Critical Perspectives on Management

Abstract

In the current world which is full of competition due to creativity affecting the business world, there is a need for organizations to brace up for the challenge by exploring the various theory of management to brace up for the future. With theories come sharp differences with making some relevant and others irrelevant especially in the ever-changing world. This paper will critically look at various theories and draw a line of difference thereby highlighting the strengths and weaknesses found in every theory.

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Introduction

Management is a process involving all the practices that are carried out in an organization that lead it to attain its objectives. Some of the practices include coming up with plans about the organization, putting together different factors to attain a given target, forming a relationship in the company, and putting to practice the discovered ideas in an objective way. Mainly, for any organization to stay true to its mission and vision, and able management team has to be in place to spearhead the company to greater heights. Management of any company touches on all the workers-from the top to the bottom. Therefore, a clear understanding of individuals at workplaces will aid in coming up with relevant perspectives that will help in the management of the organization. A theory acts as a blueprint of the underlying aspect. They give a sketch of how the whole idea is to be implemented. There can never be a perfect theory because every aspect of life has its strengths and limitations. (Anthony, 1994)

Discussion

In regards to management that is strategic, there are various prepositions that have been made to enhance the understanding of leadership style in any organization. These perspectives are used differently by various organizations. There are various types of perspectives suggested in the realization of a management team that is effective. There is a classic and systematic perspective in analyzing management issues.

To begin with, the classic perspective upholds highly the inherent traits in a person. For instance, the in-born intelligence and the ability to speak well are valued in this theory towards effective management. These two are seen as carrying the ability one has in representing the correct views about a given idea. These traits are in human beings and the aspect of one’s needs is also human. Again, this theory recognizes that there is a commercial way of life that cuts across all the business entities irrespective of a difference in other aspects.

Culture is all about people. Different people behave differently due to their up bring, surrounding and their experiences. This aspect will enhance the understanding of various theories of management. Each organization has its unique way of running its affairs. It is believed that the way things are done in an organization propels it to greater heights in terms of making profits and putting up with competition from other companies. This can only be realized if proper coordination is placed on the implementation of the cultural aspect. The top officials in any company have to have a clear understanding of the culture in the organization. This is because the ways in which people behave differ very much. Culture, on the other hand, can be acquired through the process of learning. In an organization, the existing way of how things are done leads to giving a given organization identity and its workers.

In management, the official in the management bracket should put into consideration the variation in a culture so as to be fair to the junior staff. This will remove the aspect of corruption as there will be no favoring people from a certain community. The managers who ignore the differences in culture, tend to value their culture highly in relation to other cultures. In an organization diversification in culture creates room to accommodate each other’s differences and devising ways of withstanding other people’s weaknesses. For good leadership to be felt, the leaders should be knowledgeable about other people’s cultures. (Milsome S 2006)

Culture can be understood in three dimensions. First, culture is seen as those things that can be seen or heard and have a bearing on a specific group of people. These include the geographical settings, the spoken word, traditions among others. In a given society, different groups of people will interpret different aspects of life differently. This is done basing on one’s way of life and the surrounding environment. Secondly, culture is sensitive to the changes which with the current world. One culture forms a basis for the learning process. In a company, its defining qualities will lay squarely on its original management team. These qualities are specific to that organization and can change due to the pressures from both outside and inside. Thirdly, culture is seen as a type of training done to people so as behave in a particular manner in order to attain a specific goal. Nevertheless, many scholars have criticized this assumption basing on the fact that people will always behave differently because of their culture and different encounters.

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This perspective encourages the top officials in a given company to go an extra mile in understanding people’s ways of life. By knowing the physical characteristics of a given culture and getting information from printed material does not make one full equipped with information about a given group of people. They have to have a personal interaction with the people undertaking that culture in order to understand their thoughts, mannerism, and perception towards different things among others. Repeated interaction will give the top officials a critical understanding in matters concerning different ways of life.

The way of life of a given group of people is ever changing hence making it difficult to ascertain what the real culture is at that particular moment, Therefore, this proves hard to either follow what had been decided in relation to the previous culture or not.

For better performance to be realized, the managers have to explore this aspect of culture so as to run the organization smoothly. The officials in the management seat will have to be acquainted with a clear knowledge about ways of life of their different employees. The printed material will not help so much hence calling for a personal interaction with the groups of people in order to establish finer details about their ways of life. This will enable them devise administrative strategies that will lead to good performance of the company. The way of life in a give entity is a vital aspect as it influences planning procedures, coordinating, implementing of various new ideas that the entity comes to play with.

Another perspective that is second to ones way of life in management of any organization is the inborn traits associated with how one feels towards a certain action. A strategy that elicits positive feelings in the employees tends to be embraced so fast. This inborn traits are largely associated with the ability of the mind to choose what best befits a given situation and act in accordance with what is seen as beneficial. There are four components in this theory. First is the establishment of a certain feeling associated with a given item. To a greater extent, the aspect of creating a certain attitude about an item or idea comes to play. Second, the ability to put to play the perception created towards a given item. For instance, making known ones thoughts about a given idea. Third is the part of internalizing the feeling one holds towards a given ideology. This entail logical arrangement of ideas so as to reach an idea that has some base. Lastly, the idea of how to effective put ones feelings into control come to play. This should affect both the individual and the people that are in close association with.

In trying to explain this theory, a group of researchers come up with the notion of individual ability which has a bearing on the administrative style one chooses. To give a direction in regard to choice, a self evaluation of the following has to be put into consideration. To begin with, a critical understanding about an individual personality, the state of perception one has towards others, correct evaluation of a person, honesty, acceptance of one self, ability to suit anywhere, creativity among other aspects.

This theory carries the belief that administrators who use it are good at problem solving, good in convincing, and good managers. Studies have proved that good leaders are those who have two degrees with high inborn ability related to the mind. Though, inner ability should not be a defining trait when it comes to appointment of top official in an organization. On the other hand, academic qualification should be mandatory to the people in the leadership arena.

In regards to working as a team, the inner ability in relation to how one controls their feelings come to play. The spirit of accommodating other people’s ideas and dropping ones views in order to come up with an objective discussion is embraced. Also, the types of relationships realized in a group will largely be attributed with the emotional composition of individuals making up that group.

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A critical understanding of employees’ inner ability will enable the top officials in an organization to come up with good working condition as there will be cooperation and the spirit of accommodation of others at the work place.

Thirdly, there is the professionalism theory which aids in making management styles. The theory supports the outward learned knowledge in use to solve problems or react to certain occurrences. This in the end enhances high leveled results. This perspective provides guidelines of what the organization expects the employees to have attained, and the acceptable mannerism that will be positively reinforced. Professionalism theory aids in realizing effort of the workers towards attaining the organizations objectives together with the style in which such is carried out. At workplaces, the workers will tend to put to use mannerism that is in line with the code of conduct at a given company so as to help in the realization of the goals.

This theory is divided into two-mannerism and skill centered. The aspect of mannerism is seen in the light of character building behavior associated with result delivery. Traits like cooperativeness, leadership, among others are highly exhibited at workplaces. In terms of skills, to a larger extent, technology has played a big role in elevating this notion. More so, in designing a guideline in an organization, more information should be provided so as the workers understand what is required of them. Extra information that is unwanted is seen diluting the importance of the guidelines and also consumes time.

This theory also some expected standards which organizations build their job requirements from. They publish the requirements on the internet so as to attract applications from qualified people only. It is assumed that people who meet certain qualification will tend to be behaving in a manner that the organization want hence give an easy time to the top managers in running the organizations. On the other hand, this perspective is seen as not good enough towards realizing the objectives of the organization. This is because; the qualified people have not had a learning experience with the said company about its general functioning. Also, there are different ideologies in this perspective in that creating a relationship with the demands of any organization becomes hard. (Rankin, 2006)

This inner ability theory is mostly used when an organization is devising new strategies in regards to the established ideologies. It can be used in area like, reinforcement of workers, stimulation hard work among the employees, critical evaluation in the learning process of the workers, among others. Again, in the use of this theory, various suggestions have been put to play to aid towards making it practical. For instance, all workers should be involved in the process of coming up with formation and use of any qualification criteria model the organization embraces, the employees should be given detailed information regarding the theory and type of model that is to used, the top officials should be taught about how to put into use the theory with the view of putting to order their juniors at work and lastly, making public the chosen model.

The advantages of this theory are as follows; it has well defined goals of the organization that the workers have to direct their energies in attaining them, the process of rewarding and appointment of employees is objective, a relationship exists between the goals of the company and the individuals’ ones and the functioning in the company is done basing on the universal accepted way. (Hutchinson and Winkler, 2007)

The weaknesses of the theory are as follows. The theory is based on the ancient ideologies thereby not being effective in current world. Secondly, with the ever changing world, this perspective is seen as not being in a position to match the changes. Thirdly, the basis of it existence was to elevate the standards of working, but it has not delivered this. Again, this theory is used by few people hence not known by many. Lastly, they create artificial way of behaving leading workers to behave like puppets. (Thomas, 2003)

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The bottom line then is that as much as the theory has some shortfalls, it doesn’t mean that it can be useful in management. More energy needs to be directed in training the top officials and other staff in the full details of the theory and it s practical use. This will upgrade standards of performance in the company. (Casey, 1995)

Next, is the perspective surrounding heads in the organization, people that are assigned duties to head certain offices have to exhibit qualities above those that are required It is said that these group of people have to have a personality that attracts other listen and respect them generally. Different leaders have different mannerism in regards to directing others. In line with this perspective, various ideologies are pegged on one who is considered as the head. To begin with, the person should be cleaver but not a must that he tops others. Secondly, he should be posses both the academic training and the skill related training. Thirdly, the heads should have a trait of impacting on other people’s life. Next, being able to assign duties to the junior staff and lastly, have a self assessment of ones ability and inability so as to appreciate other peoples as to appreciate other people. The above will enable the people to respect the heads and follow in their footsteps. This will trickle down to people working together towards a similar objective as they create health relations. (Alvesson M and Willmott H 1992)

The spirit of leading others is seen as the best solution in the current ever changing world. There is a difference between the top officials in a company and the people who are heads naturally. These heads are not always found at the top only, they can be found within the junior employees in the company or better still outside the company. There are various types of heads. First, group heading where we have one person in charge of the group’s functioning. He or she is charged with the role of coordinating activities of the group so as to realize the objectives. Secondly, routine heads who are charged with the daily functioning of the organization. Lastly, there is the special heads, are charged with specific reasons that are vital to the company.

A visionary leadership is required especially when a given company is undergoing transformation. The person in of the process should take into account the fact that the workers are being introduced to new strategies hence he should devise proper ways to make sure that the process is smooth and accepted by all. The profound differences among the employees should be considered so as to meet the need of each employee. If the head has an inner calling to lead, he or she will be able to try to establish a reason in an idea, realize the existence of socialization, note the basic requirements from a wider view, analyze critically a give idea, make distinctions, and value the past experiences. Therefore, people who are given the position of headship should work with others so as to attain high leveled performance. (Covaleski, Dirsmith, Heian, and Samuel 1998)

The perspective of working as a group has been seen as a step ahead in management. A group consists of a specific number of individual with the same vision and joining hands in the realization of their goals. Groups are formed with different purposes, for instance there is the manufacturing and processing groups who have very experience people and this group lasts for a long time, processing group is charged with the function of surveying the market and come up with a give commodity, the advisory group is concerned with giving advice on the right channel to go, and others. Each group has its own function and time frame. There are those that last long and those that are short lived. (Linstead and Fulop, 2004)

Groups improves performance standards, attracts more consumers, realization of reasonable solutions, and others. These can be done on if the formation of the teams is based on the following. The individuals should have the same goal; conceptualize the goals, materials in attaining the goal, cooperation and tolerance among the group members, honesty to each other, freedom of expression, and the spirit of exchanging ideas among others. This will bring unite among the parties thereby attaining the chosen goals. The groups should comprise of individuals with different qualifications so as to occupy various functions within a group. Groups that lack certain personality should identify among its member who can fit in the gap. In coming up with the composition of a group, the mannerism of an individual, the number of rewards and the conduct in other teams can be used to form new groups. A group can comprise of both top managers and middle and lower class employees. Anybody in the group can be the head. In regards to groups, it accommodates as many individuals as possible but it should not be so big to an extent of undermining the presence of other people in the group. (Goleman, 1996)

There are two type of heading style the heads can adopt. First, there is the dictatorship style where the head gives a direction of how things are going to be done. This is one sided hence if not well implemented the other people will feel left out. Next, is the diplomacy style where all parties in a group are involved in the group discussions too much liberty leads to digressing from the normal topic being discussed therefore the heads in these groups should be attentive to their people, give answers to their questions, and enable the members make out on what is being discussed. To create familiarity among the group members, a learning session has to be organized. Again, best performing groups should be reinforced positively so as to keep up the good work and the poor one should be punished to improve. (Burrell and Dale 2003)

Therefore we find that the perspective workers who are in the middle class of the employees in a given organization. They do not head any offices but are answerable to the top officials in the company. They are involved in supervising of individuals, monitoring the budget, giving experienced knowledge; serve the costumers, and others. These groups of workers should good rapport with other employees, give assistance to other workers so as to work effectively in their areas, and come up with reasonable group of working. In management, this group of workers helps the top officials work easier. This is because they have a concrete understanding of how a given organization works. They enjoy better socialization with their seniors, they encourage advancing in their education, they come up with strategies of the companies; they have freedom of expression and have a stable career. Generally, they have a good working environment.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the various aspects discussed above carry different ideologies in relation to management in any organization. There is no superior theory that comes on top of others. This is because; each theory has it strength and weaknesses. A give organization can make a choice of what perspective it will embrace basing on the need the theory has to satisfy. For instance, if an organization wishes to give prominence to leadership, the perspective surrounding headship in an organization can be adopted. On the other hand, the middle and lower class workers can be involved in the management process if the perspective of way of life and inner ability are put into practice.

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