Human Resource Management Stages and Recruitment Approaches


The term human resource management means the process of recruiting, hiring, deploying, and management of a firm’s staff members. HRM is commonly referred to as human resource (HR) and it creates, puts, into effect the policies that govern the employees and the relationship people have with a given organization. HRM has three core stages, which include acquisition, development, and termination.In a firm, people can be recruited either internally or externally depending on what a company wants. Internal recruitment involves hiring people in positions when they already work for the same company.

External recruitment means that a business will fill vacancies with qualified personnel from outside the company. When external recruitment is done, it means fresh concepts and innovations may be brought in the organization. For internal recruitment, the main advantage is that the employees do not need to be trained about aspects such as culture of an organization and other inside metrics within an organization. Therefore, a company may consider either way when recruiting people. The purpose of this paper is to explore the core stages of the recruitment process in organizations. The paper will also discuss the main advantages and disadvantages of both internal and external recruitment approaches.

Acquisition/Pre-Hiring Human Resource Management Phase

The acquisition also known as the pre-hiring stage refers to the recruitment phase. At this stage, the managers usually undertake their recruitment functions by determining which vacancies shall be filled and who should be hired to have the gap covered (DeCenzo, Robbins, and Verhulst, 2016). Therefore, it means that HR personnel will develop a comprehensive detail on the job offers so that they can attract potential employees through advertisement and other means of awareness (Arvantis, Seliger, and Stucki, 2016). During this stage, it is important to consider various factors such as the requirements for the job and also the number of employees needed among other metrics.

Acquisition is concerned with sustaining stable workforce rates during the challenges which can lower undesired employment costs or liabilities. That means employees’ morale is boosted in case of issues such as lay-offs (Armstrong, 2020).. Secondly, the pre-hiring process prevents possible staff turnovers especially for the young employees who may be looking for many chances (Arvantis, Seliger, and Stucki, 2016). Additionally, acquisition reduces the problems that are linked with the replacement of critical decision-makers in case of any unexpected gap. Lastly, it makes it feasible for a financial resource team of experts who can efficiently deal with a firm’s budgets.

Development Phase

This phase is also referred to as the training phase in HRM. It involves the induction of new workers into a company’s environment and nurturing them through training and other development-oriented metrics. Orientation in this case serves as the introduction stage that opens eyes for the new staff concerning their new positions (Banfield, Kay, and Royles, 2018). During the development stage, individuals are taught to abide by the company’s terms and conditions for the success of teamwork. External compliance matters are also taught by the management especially where there are issues of competitive marketing.

For example, a sales and marketing company will teach its new staff how to advertise their products by targeting to weaken the rival firms by developing new items in the market (Petersen, 2019). The training phase involves asking questions seeking clarification and raising concerns over the new designation.

In the development stage, HRM ensures that performance appraisals are conducted on well as one way of pushing for the desired goals and results. When employees get feedback about their working capability, it empowers them to improve and maintain the required standards during working sessions (Christensen et al, 2017). The HR at this stage must ensure that equality is maintained by calling for fair and credible processes to ascertain the progress of the work. For instance, a company should not appraise employees when they are undergoing a transition into a new process within the company as that may take time to perfect work.

Post-Hire Phase in Human Resource Management

This stage comes after an employee has settled in their working positions in a given company. The HRM is like a link to the staff and the executive management as disputes are effectively settled before they escalate further (Arvantis, Seliger, and Stucki, 2016). This stage has HRM as the main advisers to the management on how and what the employees should be dealt with depending on the level of the transaction. It is also important to acknowledge that it is under this stage where employees are appropriately maintained through remuneration.

Termination during this stage does not mean only those who get fired for gross misconduct. It also includes the employees who wish to part their ways with the company under mutual consent (Stewart and Brown, 2019).. For example, a person may want to resign to pursue other obligations either professionally or for personal growth. other employees wait for their contractual agreements to end and they express their desire to quit an organization (Czaplicka-Kozłowska, 2021). Therefore, HRM is responsible to make the people leave the firm amicably without negative attitudes. For example, HRM may decide to engage the person and know what problem might have catalyzed them to look for other ventures. When HR learns of any possible challenge, it can be combatted using the right metrics within an organization.

The HR professionals responsible for managing these phases usually undergo an exemplary experience that drives them to have a notable career. For example, when a person works in this department, they come across many observations that are of importance towards their work (Smith, 2021). HRM needs to be comprised of different personnel who have ventured into the relevant managerial position.

Advantages of Internal Recruitment Approaches in an Organization

With the arrangements that the HR department makes concerning internal recruitment, it reduces time to hire. This is because at this provision the managers do not need to explore many aspects from news people as they understand clearly, what the internal group can offer. Being familiar with a company’s working environment and metrics makes it easier for the HR group to pinpoint specific changes that can improve employees’ productivity (Smith, 2021). With the internal recruitment in place, there is a reduction of onboarding times since the employees already know what happens in terms of payment, working requirements, and other aspects within the organization.

Internal recruitment is cost-friendly since it saves money that could be used to arrange some activities during training of staff and hiring the managers. The additional value under this matter is that the HR department can be able to ascertain the working capacity for the required group. A company seeking to hire team leaders in a marketing, it will have details of people who can suitably work thereby checking the track records and also the performance appraisals (Petersen, 2019). Therefore, internal recruitment is flexible to choose from within an organization. Other key advantages include strengthening of employee engagement and also equality among the members of staff.

Main Disadvantages

Hiring within an organization can create collisions within employees. It is difficult to embrace a new boss when one was used to interacting with them when they were at their junior level (Czaplicka-Kozłowska, 2021). For example, a person working as an office secretary can be given a department to lead whereby, those who used to send them to start feeling the pinch of reporting to the new office. The other disadvantage is that internal recruitment approaches may leave gaps in the existing workforce as people will leave their roles to fill the new vacancy (Stewart and Brown, 2019). Furthermore, recruiting within an organization may limit HR departments who may require specific skills which may not be present at the time of hiring.

When a company recruits recruit within the internal workforce, it may result in inflexible culture. The reason is that workers may fail to have the change institutionalization because there are no new people who are given the role to play for that matter. The inflexible culture nay bot brings the required results within an organization due to the conflict that may result as work goes on in the company (Smith, 2021). For example, newly-promoted front office personnel may have new methods of leading the other receptionists in a hotel and thus, the other members start feeling like the person is distorting culture which existed from before.

Advantages of External Recruitment in an Organization

External recruitment makes it feasible for the HR office to look for candidates from a pool of professionals who have diverse qualifications. Therefore, it may be possible to have a successful application that is comprised of the most experienced and qualified personnel (Guest, 2017). For example, when a company is looking to hire a software developer, the HR department can research the effectiveness for each applicant by exploring the existing software’s capability in the market. Therefore, it means among many applicants, only candidates with reputable software development experience will be chosen.

It is important to note that external recruitment leads to adding new skills and fresh perspectives to the team. Therefore, areas of improvement can be identified and perfected depending on the desired outcome of the issue (Guest, 2017). Also, an external recruitment approach enhances diversity within a team. For example, if a company selects different individuals with vast experience and qualifications to work in the guest relations office, the new personnel can bring innovation and effective methodologies. Other advantages include the realization of specialized candidates and staying competitive within a given market.

Main Disadvantages

Opposed to internal recruitment, hiring people from outside the company increases costs. For example, a banking firm may have to rent an office to train new employees before sending them to work in various branches in a given region. Also, recruiting by external approach may involve online channels and agencies that may charge to offer qualified personnel (Guest, 2017). The other disadvantage is that external recruitment requires additional training that may take time to implement. When there is allocation of resources for training, including time, productivity can be affected. Therefore, it becomes a disadvantage to hiring from outside the company. A company should be able to gauge the most necessary approach when undertaking selection and recruitment.

When a company hires externally, there is a transition that is required for all employees. Therefore, during the period, the members of staff may not deliver their core duties hence, affecting a company’s goals and objectives. For example, new accounts managers may need to have enough time to familiarize themselves with the company’s financial processes (DeCenzo, Robbins, and Verhulst, 2016). It means during the transitioning time, there is a risk of monetary losses due to the incompetency that may be provisional for the new group. Other disadvantages include low employee morale due to the challenges of working with new members of a team.


The core stages of HRM are acquisition, development, and termination. These stages are undertaken gradually by the HR team to ensure that a working environment is not adversely affected. Internal recruitment ensures that money is not wasted on training as the staff may be aware of what to do from experience. However, recruiting within an organization may have limitations of skills and also may bring collisions. External recruitment provides advanced expertise power and brings new methods to a company. The disadvantage of this approach is that it is costly and may affect a company’s productivity levels.

Human resource management might be effective if it consists of individuals who may have the same ability or are affiliated with a certain specialization. For example, the post-hiring phase requires managers who are neutral not to make random and harmful decisions to their employees. Therefore, the three phases of human resource management complement each other effectively since they are orderly and well established to meet all the distinct desires. HR professionals need to incorporate these stages while at work. Appraisals during internal approach should be conducted an individual has been subjected to thorough training and practice. Thus, it leads to equality during the stages if hiring in organizations.

Reference List

Armstrong, M., 2020. Human Resource Management Practice. Dublin: Kogan Page Limited.

Arvanitis, S., Seliger, F. and Stucki, T. 2016. The relative importance of human resource management practices for innovation. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 25(8), pp.769-800.

Banfield, P., Kay, R. and Royles, D., 2018. Introduction to Human Resource management. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Christensen, T., Riis, A.H., Hatch, E., Wise, L., Nielsen, M., Rothman, K., Sørensen, H. and Mikkelsen, E., 2017. Costs and efficiency of online and offline recruitment methods: a web-based cohort study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 19(3), pp.67-76.

Czaplicka-Kozłowska, I., 2021. Student opinions of the efficacy of select methods of external recruitment with special focus on online methods. European Research Studies, 24 (7), pp.171-184.

DeCenzo, A., Robbins, P. and Verhulst, L., 2016. Fundamentals Of Human Resource Management. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Guest, D., 2017. Human resource management and employee well‐being: towards a new analytic framework. Human Resource Management Journal, 27(1), pp.22-38.

Petersen, L., 2019. Advantages and disadvantages of internal recruitment. Web.

Smith, A., 2021. Advantages & disadvantages of internal recruitment. Web.

Stewart, G. and Brown, G., 2019. Human Resource Management. London: John Wiley & Sons.

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