Researching of Occupational Health and Safety

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Work-related ill health is any health condition that results from an individual’s occupation. The ill-health is usually caused by work itself or the working environment (Jones et al., 2019). For example, Law enforcement officers are at risk for high blood pressure, sleeplessness, and many more due to stress.

Risk is the possibility that a person will experience an unfavorable health outcome if exposed to a hazard. In other words, risk can also be defined as the threat of loss, harm, or any other bad outcome caused by vulnerabilities that can be mitigated or prevented through prevention measures (Ferwerda and Kleemans, 2019). For example, cigarette smokers are at risk of getting lung cancer.

An incident is any unanticipated event that disturbs normal operations. It is any situation or event that indicates a high probability of an accident. Normally, the event does not result in a serious loss or injury (Shinde and Kulkarni, 2021). For example, a security incident occurs when a company successfully thwarts a cyber-attack. In this case, an incident is a cyber-attack that the company experienced, but it was neutralized.

Personal Protective Clothing is a type of protective clothing used to limit exposure to dangers that might result in serious workplace injuries and illnesses. It protects an individual from chemicals and many more (Nill, 2019). For example, lab technicians wear lab coats and gloves to protect themselves from any harm, especially chemical spillage.

Workplace housekeeping is defined as activities carried out to produce or maintain an ordered, clean, neat, and safe working environment. Effective housekeeping can reduce several workplace hazards and aid in completing tasks safely and properly (Barlas and Izci, 2018). For example, maintaining the cleanliness of the floors and halls is good housekeeping.

Safety culture in an organization can be influenced by leadership style, communication, and compliance. Effective communication is integral for maintaining a safe culture (Cooper et al., 2019). When employees communicate regularly with one another in an open manner, they are also more willing to give and receive feedback. Good leadership also inspires employees to have positive attitudes on safety by setting a good example and rewarding employees who have good safety behaviors. In addition, a safety culture is set when employees can comply with the procedures. For example, when safety rules are established, they can follow the latter. Therefore, an organization with safety-based leaders, effective communication, and employees compliant with established rules and regulations can maintain its safety culture.

The following are instances when training is required in an organization:

  • Safety training should be conducted regularly and on schedule.
  • The training should be done after a safety audit.
  • The training should be conducted after an incident.
  • It should be done when new safety measures are supposed to be adopted.
  • The training should be done after the recruitment of new employees.

The issues that should be covered in an induction training program:

  • Organizational culture and values.
  • Policies and procedures.
  • Compliance information.
  • Health and safety.
  • Organization’s background.

The benefits of leadership commitment to health and safety at work are enhanced productivity, fewer work accidents, reduced work-related health problems, and reduced employee turnover. Firstly, leadership commitment ensures that employees are confident and competent in their operations (Badri et al., 2018). This enables the employees to effectively achieve organizational goals, which improve performance. Secondly, committed leadership reduces accidents by ensuring employees understand and adhere to safety measures. Thirdly, leadership creates safe and healthy working conditions in an organization (Badri et al., 2018). For example, employees are provided with personal protective equipment to safeguard them from injuries. Fourth, leader commitment help reduces employee turnover because employees are made to understand that their interests and concerns are protected.

Communication mechanisms

  • Verbal communication involves using words while the intended message is being delivered. The information is expected to be clear and concise content.
  • Written communication: this mechanism of communication cannot be ignored in the workplace (Guo, Sengul, and Yu, 2021). It may be found everywhere and consists of classic paper and pen documents and letters, text chats, emails, and social media. It is used for information that is supposed to be documented for future review.
  • Face-to-face communication is normally the preferred form of communication, although it is not always feasible, especially in organizations with multiple locations worldwide. It is used when the information is crucial, sensitive, and requires instant feedback.
  • Visual communication: it includes charts and graphs, often enhances written means of communication, and, in most cases, entirely replaces written communication. The type of information used in one can be read or viewed through visual aid.
  • Communication via social media: social media is a sort of web communication. Users of social networking sites can engage in discussions, share information, and create online content (Guo, Sengul, and Yu, 2021). The type of information used is marketing information, especially when describing an organization’s product or service.
  • Downward communication is used when the information comes from superiors to subordinates. It can be directive information such as assigning the employees the tasks to be completed.

A contractor is a professional in a given field that offers organizations skills and services. They are responsible for various activities in the course of a project. In the case scenario, Jay Singh is a general contractor because he undertakes the whole process of the project. For example, he said there was no need for him to have a replacement contractor oversee the process. This is a self-employed person working for or offering services to another organization.

PPEs used in a construction site are:

  • Safety helmet: to protect the head from injury due to falling or flying objects or striking against objects.
  • Eye and face protection: used to protect an individual’s eyes from dust, radiation, and other falling materials (Mohd Amir Shazwan and Ee, 2018).

The duties performed by Singh as the contractor

  • He appointed Ronnie-Pillay, who is a foreman.
  • Oversee the project.
  • He analyzed the project manager-provided drawings.
  • Determine the gaps in the drawings.
  • Made changes to the drawings to meet traffic flow requirements.
  • Identify the right foreman for the job.

Contractor selection

  • The first step is to post the position and invite bids from contractors. Next, the applicants are required to disclose their skills and experience.
  • The second step is to screen the bids.
  • The third step is to select potential applicants.
  • The fourth is to interview the applicants.
  • Appoint the best applicant.
  • Orientation of the contractor in regard to the organization.

Training interventions:

  • Induction training.
  • Mentorship.
  • On-the-job training.
  • Hands-on training.

The steps to be followed after an accident

  • The first thing is to get medical attention.
  • The second step is taking note of how the accident happened.
  • The third step should be to report the injury.
  • The fourth step should be to secure medical reports.

Organizational factors that influence safety behavior include communication, safety culture, empowerment, and management commitment. Effective communication help foster trust between employees and generate a shared understanding of safety practices (Yorio, Edwards, and Hoeneveld, 2019). Management commitment ensures that employees adhere to set safety rules. The management of an organization can create a safety culture by setting rules and regulations on safety. In addition, empowerment increases employee satisfaction and the ability to understand and apply the required policies.

Reference list

Badri et al. (2018). ‘Occupational health and safety in the industry 4.0 era: A cause for major concern? Safety Science’, 109, pp.403-411. Web.

Barlas, B. and Izci, F.B. (2018). ‘Individual and workplace factors related to fatal occupational accidents among shipyard workers in Turkey. Safety Science, 101’, pp.173-179. Web.

Cooper et al. (2019). ‘Criterion-related validity of the cultural web when assessing safety culture. Safety Science’, 111, pp.49-66. Web.

Ferwerda, J. and Kleemans, E.R. (2019). ‘Estimating money laundering risks: An application to business sectors in the Netherlands. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research’, 25(1), pp.45-62. Web.

Guo, W., Sengul, M. and Yu, T. (2021). ‘The impact of executive verbal communication on the convergence of investors’ opinions. Academy of Management Journal’, 64(6), pp.1763-1792. Web.

Jones et al. (2019). ‘Work-related ill-health in construction: the importance of scope, ownership and understanding. Safety Science’, 120, pp.538-550. Web.

Mohd Amir Shazwan, H. and Ee, J.M. (2018). ‘Effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) at the construction site. Inti Journal’, 1(12), pp.1-12.

Nill, R.J. (2019). ‘How to Select and Use Personal Protective Equipment. Handbook of Occupational Safety and Health, pp.469-494. Web.

Shinde, N. and Kulkarni, P. (2021). ‘Cyber incident response and planning: a flexible approach. Computer Fraud & Security’, 2021(1), pp.14-19. Web.

Yorio, P.L., Edwards, J. and Hoeneveld, D. (2019). ‘Safety culture across cultures. Safety science’, 120, pp.402-410. Web.

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