and tasks are related to management.
It occurred to me that currently various management approaches have been adopted by different organizations. This has been done about the skills that an organization wants to achieve. There have been criticisms of the management approaches that organizations have taken to build the right skills (Hatch, 2006, p. 14). Workplace democracy is being advocated as a way of involving all employees in management. On the other hand, it is being argued that all workers in an organization are supposed to be involved in management through delegation of activities and duties.
In doing this, each worker is expected to play his/her role well to ensure that the general wellbeing of an organization is well taken care of. These issues are supposed to occur naturally rather than being forced on an organization. The management is supposed to embrace democracy so that workers can give the organization the necessary support (Kenneth, 2003, p. 18). If this is not done, they will on most occasions leave to join other organizations, or still, they can decide to paralyze activities through strikes.
On the other hand, it occurred to me that although there has been a big step towards democratic practices in many organizations, the command and control organizational approaches can still be seen in this 21st century. This means that the common and most widely practiced organizational structures are still embraced by many managers. To elaborate on this, it is evident that managers today still value the command and control management approach. This is demonstrated from the layoffs that are being done (Robbins, 2004, p. 4). The most affected are those in management levels.
Employees in lower levels of management have not been affected because they are not directly tasked with specific undertakings. In extreme cases, the management has gone on to get rewards through a pay hike after laying-off some of their junior employees (Hoover, 2002, p. 17). To me, this tries to explain various dynamics that managers have to look at in a bid to enforce the right personal and management skills that will ensure that organizations function well. Working in groups or teams is paramount in an organization and, as such needs to be given the attention it deserves.
I feel that personal and management skills should be well nurtured to ensure that an organization does not have any negative issues which will lead to a bad working environment. This is because they define the relationship that will exist between employees and the management (Ones, 2008, p. 17). For success, there is a need to have a good working relationship through personal and management skills. The 21st century has witnessed various business structure changes, which have been a challenge for the development of personal and management skills.
Personal and management skills are supposed to be well developed. Personal skills are necessary for proper interaction between employees in an organization (Craig, 2009, p. 9). In my own opinion, they are communication skills that employees use as they undertake their activities. They have to be involved as they will include delegation and leadership that form part of an organization. Good personal skills are defined from the way one relates to the other as they undertake their activities within a company (Craig, 209, 13).
To me, these personal skills are aimed at ensuring that one develops skills that culminate into the attainment of certain results or effects. This means that results will only be guaranteed if there is a proper framework to support these endeavors (Kotter & Cohen, 2002, p. 21). Personal skills are supposed to make one comfortably operate within a business organization with good interactions and social communication. On the other hand, the main concern is how people relate to one another. Communication within an organization will reduce conflicts that are bound to exist.
As far as am concerned, this is likely to increase the level of employee participation in the affairs of the organization. It is as far as the completion of tasks assigned to an individual is concerned. There are occasions when someone might want to obtain information from the other within an organization, and, in this case, it is advisable that the right avenues of obtaining information be used (Kenneth, 2003, p. 7). When this is done it will be easy to improve on the way one relates to the other. By using the right personal skills, it will be viable and attainable for an employee to make a good judgment about the issue.
To explain further, tasks should be done more effectively to attain a predetermined goal. Regarding personal skills, priority should be given to the issues that will guarantee employees the freedom to independently judge what they think is good for their work (Kenneth, 2003, 9). The long term effect will be an increase in the quality of interaction among employees. With such a good approach it will be easy to achieve better professional results.
Generally, professional results will make one be referred to as a good professional in the specific area that they are tasked with. This is as far as ensuring that the organization achieves its results are concerned (Rae, 2000, p. 12). Personal skills in business organizations are supposed to be adopted by managers in both formal and informal settings.
With good personal skills within an organization, it becomes much easier to increase the general products that can lead to the organization succeeding. Productivity will be increased in the sense that the number of conflicts will be reduced significantly (Rae, 2000, p. 16). When conflicts are reduced, it gives employees enough time to focus on delivering results that will go concurrently with organizational goals. In informal situations, it will allow for good communication to take place. This communication will be easy to be understood and used by all employees in an organization.
I think that managers are supposed to have good personal skills because they are in charge of the organization. This will allow them to control their feelings even in difficult times and situations that demand a critical approach. Personal skills are self-management skills that each organization in the 21st century is supposed to have (Hatch, 2006, p. 14). This is necessitated by the role that such skills play in the overall success of a given organization. Various approaches can be used to ensure that the organization has the best and most acceptable personal skills.
From my analysis, management operates within various and different functions that have an outcome on the performance of an organization. This is as far as deciding how the organization will move ahead is concerned. Motivation is a basic function that an organization has to achieve as it will have a bearing on how employees perform their roles to produce results (Hatch, 2006, p. 17). Employees generally perform well when they are motivated as they will be working with a good expectation.
Working in groups and teams has many challenges that have to be met. This is in both frontiers as there are positive and negative challenges that an organization will face because it has many employees. Employees have different characters, and they might be conflicting. This has to be well appreciated by the management as it will help to come up with the right working mechanisms. Handling a team or group is very complex and should be looked at critically (Ones, 2008, p. 21). Even those who are working amongst themselves are supposed to have good ways of relating.
Employees will always find themselves working in teams or groups as this is the only way that results can be achieved. However, while working together to achieve organizational goals they always face challenges as far as personal and management skills are concerned (Ones, 2008, p. 27). Management skills are supposed to come in handy and make working together in groups a very good experience. This will help to build their inner capability and enhance the delivery of results.
As a fact, management skills are needed by managers for efficiency in an organization. These are the skills that a manager has to master in a bid to become successful in whatever they do in an organization. Management skills have the capability of building on each other with the solemn intention of ensuring that there is success in an organization (Robbins, 2004, p. 9). They are supposed to translate into a good working environment that will ensure that the organization is on course of achieving its objectives and goals.
To be successful, there are various skills that managers need to embrace in a bid to ensure that they achieve their goals. This is because they have a bearing on how people work together in teams and groups (Robbins, 2004, p. 12). The approach used to manage workers has a positive or negative impact on their general morale and working attitude. Managers are supposed to relate well with their employees so that they can be able to deal with their experiences in a very efficient way.
In my view, these management skills build up each time an individual moves up the management ladder. This is because at each level there are various tasks that a manager is exposed to (Scott, 2006, p. 5). Skills are always distinct at each level because there are various expectations on how things have to be carried out. Success will only be achieved after the incorporation of the necessary skills at each management level. The main aim should be to ensure that working as a team is more efficient and effective.
I feel that organizations have many expectations as far as the attainment of goals is concerned. In the 21st century, shareholders have high expectations from employees to deliver results. This has always called for a review of how business is conducted. The main aim has always been to ensure that they are competitive in the business environment (Scott, 2006, p. 8). To ensure that an organization attains its goals, managers have been creative to find out the best ways that employees can harmoniously work together to deliver results.
Working together harmoniously should be guided by principles that will enhance efficiency. Efficiency will be attainable when all employees and the management appreciate each other (Scott, 2006, p. 13). Appreciating each other will be possible if they accept that they have different talents and capabilities. This is the only way that an organization can cultivate a good working environment. A good working environment will be built by the principles that employees stand for in an organization. This is meant to come up with a collective way of doing things.
Personal and development skills are developed in an organization. No one acquires all the necessary skills by knowing. This means that skills have to be nurtured by an individual. Various approaches can be used to nurture skills that individuals need to discharge their roles well. This should be done systematically to ensure that individuals end up with the right outcomes that were desired (Tompkins, 2005, p. 5).
I feel that when one has been given a management role, they are supposed to ensure that they harness employees together so that they can be more creative. Creativity is a result of the right skills that managers will use in an organization. There are various occasions where management skills can help to bring out the right creative capabilities (Tompkins, 2005, p. 17). In extreme cases, these skills can also hurt the creativity that employees can bring out.
In my view, skills management is more concerned with understanding what others are capable of doing. In doing this their capabilities in skills are supposed to be developed to get the best outcome possible (Kanigel, 1997, p. 14). When looking at personal and management skills, various gaps should be noticed and filled. This is meant to ensure that the management and employees relate well in discharging their roles in an organization.
Personal and management skills should be an ongoing process that will be geared toward individual assessment. For managers to perform their roles well, they are supposed to be well endowed with the necessary skills either way that they will attain them (Kanigel, 1997, p. 18). Skill development should be aimed at ensuring that people interact well with each other in an organization. This is as far as working together is concerned.
As much as managers might want their employees to deliver results as organizational goals demand; they are supposed to interact well with them so that they can have a close working relationship (Kanigel, 1997, p. 22). This is meant to make it easy in identifying weaknesses that should be dealt with. An organization is expected to have weaknesses and challenges that impact its performance and that is why these skills are needed for efficiency.
Managers are supposed to understand abstract relationships and then come up with the best way of initiating ideas that they will use to solve problems (Simon, 1997, p. 3). In a broad perspective, skills are needed by these managers to view things in an organization with a broad outlook. Even in planning and coming up with ideas, skills are necessary for overall success. Those in the low levels of management need skills to manage their areas of specialty well.
Even managers are supposed to communicate well amongst themselves so that they can be able to speak in one voice (Simon, 1997, p. 7). This is because the organization depends on its direction to know where it will move to. When they communicate in one voice it will send a good signal that they appreciate each other.
Employees will be expected to follow suit and ensure that they do not become a hindrance towards the organization achieving its goals. For success, they are supposed to know the skills that they are expected to poses (Simon, 1997, p. 15). In cases where there is a gap in skills; they are supposed to come up with the right way of filling it.
They are supposed to be well developed for an organization to be successful in attaining results and positive outcomes (Richard, 1976, p. 9). In this case, they are supposed to be well nurtured and developed to their maximum potential. For managers to deliver the best business breakthroughs, they have to think straight and ensure that they develop a fact-based insight.
I think that managers are supposed to be more effective in how they use their skills for a good outcome. This means that they have to do the right thing that will guide them towards the best goals. Emphasis should be laid on the most important issues rather than looking at the urgent ones (Richard, 1976, p. 15). On the other hand, there should be more concentration on coming up with real decisions. This will have a general impact of ensuring that an organization concentrates on delivering its goals.
Management in the 21st century has become more complex, and managers are increasingly using technology in business (Bradford & Burke, 2005, p. 21). Changes in economic dynamics and globalization have brought in a new trend of management from all dimensions. Managers are therefore expected to act in a strategic way that will help them to establish good values and act in a responsible way that will be appreciated by everybody in an organization.
Generally, managers get things done in the right way by delegating roles to other people in an organization. For them to undertake this role well, they are supposed to poses the relevant skills that will ensure that this is achieved without any problem (Bradford and Burke, 2005, p. 25). They are supposed to associate with the employees and help them to make the right decisions in solving work-related challenges that an organization might be facing.
In, addition they are supposed to ensure that they use the right procedures and tools that will smoothly lead to the attainment of organizational roles (Bradford & Burke, 2005, p. 28). This should also be done by using the right tools that will come up with the smooth running of an organization. The best procedures should be followed to ensure that what had been anticipated is achieved.
From a broad perspective, management skills should be inner built whereby from a personal level one should be able to offer him/herself greater achievements. A personal working method should be embraced for effective management to take place (Smith, 1998, p. 12). It is because it is a standard model that can be used to achieve effectiveness in an organization. In this case, there should be a general belief that everybody within an organization is ultimately doing the right thing. This, therefore, means that managers have to critically analyze a problem to ensure that a decision is critically executed.
These skills are the secrets for effective leadership by any manager in a given organization. Besides, it is an ability that varies in different people who assume managerial roles (Smith, 1998, p. 16). Although skills are readily available to the manager; what varies is the intensity that they will be achieved. To achieve goals and results, a manager has to lead, organize, and control whatever is at their disposal.
In my own opinion, human resource is the most important asset that managers have at their disposal to help them achieve organizational goals. On the other hand, the managers in charge of this resource are supposed to be up to the task of taking care of it (Smith, 1998, p. 22). There are various management skills available to managers, and they must embrace them. They include; leadership skills, technical skills, communication skills, interpersonal skills, and decision-making skills.
Effective leadership skills are necessary skills for the 21st-century manager. It is argued that in possessing these skills a person should be able to guide, motivate, and lead the rest of the team (Nadler, 1984, p. 16). This should be enhanced by providing the rest of the team with the necessary resources that they need to be successful. As far as leadership skills are concerned, a manager will have to be aware of all the weaknesses and strengths of the employees.
I think that this will help in ensuring that they are allocated tasks according to their capability. Although they can be members of the same department, they have different abilities about how they can perform their work. To achieve this, employees must be highly motivated and empowered so that they can act independently (Nadler, 1984, p. 23). It is because there are situations that will always demand that certain decisions be taken. A manager must pose these skills to be successful in their undertakings.
Many organizations have embraced technology in their operations. This has redefined how various tasks and activities are conducted. Many organizations depend on software and computers to run their activities (Nadler, 1984, p. 25). It is a trend that most managers have been forced to adopt for them to be competitive in the market. Therefore, it means that a manager should have adequate knowledge and skills in computers.
This should be well fused with the common management skills that make individuals successful in their undertakings as managers. On the other hand, a manager is supposed to have general know-how of using different tools and equipment that comes along as they discharge their duties (Nadler, 1984, p. 26). Technology has brought about various approaches to management which is necessary for an organization to achieve its goals and objectives.
According to me, there are various charting and scheduling techniques that managers need to ensure that they relate well with employees. With these new approaches, a manager will be able to monitor and check on the organizational resources that are needed for proper organizational control (Nadler, 1984, p. 28). This will give them a proper framework to discharge their activities. Employees are also using technology in their activities and as such should also be well acquainted with the current trends.
This means that in management, a person in charge should be well appreciated by employees and fellow managers. They should be capable of working with people who have different temperaments (Landale, 1999, p. 6). The same should be extended on how the manager will deal with them. It is often difficult to deal with people who have different educational qualifications and backgrounds. This is because they have their own beliefs that they tend to understand better.
Therefore, managers have to understand that such employees are bound to exist and should be appreciated. This means that a better framework for doing things should be embraced. Team members have different things that can motivate them to be at their best. It is the responsibility of a manager to try and find out the best ways that they can use to find out what best motivates their employees (Landale, 1999, p. 9). A good manager and team leader should be able to build better relationships with their subordinates.
In my view, these relationships should be able to lead to an outcome of fair dealings with employees. By dealing with all employees fairly, an organization will not have many conflicts. It is understood that conflicts slow down the pace of work, and if they are avoided more energy will be directed towards the perfection of one’s roles (Landale, 1999, p. 11). Fair dealings are meant to eliminate any ill feelings that might arise among employees. Working in groups should be aimed at bringing a good relationship. In the long run, there should be team building in an organization.
Decision making is very important in an organization. It is because it is from decisions that an organization can prioritize its goals and objectives (Diane, 1995, p. 4). Although most of the decision making is the role of managers, employees are also supposed to participate in coming up with the best decisions (Diane, 1995, p. 6). It is because decisions bind everybody in an organization and should be followed and complied with in all circumstances. Decision making mostly goes in line with problem-solving.
An organization is bound to face problems in its operation. It is only via effective decision making that such problems will be solved. Problem-solving has to follow an elaborate framework that will ultimately end up with a decision on how the problem will be solved (Diane, 1995, p. 9). Decisions in an organization have to be made from different perspectives. This is because decisions have to be made about people/human resources.
Certain situations and procedures might also force an organization to act in a given manner as a way of working together. This, therefore, implies that the right decisions have to be made as far as these situations are concerned. Managers will be compelled to always arrive at the best decisions as they are in charge of organizations (Diane, 1995, p. 13). A good manager is supposed to weigh various options that are available to him by looking at the pros and cons of certain alternatives. In a normal situation, either option that a manager has at their disposal is bound to have some certain pros and cons. This, therefore, means that there should be a clear analysis that will result in a good decision being made as far as problem-solving is concerned.
A manager is supposed to be a fast thinker in all circumstances. It is because problems cannot be anticipated in advance (Diane, 1995, p. 16). Also, there are cases where a given situation might demand that a decision be made as fast as possible to save the organization from any problems. In such circumstances, it is only fast thinking managers who can be able to act early enough and solve the problem by making the right decisions.
In thinking that for an organization to succeed; it is a requirement for decisions to be made in the right way. In cases where decisions are not made in the right way, an organization is bound to face problems. This implies that managers have to always think straight in the best interest of the organization and also be creative to make the right choices and decisions (Smith & Miani, 2004, p. 4). Tough times in business call for tough decisions to be made and it’s only the right decision-makers who will survive.
An environment that facilitates good decision-making should be allowed to thrive in an organization. Good decisions will be made after everybody has been involved in the process that will settle on the best alternative option (Smith & Miani, 2004, p. 7). By involving everybody in making decisions, there are various inputs that employees will help to put in and thus reinforce given decisions and options. To make this successful, managers are supposed to be critical of how they carry out their activities.
A good employee should be calm in a working environment to facilitate good decision making. Maintaining calmness will mostly be aimed at facilitating the making of the right decision (Smith & Miani, 2004, p. 16). This situation is guaranteed to make one more effective in weighing various options that are available to them.
Communication is the only way through which people can understand each other in an organization. This means that an organization is supposed to have the right frameworks in place, which will promote understanding amongst employees and the management (Harrison, 2005, p. 3). Various organizations have different ways of communicating, which should be incorporated by individual employees. Communication is a skill that individuals have to possess to be more strategic in relating to others within an organization.
A manager who is good at communicating will be able to explain to his/her employees what should be done to ensure that goals are achieved. It is through communication that individuals will be explained their jobs and tasks and in the process come up with the right avenues by which they can increase productivity (Harrison, 2005, p. 6). Working together means that individuals are a team and, as such should work together collectively to ensure that there is success.
For a team to move ahead together they should be able to communicate in the same way. This means that they should not send mixed signals that will raise questions as far as some situations are concerned. Employees are supposed to harmoniously work together so that they can achieve organizational goals (Harrison, 2005, p. 9). As much as a manager has to be a good communicator they are also supposed to pay back by listening to others. This will help them to seek other people’s opinions.
In the long run, an organization will be able to communicate well. This means that a good manager will be able to appreciate opinions that come from subordinates. Subordinates can contribute immensely by giving some ideas that will end up being beneficial to the whole organization (Harrison, 2005, p. 12). When managers develop this important skill, they will be able to earn loyalty from team members. On the other hand, this is bound to motivate employees and make them more productive as they will enjoy their work.
Multi-tasking is the ability to handle many tasks and roles at a given time. It does not necessarily mean that one will be a workaholic, but it will help to increase efficiency (Hoover, 2002, p. 13). This will help to increase creativity and improvisation. Multi-tasking in a working place will ultimately lead to employees developing their skills by identifying their strengths and weaknesses.
To me, effective identification of strengths and weaknesses will enable employees to come up with the best ways that they can use to capitalize on their capabilities for efficiency. Multitasking is a natural progression and will lead to other levels within an organization. It is also set to benefit employees as they will now be able to do things they were not used to before (Hoover, 2002, p. 15). It is a skill that every employee should seek to acquire as a way of improving quality.
It is a skill that everybody should seek to master and make their roles more effective and manageable. Organizations have more expectations and this is why multitasking should be embraced (Hoover, 2002, p. 17). The pace of life in workplaces has changed considerably. It is one of the reasons why organizations are being encouraged to advise employees to try multitasking. This skill enhances the ability of an organization to coordinate many events at a given time.
Personal skills should be aimed at ensuring that an organization operates effectively. This means that everybody must be aware of the necessary personal and group practices (Miner, 2005, p. 4). Employees are supposed to act by what their work ethics demand of them for a good working environment. Personal management skills demand that an individual is supposed to be responsible.
Responsible behavior is expected of individuals who work in a team/group. This is supposed to set goals and priorities that will propel an organization to success. From a personal point of view, employees are supposed to manage and plan their time well (Miner, 2005, p. 7). This will enable them to use the resources at their disposal well to ensure that they deliver on their expectations.
Working in an organization presents many challenges. Employees are pooled from various areas and as such have different characters. This diversity in characters should be well understood for a good working environment to exist (Miner, 2005, p. 4). As much as this is concerned, individuals are supposed to be accountable for their actions. What is done by a team member should be accounted for by the group or team?
In my own opinion, employees are expected to be socially responsible in their team. Social responsibility helps to make employees more understanding, which enables them to build a good relationship that is necessary for any given organization (Rae, 2000, p. 6). In the course of working together as a team, it is expected that individuals will be able to adapt to any environment. This means that they have to be highly innovative and more resourceful.
It is expected that they will be able to come up with the best ways they think an organization’s goals can be achieved. On the other hand, this will be enhanced by learning from their own mistakes and being able to willingly accept to be corrected. To achieve this, they are supposed to be open-minded in whatever they do (Rae, 2000, p. 19).
This report has enabled me to have a better understanding that managers should be effective in the management process. To attain this, they should understand their employees. I have noted that this will give them a good overview of how they are supposed to relate with employees. In the 21st century, it has become difficult to subdivide management into viable functional categories (Tompkins, 2005, p. 16). Notably, this arises from the fact that the management process of managing is involving. Besides, some various objects and tasks are related to management.
On the other hand, I have noted that personal and management skills should be well nurtured to ensure that an organization does not have any negative issues which will lead to a bad working environment. This is because they define the relationship that will exist between employees and the management (Scott, 2006, p. 16). For success, there is a need to have a good working relationship through personal and management skills. In the course of the report, I have discovered that the 21st century has witnessed various business structure changes, which have been a challenge as far as the development of personal and management skills is concerned.
According to my, these skills are supposed to be well developed. It is because personal skills are necessary for proper interaction among employees in an organization. I believe that they are communication skills which employees use as they undertake their activities. They have to be involved as they will include delegation and leadership that form part of an organization (Scott, 2006, p. 26). It is because good personal skills are defined from the way one relates to the other as they undertake their activities within an organization.
Bradford, D.L. & Burke, W.W. 2005. Reinventing Organization Development. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
Craig, S. 2009. Merrill Bonus Case Widens as Deal Struggles. USA: Wall Street.
Diane, A. 1995. Training and Development: Managing Human Resources in Small & Mid-Sized Companies. USA: AMACOM.
Harrison, R. 2005. Learning and Development. London: CIPD Publishing.
Hatch, M.J. 2006. Organization Theory: Modern, symbolic, and postmodern perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hoover, J. 2002. How to Work for an Idiot: Survive and Thrive Without Killing Your Boss. Pompton Plains: Career Press.
Kanigel, R. 1997. The One Best Way, Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Enigma of Efficiency. London: Brown and Co.
Kenneth, B. 2003. One Minute Manager – The World’s Most Popular Management Method. USA: Hyper.
Kotter, J & Cohen, D. 2002. The Heart of Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing.
Landale, A. 1999. Gower Handbook of Training and Development. UK: Gower Publishing, Ltd.
Miner, J. B. 2005. Organizational Behavior: Behavior 1: Essential Theories of Motivation and Leadership. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe.
Nadler, L, E. 1984. The Handbook of Human resources Development. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Ones, I. 2008. The Human Factor: Inside the CIA’s Dysfunctional Intelligence Culture. New York: Encounter Books.
Rae, A. 2000. 59-Second Employee – How to Stay One Second Ahead of Your One Minute Manager. London: Backinprint.
Richard, A, J. 1976. Management, systems, and society: an introduction. Pacific Palisades, Calif.: Goodyear Pub. Co.
Robbins, S, P. 2004. Organizational Behavior – Concepts, Controversies, Applications. New York: Prentice Hall.
Scott, W, R. 2006. Organizations and Organizing: Rational, Natural, and Open Systems Perspectives. New York: Prentice Hall.
Simon, H, A. 1997. Administrative Behavior: A Study of Decision-Making Processes in Administrative Organizations. USA: The Free Press.
Smith, S & Miani, R. 2004. Training and Development: The HR Answer Book. USA: AMACOM.
Tompkins, J, R. 2005. Organization Theory and Public Management. USA: Thompson Wadsworth.