Risk Management: Risk Reduction And ALARP

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Risk Reduction and ALARP

Generally before doing any project one should measure different aspects to reduce the risk factors associated with the tour. In this project about Mount Kilimanjaro, we have to decide what are the risks associated with the project.

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Generally, the checklists are very qualitative in nature; they will only document the particular risk factors available in the market. Some of the risk factors can be as follows (Peijuan 2009):

  1. What are the most important parts of the project?
  2. What are the types of works needed to finish to ultimately complete the project?
  3. How many men are needed and what are the necessary types of equipment that are needed to do the work in a proper sense?
  4. The categorizing of high-priority jobs so that the job gets smoothly done in all the senses.
  5. Also categorize some other problems that may occur while the project is on and what can disturb the project. Take necessary steps to stop those problems (Nottage 2009).

All these factors are genuine risk factors that can come up if we discuss the problems in this case. They can increase the tolerance towards a project if have to handle the conditions as provided in Mount Kilimanjaro.

The Questions

ALARP is the acronym for as low as reasonably practicable. “The basic principle of ALARP can be deducted as making the residual risk reasonably low in all the cases” (Peijuan 2009). One of the basic principles of risk reduction can always be desirable, but the risk reduction achievement can be unwarranted in many cases. ALARP can be summarized as one of the measures applied from the end of the employer to reduce risk elements with the preventive measures. The cost of these preventative measures is grossly disproportionate to the risk that was applied here (Peijuan 2009).

One should implement risk reduction in three cases if the risk factor is balanced with the money invested in the project, or the risk associated is lesser than the money involved. But the if the risk assessment says the risk is much bigger than the money involved in the project then one should not invest his or her capital into the project, which will end up in big disappointment (Loosemore 2009).

Six Controlling Measures

The first step of risk reduction is to identify the risk of the project. If one identifies the risk associated with the project then one should evaluate the risk accordingly and also find out what are the other options by which one can counter the risk in this case. The organization or the person who is making the decisions, in this case, will then have to decide if he or the organization should go on with the project or not. This will help the person to understand the process thoroughly. In this process, there are four very important “T” s. They are “‘Terminate’, ‘Treat’, ‘Tolerate’ and ‘Transfer’” (Peijuan 2009).

If the quotient of risk in the job is too high so that in the case of a business organization there will be no profit, or in the case of other organizations there will be a lot of work involved with not much of return, then the activity should be considered as too “risky” and it should be terminated. This can be of two types, one can stop an existing activity due to the abundance of risk and on the other hand, one can decide not to start any new project because of the risks involved associated with the project (Lambert 2008).

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Then it is time for the other question of the treatment of the risk. Risk reduction can implement different preventive control measures. This type of implementation needs to be discussed with all the aspects of the project, and if it is being applied for a company then all the important departments of the company that is associated with the project and the decisions that are going to be applied with it. This also implements mitigations and like all the recovery controls of recent times, risk reduction can work in a very good way here (Nottage 2009).

The third aspect is to tolerate the risk. One must accept the risk if the risk is worthy of taking and if the risk reduction can do some work here many projects can be very worthy. In this case, we have to mention another aspect. One should always ensure that the risk control of the process should be continuous and thus it can improve risk control in a very special way (Pickett 2008).

The last aspect of the risk reduction process is Transfer. During any project there are a lot of legal responsibilities are involved along with a lot of financial impacts. The perfect transfer of all these pressures can help the element of risk to be reduced in many cases. There are some ways of transferring legal responsibility and financial impact, like by contact and by ensuring the project at a moderate price. But many risks are uninsurable and one has to be extremely careful while taking these endeavours. In this case, most of the loss has to be borne by the investor or the operator himself. This does not protect the market share of the organization or the reputation of the organization; on the other hand, it only reduces the reputation (Nottage 2009).

The United States Department of Defence has its risk deduction process and this is called ACAT. The acronym stands for “Avoid, Control, Accent and Transfer” (Koontz & Weihrich 2004). This is also a very important aspect of risk reduction. They try to avoid the aspects that have risk in the question of defense and try to control their own resources before starting out any venture itself. Then it is time for the other two very important steps of the process like accent and transfer.

Use of Six Control Measures

To use risk reduction we can talk about six very important points in this aspect. The points are as follows:

Analysis: At the very beginning of starting any venture one should analyze the whole project thoroughly. This is the very first step of risk reduction. This will enable a person to go through all the aspects of the project and with this, he will be able to find out all the difficult aspects of the project and can deal with it in a very calculated way.

Planning: After analysis, the next part will be planning. To complete a task without much hassle, one should plan the work in an advanced manner. This will enable the person to plan all the aspects of the work and he can decide what are the steps of completing the project and after that, he can decide how much effort (or in other words, how many days will be needed for the completion of each of the stages, or how many men are exactly needed for each of the stages) and finance will he need to finish each of the jobs.

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Strategy: Deciding the strategy and planning are quite the same in this case. But the strategy is more of an action-orientated decision in the case. This is one of the most prominent features of planning risk reduction processes (Nottage 2009).

Implementation: The most important part of the process is the fourth part, which is implementing all the strategies and planning. This is the practical part of the process and one of the most challenging of all the aspects of the process. This part contains all the other parts and is the base of the perfect completion of the project (Nottage 2009).

Other Issues: There are always some other issues that can not be determined in the planning process and these issues arise at the time of the implementation of the job itself. This can be like labor disputes or financial shortcomings, problems of raw materials, and like that. These problems can surely hamper the speed of a project and also can postpone it for an indefinite time. The most reliable part of this case will be to create alternate systems for all the factors that are involved in a project. This will help the project on two different levels. One, it will not hamper the speed of the work and will surely end the project under the deadline. Secondly, the involved persons in the project will understand the organization has their substitute in all the cases so they will try to do their level best in front of the competition (Regester 2009).

Completion: The successful completion of a project only counts when it becomes productive. The company has to use the project for their profit and when the new project starts generating revenues then only we can say that the company has managed to complete the project successfully and also they have implemented all the risk reduction measures effectively.

Examination of the adoption of a UK style ALARP regime for managing nuclear power stations in the UAE

The initiation of ALARP is from the United Kingdom. One of the acts of the UK, the Health and Safety at Work Act of 1974 is one of the most important contributors behind this initiative. The basic idea of this is that to maintain all the plants and systems of the work safely without any risks to both human health and the environment. This is not a cost-beneficial service but it ultimately helps the environment and the health of the people in a broader way (Smith 2009).

To establish a Nuclear power plant in UAE, with the help of the ALARP regime of UK style one must have to go through some steps.

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Typical Project Lifestyle: In other words, this is the planning process. In the recent World, Nuclear Power Plant is one of the most advanced systems of power-producing, and UAE is one of the very energy-rich countries of the World.

Before starting up the project we should screen the area where we want to set up the nuclear power plant. This is the first step and this step ends with the acquiring of the property. Then the engineers and other project managers have to evaluate the concept of the project. After the finalizing of the concept then the architectures have to design the power plant and start the process of building. As discussed in earlier parts of the essay, in this process we have to find out the hazards that are present in the process, and how the remaining hazards can be worked out from the process (Nottage 2009).

This is one of the most important parts of removing workplace hazards. The penultimate part of the project is known as Operate and maintain. This contains controlling workplace hazards, along with controlling of operating hazards, and lastly, the control of the maintenance hazards of the project. There will be another part if the project does not work out as planned, and this is one of the parts that most of the project managers do not want. This is called the abandonment of the project. This is an unwanted accident that happens with the misuse of liabilities and the obligations to return to the original conditions. The uncontrollable workplace hazards also have a huge role to play in this case (Hutter & Power 2007).

Opportunity for Risk Reduction

The potential of the project is one of the most important parts of the process. It depends upon the location of the project along with the merit associated with it. Concepts and layouts of the project, along with the process design are also very much correlated in this aspect. Other than all these aspects we can add the management devices and specs of the company to add up in this process.

Hazard Management Objectives

There are a lot of hazard management objectives. In the first step, we should analyze the environmental effects of setting up the power plant and work towards removing all the environmental hazards. While doing so, we have to compare all the options that are available along with the process. Then it is time for the process of reviewing the hazards (Watson & Noble 2007).

After that, we should look at the Process Terminal Integrity of the project. It will help to develop a layout of the process that will help to construct the risks and reduce all the operational risks along with. After all the risk assessments we should be ready to start up the business and also have to manage all the residual risks. The final obligation is the completion of the project.

In the final analysis, we can say that the steps for designing the power plant can be compiled as follows:

  • The selection of the concept (what will be the process and what will be ways of implementing the concept)
  • The designing of the power plant (the basic architecture of the plant along with all the required specifications)
  • And finally the beginning of the operations (the start of producing the power)

If necessary there will be modifications. This is one of the most important aspects of any power plant. The power plant must be examined thoroughly in every aspect, and the management has to look for all the areas of improvement of the power plant. One of the most important aspects to be kept in mind in the case of a nuclear power plant is the environmental hazards caused by the power plant and the company has to counter the pollution in a very calculated way (Holmes 2007).

The modification is one step that has not yet been discussed. Modification is a step that can stay throughout the process. It starts before concept selection; it will overlook the safety in design, and select the entire concepts that are needed for the project. It also divides the roles and responsibilities of the key personnel that are attributed to the project. Along with it will also look after the health and safety measures.

Modifications also include looking after the detailed designs and applications of relevant current good practices. Effective modifications only increase the merit of the project and this is only needed in our project too. In the aspect of construction effective material control and effective quality control are two aspects of modifications along with the final confirmation of the design that will be followed during the construction of the power plant. The final commissioning includes effective quality controls and effective recordings of the “as-built” conditions (Woodhead 2008).

In this thorough process, we can reconstruct a nuclear power plant in UAE by following the guidelines of ALARP.

The Lifeline of a Nuclear Power Plant

A nuclear power plant is one of the most important inventions of modern society and there are a lot of components for a nuclear power plant. This life cycle of a nuclear power plant starts when the plant starts to collect all the raw materials for the power plant. At first, the power plant needs a building which is called the Containment building. Other than that a power plant must have a cooling tower. Some of the most very important ingredients of a nuclear power station are active fuel length, control rod, dry cask storage, Dry well, pressurizer, and a turbine hall. Nuclear safety systems are one of the very important aspects of the process. The Nuclear Reactor core and the reactor protective system with other very important parts, along with the standby gas treatment and the steam generator are used in this case (Hutt and Speh 2008).

The most important part of a nuclear power plant is the nuclear reactor. The nuclear power-making process starts with the mining of uranium. “The extracted uranium is usually converted into a more stable form of the component which is called as yellowcake” (Lummus 2008). After that, the yellowcake is “transferred to uranium hexafluoride which is enriched by using various scientific techniques” (Lummus 2008). The enriched uranium contains “0.7% of the mentioned U-235. This is later used to make uranium rods of proper composition and geometry” (Lummus 2008). The fuel rods then spend at least 3 years inside the nuclear reactor, as it would fission about 3% of their radioactivity. After that, they are transferred to a cooling pond where the short-lived isotopes that have been generated inside the rods will decay away slowly. The rods will stay in the cooling pond for at least five years. After that, the spent fuel is declared as radioactively cool and it will send to a dry storage facility to be reprocessed (Lummus 2008).

Another important aspect of the process is reprocessing. This process can recover up to 95% of the remaining uranium and plutonium. They can together mix to form a new mixed oxide fuel. Reprocessing is in huge demand in countries like the UK, France, and Russia. Solid waste produced by nuclear fuel can create a solid waste problem as it is radioactive. The solid waste has to keep in safe storage and needed to be handled with really great care. One of the most important facts regarding the spent fuel is that after the passing of years (like 40 years) 99.9% of the radiation disappears from the solid waste (Lummus 2008).

One of the most important problems faced by mankind today is the energy crisis. The regular sources of energy sources, like petroleum, coal are exhausting at a very fast pace from the face of the earth. This can cause one serious problem. And nuclear power can be one of the possible solutions for the problem. Actually, according to scholars, nuclear power is one of the most important sources of power for the future and this is one source of power that can move technologies in all senses. But it will be a real challenge to use nuclear energy without disturbing the environment. Nuclear power emits a lot of carbon dioxide and other atmospheric pollutants. These problems can be seriously solved by the governments with successful greenhouse gas removal strategies and their effective subsequent implementation. This can lead to a significant development of mankind by the means of using nuclear power for the betterment (Gordon 2008).

Nuclear power plants are safe enough to be relied on as an energy source and they have to be found all the solutions quickly to make nuclear power one of the most important aspects of the future of humankind.

Reference list

Gordon, D., 2008. Managing Project Risk: Best Practices for Architects and Related Professionals. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Holmes, A., 2007. Risk Management. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Hutt, M., and Speh, T., 2008. Business Marketing Management: A Strategic View of Industrial and Organizational Markets. Philadelphia: Harcourt Collage Publishers.

Hutter, B., & Power, M., 2007. Organizational encounters with risk. London: Cambridge University Press.

Koontz, H., & Weihrich, H., 2004. Management: A Global Perspective. NY: McGraw-Hill, International Editions.

Lambert, D., 2008. Fundamentals of Crisis Management. Boston, MA: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

Loosemore, M., 2009. Management in Construction Projects: Strategic and Operational Approaches. London: Routledge.

Lummus, R., 2008. Strategic supply chain planning and nuclear risk management. Production and Inventory Management Journal, 66 (3), pp. 49-58

Nottage, L., 2009. Corporate Governance in the 21st Century: Japan’s Gradual Transformation. New York: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Peijuan, C., 2009. Managing a nation’s image during crisis: A study of the Chinese government’s image repair efforts in the “Made in China” controversy. Public Relations Review, 35 (2009), pp. 213–218.

Pickett, K., 2008. Auditing: the risk management process. New York: Wiley.

Regester, M., (2009). Risk issues and crisis management a casebook of best practice. LA: Kogan.

Smith, D., 2009. Strategic planning for public Crisis management. London: Routledge.

Watson, T., & Noble, P., 2007. Evaluating Public Relations: A Best Practice Guide to Public Relations Planning, Research and Evaluation. NY: Kogan Page Publishers.

Woodhead, R., 2008. The conditioning effect of objective decision-making on the client’s capital proposal. Architectural Management, 7 (3), pp. 300-306.

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