In the era of globalization and decreasing barriers between cultures, workplace diversity facilitates better collaboration and the necessity to encourage commitment to embrace change and differences. Both tangible and intangible benefits can be achieved, ranging from conflict resolution to increased exposure. Researching the problem of the lack of diversity in the workplace may shed light on it as well as help in suggesting innovative methods for facilitating diversity and helping companies reap the benefits of being inclusive. The marketing industry presents a special interest to researchers because biases or the mistreatment of diverse employees within organizations will inevitably translate into the underrepresentation of different target groups in products and services that such companies produce. To narrow down the context in which the study will be conducted, it was chosen to focus on Memphis, Tennessee as the target setting.
Background of the Problem
Historically, the concept of diversity in an organization was understood as the degree of responsibility, equal remuneration, and mutual respect, which an employee could rely on regardless of his or her skin color or culture (Barak, 2016). Diversity should be comprehended as a broader and more multifaceted term (Sabharwal, 2014). The majority of CEOs and heads of organizations came to the conclusion that diversity is a factor that can make business more successful (Harvey & Allard, 2015). Every person has a unique background and life experience, either positive or negative, which can be introduced to the common cause. The implementation of a set of skills, knowledge, and experience makes up diversity, the use of which is essential to equip organizations with tools to succeed, while people are viewed as the key resource.
Diversity may be regarded as a phenomenon that may affect both beneficially and adversely in the context of an organization. Martin (2014) considered that when culturally diverse employees had to work together, they are more prone to interpersonal and team conflicts. Opinions, beliefs, and traditions are regarded to be significant in decision-making, and when they are distinctive, it may lead to workplace disputes, thus reducing an organization’s productivity (Martin, 2014). On the other hand, collaboration and mutual efforts of diverse employees promote creative thinking and the development of unity based on the implementation of objective criticism ensured by leaders (Harvey & Allard, 2015). Inclusivity may facilitate the guidance through change, having a diversified staff of employees and executives in order to make a company more protected compared to firms whose composition is not so diverse.
Managers and leaders in the United States must address new challenges and use opportunities in the developing age of globalization. Globalization may be specified as the disappearance of barriers to the movement of information, capital, property, goods, services, and labor (Barak, 2016). There is an international historical exchange of ideas, preferences, values, behavioral stereotypes, and cultural patterns, which leads to a certain change of different social communities and groups (Barak, 2016). The goal of the mentioned process is the provision of organizations with a competitive position due to lower operating costs and increased production, resulting in more services and customers. In order to understand the connection between globalization and diversity, it is essential to specify the impacts of the former on the latter.
The experts, including Sabharwal (2014), Barak (2016), as well as Harvey and Allard (2015) claim that globalization affects economic forces that deepen the disparities in employment already existing in the workplace likewise in productivity, income, and other issues acting as an obstacle to appropriate social and labor relations (Sabharwal, 2014). In the United States, there are people of different ages, cultures, and backgrounds working together, which requires the establishment of an inclusive workplace environment (Harvey & Allard, 2015). In this regard, it is expected that leaders should not only promote diversity in their organizations but also consider national and global communities (Harvey & Allard, 2015). Currently, the situation with diversity should be researched as this problem requires immediate action from leaders.
The problem is that there is a lack of workplace diversity, especially in the marketing industry, which leads to conflicts associated with different working styles, business etiquette challenges, conflicts based on personal biases and prejudices, and misunderstandings in professional communication. According to the research by McKinsey that focused on executives, only 14 percent of minorities composed the ethnic diversity in 2017 (Hunt, Yee, Prince, & Dixon-Fyle, 2018). In addition, there is a need to elaborate and implement relevant diversity management strategies in the United States context, thus ensuring a more diverse workforce thorough evaluation of the existing practices.
Memphis, Tennessee is a suitable context to conduct research on diversity in the marketing industry because there is a variety of firms working in this sphere. Some of the most prominent include Archer Malmo, Creative Communications Consulting, Hemline, Ding! Marketing Studio, Sullivan Branding, and others. The city itself is diverse, with 63% of its citizens classified as Black, 27.45% White, 6.2% Hispanic, 1.7% Asian, 1.4% mixed, and 0.2% other (Statistical Atlas, 2018). Thus, the topic is high on the agenda in this context, which means that research on this issue can shed light on the role of diversity in Memphis marketing companies and identify effective diversity management practices that businesses implement.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the proposed study is the contribution to the contemporary practice of diversity management in terms of globalization processes. By identifying the target groups that need assistance with handling workplace challenges associated with diversity, it is expected to enhance the workplace environments in the United States. In particular, several categories will be considered. The quantitative research design based on the use of statistical data will be applied to address different stakeholder groups (Creswell & Creswell, 2017). In order to collect relevant numerical data, two or three companies of Memphis will be contacted and offered to participate in the proposed study. It seems important to ensure that at least two companies will be involved in the study with the aim of making it more credible. Upon the agreement of companies’ management, employees will receive written invitations and informed consent forms that will clarify the purpose, objectives, and data to be collected. Anonymous surveys and open-ended interviews will be used as data collection tools, while the process of data collection will continue for approximately one month.
The study goals are the identification of the needs and concerns as well as consideration of potential leadership strategies that may be utilized to improve their position. The context of the study will include the organizations located in Memphis, Tennessee that report differences in experiences associated with dealing with the area of diversity management in the workplace. Data will be collected from the available scholarly literature, official websites, and observations. Applying one of the scripts suggested by Creswell and Creswell (2017), the following purpose statement may be formulated (p. 130). The purpose of this mixed-method study will be to test the theory of adaptive leadership that explains how to adjust a marketing organization to changing requirements and relate the independent variable of the context to the dependent variable of strategy, controlling for diversity among participants from Memphis, Tennessee. The independent variable will be defined as the context of organizations, and the dependent variable will be determined as strategies to be used to address the problem.
Nature of the Study
A mixed-method design study design (sequential explanatory) was conducted involving females, minority groups, and other populations that lack support in the workplace because it allows focusing on attitudes, perceptions of the participants as well as provide room for describing details (Engel & Schutt, 2014). The mentioned target groups were selected as the most vulnerable populations that work in the sphere of marketing. Participants will engage in interviews intending to assess their experience, expectations, and potential solutions to the problem. From the quantitative perspective, surveys were conducted to gather information on the specific number of cases when vulnerable employees were mistreated in the workplace. A small sample of marketing companies will participate in the study due to the need to focus on the individuality of cases of workplace mistreatment associated with a diversity of workers.
Further, the study ensures the saturation and reliability of the data by achieving empirical confidence that new data cannot be collected. When a researcher observes the repeating patterns in survey and interview answers, it will mean that no additional data can be obtained. Once the description of the categories and behaviors is comprehensive enough to form a theory, it will mean that data saturation is achieved. At the same time, the researcher will pay attention to ensuring that no new information can be collected from participants and that its addition will not enrich the study.
Significance of the Study
Workplace diversity provides a great variety of ideas and allows making the common approach adopted in an organization more creative. All people possess diverse knowledge and skills that they can share with an organization they work for, while a firm thus obtains the chance to select from the variety of employee performance models (Barak, 2016). It is clear that any company can achieve prosperity if it has enough resources, and the more these resources will be, the better. It is essential to emphasize the fact that versatile views and unconventional thinking stimulate multilateral discussions and creativity, which helps to transform new ideas into meaningful innovations (Barak, 2016). The above philosophy allows discovering original solutions to meet business needs in an inquisitive and impartial manner. The use of diversity as a source of funds for the existence of business is seen as a strategic approach to business, contributing to the achievement of an organization’s goals such as increasing profit and productivity.
Along with benefits to business, workplace diversity contributes to employees’ professional and personal growth. As noted by Harvey and Allard (2015), the goals of valuing diversity include awareness, continuous education, and a positive perception of the differences between employees of an organization. Valuing diversity goes beyond the policy of equal opportunities since it is based not only on changing the level of representativeness of different employee categories in the workplace. At the same time, the recognition of the uniqueness of every employee contributes to the creation of a friendly atmosphere in which awareness and respect for members of other cultures are encouraged (Harvey & Allard, 2015). The main issue is the quality of work experience rather than the mere presence of minority or female representatives in certain positions.
It goes without saying that cultural differences stimulate innovation and improve the practical results of companies. Several studies have confirmed that the results of organizations that include cultural diversity and inclusiveness in their activities are superior to those of their competitors (Sabharwal, 2014). It is equally important to understand that not all employees of different backgrounds receive sufficient support and resources that promote career growth. Therefore, it is essential to actively encourage leaders to use opportunities that they may not know about.
Two research questions were formulated to account for the mixed methods nature of the research. While the first question is concerned with the qualitative perspective of the study and accounts for the interview method, the second question will be quantitative and account for the survey method of data collection. Based on the above problem identification and significance of the study, the following questions may be formulated to address the problem of workplace diversity in marketing companies located in Memphis, Tennessee:
- Research Question 1. What are the vulnerable groups’ experiences and expectations regarding workplace diversity in marketing companies and what potential solutions to the problem do they offer?
- Research Question 2. What is the connection between negative/positive attitudes toward diverse workers and their experiences working in marketing companies?
The identified research questions will be answered in the course of data analysis, and the subsequent recommendations will be provided as appropriate.
It is possible to hypothesize that the study will reveal significant drawbacks regarding the current organization of workplace diversity in marketing companies located in Memphis, Tennessee. Null hypothesis: there is no correlation between the attitudes of workers toward diverse employees who work in an environment of marketing companies and their experiences. Hypothesis: there is a positive correlation between the attitudes toward diverse employees and their experiences. The better they are treated, the more beneficial their experiences will be. Alternative hypothesis: there is a negative correlation between the treatment of diverse employees and their experiences working in marketing companies.
Brief Review of the Literature
This section of the dissertation aims at providing a brief literature review in order to specify the stated problem, research area, contribution to the literature, and the context of the issue under consideration. In addition, the studies related to diversity management in the United States organizations will be situated within the research area and aligned with the problem to be considered. Ultimately, any gaps existing in the recent literature will be revealed and discussed as appropriate.
Characteristic of the Research Area and Problem
A wide spectrum of researchers explores diversity management opportunities and challenges in the context of the United States. While this concept presents a complex and multifaceted phenomenon, it is largely associated with culture and plurality. However, there is a gap in studies in terms of evaluating diversity practices in the marketing sphere. The evidence shows that the mentioned country was founded by many immigrants and Native Americans, yet multicultural reporting occurred only recently (Klarsfeld, Ng, Booysen, Christiansen, & Kuvaas, 2016). It should be emphasized, in this regard, that not only culture but also disability, gender identification, and other peculiar features compose the meaning of diversity. Having traced the history and the current state of affairs in the United States, a scholar may confidently claim that the demographic distribution of labor is unequal. In particular, the latest estimates illustrate that approximately 80 percent of the labor force is taken by the White population, while African-Americans and Asians constitute 12 and 6 percent respectively (Klarsfeld et al., 2016). Such a situation contributes to the emergence of work-related conflicts based on the underrepresentation of one or another culture or ethnicity.
Elaborating on the fact that the underrepresentation of minorities in the workplace, and in the marketing sphere, in particular, is critical in the United States, it is important to note that ethnic distribution of employees across America is disproportionate since women and minorities turn out to be the most vulnerable populations in this context. Klarsfeld et al. (2016) stressed that executive positions are especially difficult to achieve for the mentioned groups. If women hold more than 58 percent of all labor positions, they merely comprise 14.1 positions associated with an executive level, as reported by Klarsfeld et al. (2016). In their turn, Healy and Oikelome (2017) examined racial inequality and discovered that there is considerable reliance on the workforce provided by immigrants due to its capability to perform heavy work for a relatively low remuneration. The above data clarifies the research area and points to the challenges that require further resolution.
The issue of controlling diversity management in marketing companies should also be discussed as the one that is particularly pertinent to the research problem. The commixture of cultures in the workplace frequently makes it difficult to find a common platform (Harvey & Allard, 2015). While the whole bulk of opinions, attitudes, and perceptions of people with various backgrounds seem to promote greater business development, it also causes biases, frustration, and conflicts. In this connection, communication may be regarded as the key stumbling block that causes conflicts based on authority, autonomy, and other issues, the pursuit of which may be less or more significant for a person, depending on his or her culture (Harvey & Allard, 2015). It should be pointed out that as a result, harassment, bullying, as well as discrimination occur in response to a lack of relevant diversity management.
Contribution of the Study to the Literature
The present study will contribute to the existing literature by adding more valuable information to the theory of diversity management. It is expected that the elaborated literature review and the analysis of the Unites States’ organizations will allow for formulating credible recommendations that may be considered by other scholars. As stated by Harvey and Allard (2015), the contemporary literature fails to meet the needs of managers and CEOs who work in diverse organizations, thus leaving them without effective strategies and tools to adjust to the changing environments. Therefore, this study will benefit the literature by offering a new perspective on the research topic.
The results of the given study will generate new ideas and drawbacks that may be observed in diverse workplaces. In turn, it will allow for scrutinizing the available literature and aligning it with the newly acquired data (Healy & Oikelome, 2017). In other words, it is expected to enrich the current literature as well as pinpoint further needs of organizations and employees that should be considered in the light of diversity management. The theoretical findings that will be obtained in the course of the present study will also be useful for scholars as to the basis for their research efforts.
Contribution to the Context of the Problem
The context of diversity is composed of corporate culture, which forms integrity and provides valuable unity of employees and employers. At the same time, there is a harmonization of human interests and those of an organization as well as their mutual stimulation (Hajro, Gibson, & Pudelko, 2017). On the one hand, an employee translates his or her personal values in the external environment, thereby enriching the existing culture of an organization. On the other hand, a person internalizes existing values and norms and becomes the bearer and distributor of the culture that emerged at the time of his or her appearance in an organization. In the context of Tennessee marketing companies, the research will be especially beneficial because there is a lack of studies that explored this specific setting.
While exploring the context of the problem, it is also critical to pay attention to the concept of corporate culture. It becomes an important element for an organization capable of ensuring the cohesion of the management team and the collective as a whole, contributing to the implementation of the strategic goals as well as being a system-forming factor in creating a unified space with significant potential (Hajro et al., 2017). The main contribution of this study to the context of the problem is associated with the enrichment of the latter through an in-depth understanding, particularly given the narrow focus of the study. The findings and recommendations provided by the study would be essential for managers who work with employees with different backgrounds (Hajro et al., 2017). Thus, the practical contribution of the given research would be the potential improvement of diversity strategies and approaches used by managers working in the marketing industry in Memphis.
Similar and Related Studies
The management of diversity acquires special significance in the context of globalization and the internationalization of business. The increasing diversity of staffing, inclusion of migrants, mobility of employees, and the involvement of skilled professionals from different countries with professional qualifications determine the relevance of diversity management as a solution to conflict prevention (Hajro et al., 2017). It is noteworthy that diversity is not an obstacle to the organization of workplaces as it gives organizations vast advantages. The consideration of diversity in the context of related studies such as change management and talent development allows understanding these benefits deeper.
This study relates to others as it emphasizes the integration problem regarding representatives of individual cultures that is now particularly relevant. Diversity management is of special importance for companies that try to implement most of the positive aspects of globalization. Another important source of talented and hard-working employees is the involvement of all categories of the population in the work. Likewise, in other related studies, one pinpoint the role of proper relationships and communication in the workplace (Healy & Oikelome, 2017; Hajro et al., 2017). Consequently, the existing literature is related to the problem being researched.
A gap in the Literature
In spite of the studies that prove the important role of diversity management, some gaps may still be noted. It becomes evident that significant efforts were made towards equality; however, still much should be done to ensure proper diverse attitudes at workplaces. In particular, companies that work in conservative and stable directions do not eagerly adopt similar ideas. At the same time, as experts argued, diversity is practiced more in large international companies, while smaller firms prefer not to follow diversity principles (Healy & Oikelome, 2017; Hajro et al., 2017). In addition to this, there have not been any studies that focused on workplace diversity in Memphis marketing companies, and the current research can address this issue. Therefore, additional research is required to eliminate these gaps.
It should be clarified that each of the mentioned below factors was obtained from the available scholarly literature. In combination, they lead to the problem of poor diversity management in the workplace that may cause even worse consequences. This part of the dissertation will focus on the creation of the conceptual framework by aligning all three factors and situating them in the context of marketing companies in Memphis, Tennessee.
Factor 1. Employees meshing beliefs, attitudes, and work-related practices, resulting in conflicts. Grounded theory supported the exploration of this factor through finding evidence from qualitative and quantitative data and synthesizing it for analysis. Companies whose employees or managers are biased toward diverse may not be effective enough in targeting their marketing efforts to the diverse population of the United States on a broad scale and Tennessee as a narrow scale. Since the ideas of diversity and inclusivity that have gained massive coverage in political and social affairs are now of high importance, the inability of companies to align with their target audiences presents a problem. The argument aligns with grounded theory, which is a systematic methodology primarily used in qualitative research; however, quantitative research may also benefit from this theory (Engel & Schutt, 2014). Grounded theory is an exploratory method that includes several components such as theoretical sampling, coding, and the writing of methods. Within the approach, theoretical sampling requires researchers to provide insights gained as a result of data collection and analysis. Within the context of data analysis, scholars use various coding ways for the purpose of developing new ideas that initially appear in codes and later in specific categories for research
Factor 2. Managers lack proper understanding and equipment to handle such situations. This factor needed special support from a theoretical framework due to the need to look for specific social patterns explaining why some managers did not have the appropriate understanding of handling conflict situations with diverse workers. As a result of applying grounded theory, a form of sociological theory is obtained, which is created gradually on the basis of careful naturalistic observation of the chosen social phenomenon. The theory obtained is deeply rooted in the data, both qualitative and quantitative (Engel & Schutt, 2014). Researchers that use grounded theory to help with the formulation of a study method can apply any type of data needed, for instance, images, observations, texts, videos, spoken word, and so on. The goal of the grounded theory is to construct a theory of a phenomenon, but not to falsify it; at the same time, a number of procedures for the validation of the theory are used. The task of a well-founded theory is to build a theory, maximizing it based on the mentioned factors and data to be obtained.
Factor 3. Insufficient theoretical background to support the problem elimination. It should be mentioned that problem elimination was only possible by studying the adverse impact of diversity-associated issues in the workplace. The conceptual framework for the study was developed on the basis of the synthesis of available evidence suggesting that diversity in the workplace harms both professional and personal relationships within organizations because of the differences in perceptions, values, and communication patterns (Birks & Mills, 2015).
As sexual and ethnic minorities were found as the most vulnerable populations to be mistreated in the workplace, the study claims that the marketing industry lacks representation from these populations. Grounded theory as a research tool enables scholars to seek out various social patterns, in this case, attitudes toward diverse employees, and structure newly-found data through continuous comparisons. In the beginning, a researcher implements an inductive approach for generating substantive codes from gathered data. Then, a theory is developed to identify the next steps for data collection and which specific questions should be asked. This stage refers to the deductive phase in the process of grounded theory application. The main issue with grounded theory lies in the fact that without collecting and analyzing data, the researcher may not be completely certain of what they are going to study specifically.
The grounded theory strategy is divided into three different types, each providing its own procedure and different principles. Originating as a result of cooperation between Glaser and Strauss in 1967, it was then divided and, at the moment, it includes the system design of Strauss and Corbin, who ascended and developed the design (Birks & Mills, 2015). In this paper, attention is paid to the description of system design as it contains the most rigorous and structured procedural recommendations for conducting research based on the grounded theory strategy. According to Engel and Schutt (2014), such rigor is provided, first of all, due to the need for orientation to the paradigmatic model, which is a sequence of the following elements: causal conditions, problem, context, intermediate conditions, interaction strategies, and implications.
Speaking of the integration of the stated factors through the grounded theory as the conceptual framework, one should stress that it is inductively derived from the study of the phenomenon that it represents (Birks & Mills, 2015). In other words, it is created, developed, and verified in different conditions by the systematic collection and analysis of data relevant to the phenomenon being studied. Thus, analysis and theory are in mutual relation to each other in the given field of research, and everything that has to do with this area would support the study arguments (Creswell & Creswell, 2017). Such a definition may also be met in other works devoted to the features of constructing a valid theory (Birks & Mills, 2015). At the same time, if one considers the specifics of the research strategy itself, the following definition will be more appropriate: the research method that uses a systematic series of procedures for the development of an inductively derived grounded theory of a phenomenon.
There are four requirements that should be followed to ensure the provision of a well-designed study: relevance, understanding, generalization, and control (Creswell & Creswell, 2017). Scientific relevance is an important component because it implies filling a gap in the existing research literature. Enhancing relevance is possible by aligning the initial research question, hypothesis motivation, and study implications. Understanding is linked to the process of scientific discovery and getting to know how the research was designed, conducted, and disseminated. Generalization entails looking at the bigger picture despite using only a section of the population for testing a hypothesis. Lastly, control in scientific research is associated with having an experiment (or observation) created for the purpose of reducing the impact of dependent variables to increase results’ reliability.
It is expected that the utilization of the grounded theory will allow for sticking to the set design and using it as guidance. The selection of the mentioned theory may also be justified by its advantages, including the fact that it is not necessary to have extensive knowledge and experience about the analyzed social phenomenon, which eliminates stereotypes and frames of thinking. In addition, this theory allows for an early stage of the study to conduct a primary analysis, being systematic and detailed (Creswell & Creswell, 2017). It provides the opportunity to continue further analysis when new data appears and not re-start the analysis.
Assumptions, Limitations, and Delimitations
Reviewing the miniature literature review and the conceptual framework identified above, a researcher may suggest that the issue of diversity management challenges and opportunities in the United States context will be properly explored. Presumably, it will be discovered that employees and managers in marketing companies are in need of comprehensive approaches to prevent workplace conflicts. The participants of the study are anticipated to answer honestly and fully. The data analysis will be performed in a candid manner, and an extensive discussion will be provided to align quantitative and qualitative data to interpret it and provide reliable recommendations that managers may apply in practice. Most importantly, it is expected that all research questions will be addressed as appropriate.
The limitations of the present study refer to those factors that cannot be controlled by a researcher. First, unknown conditions related to the workplace of participants may affect their answers and lead to bias. Some situations and events that are unidentified by the study may occur, thus impacting its outcomes and data analysis. Second, one more factor that cannot be regulated is associated with the generalization levels. Since the study will cover only several marketing organizations, its findings cannot be fully generalized to other companies. Nevertheless, some recommendations may still be useful to others within the United States. As it can be observed from the above sections, the study will also be limited to the mentioned country representatives.
On the contrary to limitations, delimitations are those factors that can be monitored and adjusted by a researcher. The main delimitation to the given study may be defined as the participant exclusion criteria, which may be controlled while determining the target population. In other words, the boundaries of this population will be specified by a researcher. Second, objectives and research questions also compose the category of delimitations as these elements can be controlled, and they are usually set at the beginning of the study. Data collection and analysis methods may also be mentioned in terms of delimitations.
Definition of Terms
- Diversity management. It is the recognition and acceptance of individual differences at workplaces, including culture, gender identification, race, ethnicity, age (Barak, 2016). Activities that improve diversity management in the workplace include education, teamwork-enhancing activities, the promotion of acceptance to the representatives of racial, cultural, gender, economic, religious, and other types of backgrounds.
- Conflict management. It refers to a combination of efforts targeted at mitigating and reducing the adverse impact of a misunderstanding (Thakore, 2013). Conflict management depends on the nature of a situation and can also change from one individual to another.
- Leadership. This concept has always been hard to define because of the different approaches that scholars had. In most contexts, leadership is the ability of an individual to “share a vision which gives point to the work of other people” (Silva, 2016, p. 2). Thus, it relies heavily on the way leaders interact with their followers.
- Globalization. It is a process of uniting or convergence of economic, social, and cultural norms as well as habits and principles in countries where the economy and society had pronounced national features (Klarsfeld, Booysen, Christiansen, & Kuvaas, 2016). Among the key signs of globalization, there are single labor markets, information systems, and the universalization of cultures.
This section introduced the study, focusing on its basic elements. In particular, the background of the problem and problem statement was clarified based on the available scholarly literature published within the last years. The purpose of the study was determined, and its significance was identified paying attention to the context of the research problem and the evidence reflecting the role of diversity management in workplaces. Furthermore, research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and compare the findings with the assumptions set initially. The miniature literature review allowed for specifying the area of research, the contribution to the literature, and the role of this study related to practice. The conceptual framework was properly elaborated to align the elements of the study and discuss them in combination. Ultimately, assumptions, limitations, delimitations, and definitions were provided in order to introduce readers to this research and clarify its key points.
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Statistical Atlas. (2018). Race and ethnicity in Memphis, Tennessee. Web.
Thakore, D. (2013). Conflict and conflict management. Journal of Business and Management, 8(6), 7-16.
Appendix A: Tables
Table A1. This is an Example APA Table in Appendix A and Uses the APA Table Title Style.
|Category||Very Important |
Notes. The values denoted by an asterisk (*) are important because they have a particular quality.