Supervision and Management: Design and Implementation of Performance Management Systems and Job Satisfaction

Introduction

This paper deals with specific issues in the field of supervision and management. In particular, various aspects associated with the relationship between Performance Management Systems and the job satisfaction of the employee is explored. Further, the issue is analyzed in the context of the Hospitality Industry in the existing business environment. However, before proceeding any further, taking at a close look at the concepts of supervision and management and understanding them is vital.

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Supervision and management are in essence two separate concepts. Supervision is the act of guiding or motivating individuals who comprise the workforce of an organization whereas management is the act of preparing, organizing and monitoring the course of the work progression. An individual might assume the role of a supervisor i.e. direct the workforce without shouldering the responsibilities of a manager. Likewise, an individual might take up the role of a manager i.e., plan and monitor the course of work progression without overseeing the activities of the workforce. Nevertheless, in most practical circumstances, many supervisors do some managerial work and most managers are assigned the job of supervising. Here, it is essential to apprehend that supervision and management are two different and dissimilar activities calling for two very dissimilar proficiencies. (Hales, 2005)

Technically viewed, supervision and management seep into all facets of our existence apart from direct family affairs. It is also important to understand that this is educated and not an innate conduct. The framework formed by management and supervision is a more proficient means of realizing work objectives. This approach in relation to working procedure has a definitive impact on all walks of human life.

Supervision – Directing the workforce

The overseeing of workforce activity is one of the most intricate jobs in any organization. Supervision entails continually operating in an instable and ambiguous environment and only handful of individuals obtain contentment in performing as a supervisor. The purpose of bringing up this issue is to point out the fact that many new supervisors, when regularly challenged with troubles concerning their staff, start looking for some erroneous factor in the system. This fluctuating and uncertain status quo is a very common occurrence in supervision and accomplishment is calculated in percentages in lieu of absolutes. (Svernssen, 2003)

All fields of action call for synchronization in effort. This is achieved by allocate workers to specific tasks and a certain timeline in which to complete these errands. However, merely providing directions is not sufficient. Providing unambiguous, specific instructions regarding working procedure, monitoring the efforts of the members of staff and holding them accountable for definite consequences is of utmost importance. These three fundamentals: precise directions concerning maneuvers, examining their performance from time to time to ensure productive work is being done, and making the workers answerable for the consequences are the foundation of the supervisory course of action. It is the duty of the supervisor to ascertain that these objectives are met. Employees who are not provided with proper and direct course of work, who are permitted to do continue functioning erroneously without rectification and who do not face an appraisal of their efforts are not appropriately supervised and consequently are not permitted to execute their instructions appropriately. (Aryee, 2008)

Supervisors in addition must be conscious of their responsibilities as defined by the system. Quite a few inexperienced supervisors perceive supervision as a “ranked prize”. Supervisors are as answerable for consequences as they hold their subordinates accountable for their actions and characterize the institution itself. The supervisors’ responsibility is to make employment more resourceful and per se, they subsist as a resource for the subordinate employees. This outlook of supervision, with the supervisor standing behind the employees to enhance the productivity of work, is the most acceptable approach.

Management – Preparing and monitoring course of work

Each mission necessitates future planning to facilitate the realization of mission objectives with paramount exploitation of time and assets. The fundamental method of managing the course of work is an iterative quadrilateral procedure. Managerial work commences with the establishment of a goal or setting up of objectives of a certain mission. The subsequent stride is the devising of an operational plan. At this point managers makes a decision on division of work, distribution of assets, allocation of timelines, procedure that is to be adhered to and the resources expenditures. The following step is to monitor the implementation and execution of the predefined plan and to ensure that all segments are functioning in accordance with the plan. The ultimate step in the managerial work control procedure is to analyze the findings from the previous step and taking corrective measures on those issues, which are drifting away from the planned course of action. (Neck, 2002)

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It is vital to bear in mind this iterative quadrilateral procedure for the reason that it is universal and applicable to all managerial control conditions. A manager possibly would be directly engaged in merely a fraction of the entire process, but regardless of his role, familiarity with the four fundamental steps, Goal, Plan, Monitor and Correct is indispensable in relation to achieving success in managerial work.

Performance Management System and Job Satisfaction

Performance Management is one of the most important instruments utilized to realize corporate goals given that it aligns those goals with employee interests and accomplishments. It concentrates on enhancing performance through evaluating results against individual, team and organizational aims, and pays heed to the training and development requirements of human resources irrespective of their organizational rank. Managers utilizing performance management successfully are normally more bothered about performance planning and development than retrospective performance evaluation. It is an established management exercise functioning within organizations since it is capable of being an important procedure for the workforce and owners identically. It provides for both acknowledgment of fruitful performance and early identification of performance that does not meet expectation, permitting consequent corrective measures to be issued immediately. (Bellizzi-Tom, 2006)

Performance Management is an unremitting and recurring management method, comprised of strategizing performance variables, evaluating performance, supervising performance, reviewing performance, acknowledging and rewarding performance and enhancing performance.

The relationship between job satisfaction and the performance of workers and employees at all times has an essential role to play in organizational behavior and human resource management. A greatly contented employee may not essentially be a key performer. Nevertheless, a discontented employee can bring about irretrievable harm to the organizational efficacy. Performance management system should be founded on an ideologically supportive framework and a holistic setting by intensifying the associations amongst the major elements such as performance planning, performance execution, performance assessment, acknowledgment and remuneration, and performance development on an unremitting basis. Various researches underline the importance of three sub-systems of performance management system, i.e., performance planning and improvement, employee attachment and empowerment, and organization-employee relationship. Encouraging and affable physical, social, and emotional conditions existent at a place of work have potentiality to boost the job satisfaction of employees. (Fenwick, 2006)

A good management policy to evaluate the performance of an employee has a great impact on the psyche of the employee. Different managers and supervisors have different approaches in dealing with performance related variables. However, there are a few good management practices, which lead to improvement of the morale of the employee, which in turn generates greater job satisfaction. First, when designing performance appraisal systems the level of motivation of the employee should be considered. To do that, a manager first needs to identify the needs of an employee. Maslow’s ‘hierarchy of needs’ may serve as a guideline here. It states that after the fulfillment of the basic biological needs of a human being he requires psychological safety. Following these need being fulfilled every human being requires social intimacy and respect. Only on fulfillment of all these requirements can a person reach the stage of self-actualization. Once the needs of the employee are identified a managers must see to it that the work environment provided to the employees is a congenial atmosphere to work in as mentioned previously. However, Fredrick Herzberg’s 2 factor Hygiene and Motivation theory points out that just providing a hygienic environment is not enough to motivate an employee. His work should be efficiently appreciated and recognized and he should be given a suitable degree of authority in his job to make him feel responsible. Such an approach caters to the above-identified needs of the employee. The management should understand that employee oriented administration is more beneficial as compared to job oriented management.

Simply put, it can be said that the more a job is administered the less fruitful is the workforce. Rensis Likert, an American organizational psychologist in his works point out the significance of a participative group system in which the management demonstrate complete confidence in their subordinates. He suggests that a supportive framework fostered by mutual respect increases levels of motivation in employees. Douglas McGregor in his Theory X and Theory Y identifies the common assumptions made by managers about their subordinates. Theory X points out to the assumptions which presume that the employee needs direction and security above all and thus use of proper control and threat are required to tackle them. This approach is undoubtedly the wrong way of thinking. In his Theory Y McGregor refers to the significance of job satisfaction in enhancing the employee’s commitment to the organization. He argues that suitable appreciation of the cognitive capabilities of the employee leads to better performance levels and increased commitment.

There are several advantages of exercising a structured procedure for heightening employee performance. Improved organizational profitability, increased employee responsibility, equitable treatment of employees and enhanced quality of work life ensues from a proper Performance Management System. And above all these lead to greater job satisfaction of the employee.

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In my capacity as the manger of this process I have designed a comprehensive performance management strategy that would maximize staff retention. The referred design is presented as follows:

The goals of the system are explicitly defined: The purposes the system is intended to serve and its fundamental ideologies are evidently described with reference to potential payback to the organization, its workforce and its consumers. Guidelines are comprehensible and unambiguous.

The system is coherent with corporate aims, primary concerns and policies: The system is in consort with the organization’s objectives and priorities and is aligned with company and business plans and policies. The system reflects a potent tactical focus, with performance and accomplishments that promote corporate ideologies being suitably acknowledged and rewarded. The contribution of the workforce representation in designing the system is ensured because its implementation needs to be acknowledged and feasible at all organizational echelons.

The system is impartial: The system is evenhanded, open to suggestions, free from gender, racial and other prejudices and reasonably and homogeneously implemented.

The organization focuses on performance development and growth: The organization promotes performance acknowledgment and recognition of an employee’s potential by maintaining a positive stance towards cultural modifications and concentrating on consequences, unremitting development and training. Performance management is ideologically not a disciplinary instrument of tackling substandard performance or dealing with punitive issues.

Dedication and ownership of the process is exhibited: Managers and supervisors recognize performance management as a primary and enduring management process and a major planning and assessment tool. The organization furthers a holistic approach in ownership of performance management method rather than a prerogative of managers or human resource authorities.

Comprehensive training is offered: Training and learning requirements of employees are identified and all employees, irrespective of their organizational rank, are subject to satisfactory levels of training. Follow up underpinnings and maintenance education is provided. Managers and supervisors are also required to acquire the essential interpersonal and soft skills necessary for providing valued feedback.

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Performance measures and norms are evidently describes in work policies and are purpose oriented, correlated with job profiles and established on performance standards upon which the group or individual can exercise control. Consequences are quantifiable about individual, work group or team accomplishments and objectives are testing yet achievable.

Confidentiality is guaranteed: Workers are convinced about the system’s capability to offer confidentiality and privacy and apposite protection against partiality. Conformity is attained on credentials and guidelines to be provided for its retention.

Data generated is used appropriately: Performance information is examined when decisions are taken in relation to organizational development policies and training and development proposals. It is ensured that unsuitable generation and utilization of performance records does not take place.

The system is associated with an effective grievance handling procedure: The performance management system incorporates a complaint-registering instrument, or builds up an association with the organization’s existent grievance and annoyance handling strategies and procedures.

The system is regularly reviewed: Evaluation apparatus are in position to ascertain that the system is efficient, pertinent and that it is aligned with corporate aims and objectives. The system is contrasted with other performance pointers (such as non-attendance, yields and efficiency levels) in order to measure its efficiency. Outlook surveys are used to gauge levels of enthusiasm, dedication and job contentment. (Cheng, 2008)

The strategies adopted while designing this performance management program were significantly aligned with employee interests. Measure suggested in the policy would help maximize key employee retention as well as attract prospective employees.

Performance management is one of the most essential aspects in all industries. In light of the issues existent in the hospitality industry, performance management bears immense significance. Hospitality industry is primarily customer satisfaction oriented. Business depends immensely on the amount and quality of services provided to the client. In that context, Performance Management plays a vital role. It looks at issues from the root causes. Enhancing job satisfaction of employees increases their dedication and commitment to the business objectives, which in turn helps them to provide better quality of service to the clients resulting in increased profitability. On the other hand, it also takes measures based on customer feedback to evaluate the performance of the employees. (Petty, 2008)

Staff turnover emerged as a major challenge faced by managers in the hospitality industry in the recent past. Shuffling workforce among departments and replacing employees led to decreased service qualities, which hampered the business process largely. In order to prevail over this problem, mangers increasingly started to fall back on the performance management tool in the form of Counseling, Coaching and Mentoring. Previously this form of performance management facilities was made available to only senior managers and administrative personnel. Recently this incentive was extended to all employees who required such measures irrespective of organizational rank. Specialized and skilled coaches were hired to help employees sort out their problems. Senior employees were encouraged to guide their subordinates through intricate situations. Such measures helped to bring about a great degree of reduction in the staff turnover. Trump International Hotel recorded a 23 percent decrease in staff turnover by means of employing such techniques.

Various options are available to organizations in the current market scenario about the performance management initiatives. In addition to the in-house performance management strategies, hotels and tourism organization outsource the process to third party firms who specialize in the process to maintain credibility. Hotels like Princeton Residency make use of information technology products specifically designed for the purpose. GoPlaces Pvt. Ltd., a tourism company based in Singapore ties up with Infor International to review periodically the performance management strategies in order to uphold the efficiency of the system, which facilitates them to provide better services to its clients. (Eccles, 2008)

Conclusion

Putting a structured performance management system in place is of immense importance in the current competitive market scenario. Performing employees are assets to an organization. There are various factors linked to the performance variables of an employee. Some of these factors are: the extent to which the needs of the employees are met; the working environment and conditions; the development, motivation and above all job satisfaction of the employee. Employing suitable management practices in order to enhance their job satisfaction and increasing their commitment levels towards the organization can prove to be very significant in retaining these assets.

Bibliography

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Bellizzi-Tom, Joseph A; 2006; Disciplining top-performing unethical salespeople: Examining the moderating effects of ethical seriousness and consequences; Psychology and Marketing; 23, 2, 181-201; Arizona State University

Cheng, T C E & Ida S. F. Chiu; 2008; Critical success factors of business process re-engineering in the banking industry; Knowledge and Process Management; 15, 4, 258-269; Department of Logistics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong

Chiang, LiChun & Chao-ning Liao; 2008; The influence of digital standardization on administrative efficiency in e-government: A view of standards development organizations; Systems Research and Behavioral Science; Department of Political Science, National Cheng Kung University, No 1 Ta-Hscuch Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan

Eccles, David W & Paul J. Feltovich; 2008; Implications of domain-general support skills for transfer of skill and acquisition of expertise; Performance Improvement Quarterly; 21, 1, 43-60; International Society for Performance Improvement; Learning Systems Institute and Department of Educational Psychology and the Learning Systems, Florida State University, University Center C-4600, Tallahassee

Fenwick, Tara J; 2006; Professional growth plans: Possibilities and limitations of an organization wide employee development strategy; Human Resource Development Quarterly; 14, 1, 59-77; Department of Educational Policy Studies, University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada

Hales, Colin; 2005; Rooted in Supervision, Branching into Management: Continuity and Change in the Role of First-Line Manager; Journal of Management Studies; 42, 3, 471-506; University of Surrey.

Neck, Chris P & Charles C. Manz; 2002; Thought self-leadership: The influence of self-talk and mental imagery on performance; Journal of Organizational Behavior; 13, 7, 681-699; Department of Management, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-4006, U.S.A.

Petty, Gregory C, Doo Hun Lim, Seung Won Yoon, Johnny Fontan; 2008; The effect of self-directed work teams on work ethic; Performance Improvement Quarterly; 21, 2, 49-63; International Society for Performance Improvement; Volunteer Boulevard, A318 Claxton Complex, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Svernssen, E I; 2003; The concept of supervision in psychiatric care;compared with mentorship and leadership. A review of the literature; Journal of Nursing Management; 2, 6, 271-278; The Nordic School of Public Health, Gothenburg, Sweden.

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