Time management refers to the regulation of time according to designed schedules. Time management is essential as it assists students to undertake activities during the learning process (Rasmussen College 2012, pp. 1). Effective management of time is a skill that students require in order to perform exceptionally. Students need to control time to manage it. Students are likely to take negative habits if they do not manage their time properly. This limits their achievements in their academic life (Study Guides and Strategies 2011, pp. 1).
Effective management of time involves two stages. These include goal setting and abiding to schedules. Students must ensure they focus on setting goals and abiding to schedules to manage time (Teal trust 2002, pp. 1). It is recommended that students use task deadlines and dates of examination to predetermine the instructions to be made in the course of the semester. This assists them to achieve set goals (University of Wisconsin-Green Bay 2012, pp. 1). Conscious management of time can occur through three or four planning of schedules. Effective communication must accompany these plans (Oxford Brookes University 2012, pp. 1).
Social factors profoundly affect teaching and learning processes (Hirschy and Wilson 2002, pp. 88). These processes involve interaction of students and teachers. The students and teachers are of different backgrounds. Thus, the teachers must deal with inequalities that exist to facilitate the education of students from different backgrounds. Various studies have shown the existence of different conformity forms (Ock 2008, pp. 13). These forms work according to the extremeness of norms that bring balance between compliance to informational and normative manifestations.
Normative influence results in a group that has harmony and enables positive assessment from other individuals. On the other hand, informational influence makes individuals aim at making high-quality decisions (Yang and Chen 2012, pp. 8). Additionally, social pressures have an impact on how students perceive other people’s responses. The health of the students also plays a crucial role in students’ performance. It is imperative that a student has excellent health to enable him or she achieve high academic performance (Yang, Chen and Chiu 2011, pp. 118).
According to Munro (2012, pp. 1), the ability of students to communicate and transact depicts the present state of knowledge. Additionally, students’ ability to understand the world represents the state of knowledge. Moreover, predictable writing of words and the ability to derive diverse meanings of words represent the state of knowledge. Research that have been done have left gaps in the determination of strategies that can be used to enable students to improve their performance. This research seeks to fill the gap left by other studies. It will utilize both primary and secondary data collection methods (Blaikie 2009, pp. 160). Primary data will be obtained using questionnaires while secondary data will be obtained through the internet.
Does time management influence the performance of students in academics? The research seeks to discover the relationship between time management and academic performance.
Aims and Hypotheses
The central intention of this research is to determine the impact of time management on the academic performance of students. The research seeks to show that proper time management enables students to perform well in academics. Consequently, it is hypothesized that proper time management results in high academic performance of students.
Research Plan, Methods, and Techniques
The research will involve a cross-sectional study design that is quantitative by nature (Polit & Beck 2010, pp. 88). The research will involve students of different classes, backgrounds, and gender. The participants to be included in the study will complete questionnaires to be used in the research. The study will use a small sample in the analysis. The study design chosen allows easy collection of critical data (Babbie 2011, pp. 228).
Additionally, data on students’ performance will be obtained from internet portals of different faculties. The research will seek approval of the study procedures from the Flinders University Social and Behavioural Research Ethics Committee. Moreover, this research will provide all participants with written informed consent (Hesse-Biber & Leavy 2011, pp. 67). Analysis of the data collected will be quick and will provide the current state of knowledge.
Participants and Recruitment
Participants of this research will be from different schools and universities. Participants will be included only if they are 14 years old and above. Additionally, the participants must have the ability to complete the questionnaires independently. They must be able to speak English fluently. Finally, they must be capable of stating the purpose of the study, the risks involved, and the merits of the study. The study will include 30 students. Random sampling will be used in obtaining the participants. In addition, a small sample will be used. This will enable easy analysis of the data. The characteristics of the participants to be included also make the study reliable (Heppner, Kivlighan & Wampold 2008, pp. 318). However, a small sample may lead to conclusions that cannot be universally applicable (Awosan 2009, pp. 46).
Self-administered questionnaires will be used (Babbie 2010, pp. 267). The questionnaires will contain 32 items. Completion of the questionnaires will take 25 minutes. The questionnaire is unique and not adapted. Data on past performance will be obtained from different faculties and schools. The data will be on a students’ performance in the last 10 exams they took. The participants will present their age and sex before completing the questionnaires (Visocky & Visocky 2009, pp. 38). Additionally, they will report the level they are in and their marital statuses. Moreover, the participants will provide information about their social life. This will contain information about their friends and personality. The questionnaires will also seek information about the study methods that students use. Finally, it will seek information about individuals’ timetables and schedules.
The Flinders University Social and Behavioural Research Ethics Committee application form will be completed before the research begins (Appendix 3). The study will observe ethical issues to protect the participants and ensure the dependability of the results. The participants will be informed about the goal of the investigation and their free will to participate will be necessary (Appendix 2). The information that the questionnaires will seek will not infringe on the privacy of the participants (Appendix 4). All the information that will be obtained through the questionnaires and the internet will be kept safely to ensure confidentiality. The questions will be direct and easy to answer.
Examination results are private information and faculties store them. However, this study will require the results of the students who will participate in the study. This study will seek approval from the concerned authority to obtain this information (Appendix 1). The information will remain restricted (Lo 2010, pp. 259). Approval to access past examination results of the participants will be sought through an introduction letter to the ethics committee. Finally, participants will be provided with a verbal script at recruitment time (Appendix 5).
A woman, J. 2009. Currents of thought in African sociology and the global community: How to understand research findings in the context of sociological perspectives, Universal Publishers, Boca Raton.
Babbie, E. 2010. The practice of social research, Wadsworth/ Cengage Learning, Belmont.
Babbie, E. 2011. The basics of social research, Wadsworth/ Cengage Learning, Belmont.
Blaikie, H. 2009. Designing social research: the logic of anticipation, Polity, Cambridge.
Heppner, P, Kivlighan, M & Wampold, E. 2008. Research design in counselling, Thomson Brooks/Cole, Belmont.
Hesse-Biber, S & Leavy, P. 2011. The practice of qualitative research, SAGE, Los Angeles.
Hirschy, A & Wilson, M. 2002. ‘The Sociology of the Classroom and Its Influence on Student Learning’, Peabody Journal Of Education, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 85-100, Web.
Lo, B. 2010. Ethical issues in clinical research: a practical guide, Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott William & Wilkins, Philadelphia.
Munro, J. 2012. Social-cultural influences on learning. Web.
Ock, J. 2008. “Influence of Non-academic Activities on College Students’ Academic Performance”, Sentience: University of Minnesota Journal of Psychology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 13-16. Web.
Oxford Brookes University. 2012. Time management, Web.
Polit, F & Beck, T. 2012. Nursing research: generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice, Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia.
Rasmussen College 2012. Time Management for Students. Web.
Study Guides and Strategies 2011. Time management: Time management series. Web.
Teal trust 2002. Time Management. Web.
University of Wisconsin-Green Bay. 2012. Managing Time for Success in College. Web.
Visocky, J & Visocky, K. 2009. A Designer’s research manual: succeed in design by knowing your clients and what they really need, Rockport Publishers, Beverly.
Yang, D & Chen, Y 2012, A Study of the Effect of Social Influence on the College Student’s Attitude and Behaviour for Playing Online Games. Web.
Yang, D, Chen, Y & Chiu, J 2011, “Examining the Social Influence on College Students for Playing Online Game: Gender Differences and Implications“. TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 115-122. Web.