Industrial Psychology: Leadership and Work Performance

Introduction

Regardless of the type of organization, good leadership is one of the primary determinants of the success of such organization. This is because; good leadership has both long term and short term impacts that are beneficial to an organization not only in good economic times, but also during times of economic turmoil; such times being inevitable in any organizational setting. In addition, use of an appropriate leadership orientation not only ensures that an organization meets its short and long term goals, but also a good leadership orientation is one primary factor, which determines employees’ satisfaction and quality work performance.

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It is important to note that, the success and viability of any organization, regardless of its size, type of business or service it offers or its area of specialization depends on the nature of workers that organization has. That is, work output depends on the levels of motivation in workers, which goes hand in hand with the level of specialization. To achieve such required motivational and competence levels in workers, an organization’s bosses must adopt good leadership skills, essential for managing workers. Use of bad leadership skills can lead to heightened tension between workers and bosses, which unless controlled can lead to many work unrests and boycotts; hence, negatively affecting work performance and output (Jago, pp. 316-330).

Good leadership involves making a difference in every aspect of organizational running, regardless of the prevailing conditions. That is, the entire process involves setting achievable targets, organizing and guiding employees as required, while bearing in mind that, the success of an organization in meeting its targets depends primarily on the bosses’ ability to lead and guide workers in the desired direction.

Therefore, for bosses to achieve this they must conform to specific ethical standards and values that are crucial for the smooth running of an organization. It is important to note that, at all times bosses should be great inspiration to workers they are leading; hence, the need for them to develop in workers desired levels of hard work and the teamwork spirit. This is because; teamwork is one primary contributor to an organization’s cohesiveness and coherence; a factor that is important in influencing employees’ dedication levels towards goal achievement (Northouse p.3).

Bosses should have some inherent leadership characteristics, although from time to time, individuals must upgrade their management skills through seeking more knowledge as they interact daily with workers and endeavor to understand them. It is necessary to note that, failure to understand employees’ needs and always formulating of appropriate mechanisms of dealing with organizational needs can stagnate the smooth running of an organization. In addition, such failures can limit an organization’s scope of achievement, which is very detrimental to the smooth running of such organizations. This paper will discuss the importance of good bosses and effects of workers attitudes on the general work output organization.

Organizational Leadership

The absence of a good leadership methodology is one of the primary contributing factors to organizational failure. This is because; poor leadership abilities can make an organization loose business direction. This is because; although individuals may have the ability of making good decisions, what will be the use of such good decisions with poor implementation techniques or lack of appropriate implementation methodologies. For organization to achieve its goals, it is crucial for managers, who are bosses to make sure that, in addition to formulating good decisions, they have to ensure they too formulate good and effective implementation strategies.

It is important to note that, such strategies at all times depend on the available labor, whose level of work performance depends on their motivation levels and attitudes towards whoever is leading them. It is crucial to note also that although in most cases, such attitudes are inherent in individuals; bosses have the power to alter them. The power or ability to alter such attitudes depends on how much a boss is dedicated to eliminating differences or problems, which may exist between them and whomever they are serving; something that is only achievable through adoption of good leadership methodologies (Mills, pp. 2-3).

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Importance of Good Bosses

Good bosses are primary contributors to an organization’s improved performance. For bosses to deliver quality results, which primarily depends of their personal traits, values, ethics, ideas, it is important for such leaders to remember that, although the organizational goals take precedence, it is important for such leaders to ensure they adopt good employee management skills. Such management skills are important elements in the management undertaking, for they help in winning the employees hearts and confidence.

Through winning the employees’ confidence, bosses acquire more “manipulation” and control over employees activities. To win the employees confidence, good bosses effect employees’ skill improvement activities and trainings, something that not only benefits an individual, but also the entire organization. In addition, to some extent winning of employees’ confidence can be a motivating factor to the employees themselves owing to the fact that, they will feel cared for and wanted in such an organization.

Hence, through this, most employees will always struggle to make their bosses happy and appreciative through hard work and quality result delivery. On the other hand, it is important to note that, if by any means employees lack trust and confidence in their leaders, likelihoods of revolts are high hence, the need for bosses to integrate appropriate employee management skills, as they endeavor to achieve organizational goals, while respecting workers’ rights (Simonton, pp. 6-17).

To be a god boss means that, one has to poses good employee motivational skills, skills that are crucial for any adopted leadership orientation to succeed. In addition to employee motivation, communication within an organizational setting is another major contributor to success of any adopted leadership methodology. This is because; through adoption of a good communication mechanism, a boss can be able to give orders, whose execution depends on the nature of relationship that such bosses have with their employees.

It is necessary to note that, the nature of relationship or work ties that will exist between worker and their bosses depends on the communication methodologies adopted by bosses; them being primary builders of healthy or bad relationships between themselves, their subordinates, and other junior workers in an organization. On the other hand, regardless of the situation, the achievement of organizational goals depend on effective implementation and setting of appropriate goals, which employees must achieve within specific durations of time, using resources available in an organization’s.

It is always very illogical for bosses to ‘misuse” workers’ expertise and capability in an environment that lacks adequate resources, for meeting certain organizational goals. In most cases such misuses can cause unrests in an organization hence, the need for bosses top respect workers’ rights, for it is an important prerequisite to organizational development and goal achievement. Although many may argue that, bosses react differently depending on the matter and hand and the nature of problems at hand, it is crucial to note that, good bosses have appropriate problem solving mechanisms.

Such mechanisms at all times ensure they maintain healthy relationships between themselves and their followers primarily because, in any work-setting occurrence of many conflicting issues is a common phenomenon. Hence to ensure an organization workers maintain a peaceful working environment, good bosses always have appropriate mechanisms of maintaining such relationships, due to their importance in the well-being of an organization (Madison, pp. 609-611).

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On the other hand, good bosses are primary contributors to the development of employees’ abilities. That is, good bosses can help employees to transform their abilities into performance. Whereby, in ascertaining the impacts of such transformations, although individuals will gain more, primary benefits from this process go directly to organizations, due to the commitment such bosses will create in employees. It is important to note that, in all organizations, creating confidence in employees is one of the primary functions of leaders.

This is because; depending on the leadership style they adopt, they can either help employees to recognize their inherent performance qualities or capacities or not. On the other hand, it is important to note that, majority of employees who always admire their bosses, will always struggle, using all means possible, for them to receive identification with their bosses. Hence, through such identifications, most employees acquire the required working security, which largely is a primary contributor to enhanced work performance (Simonton, pp. 35-78).

Good bosses are sources of vision for an organization whereby, achievement of such visions depends on the leadership methodologies they adopt. Through appropriate leadership abilities, bosses are able to command their followers hence, providing a sense of direction in an organization. In addition, to achieve a sense of direction from time to time bosses must make timey decisions, whose achievement depends on the ability of a leader to act as an example to the rest of the employees. Through acting as an example, in most organizational setting, such leaders will not only motivate employees, but also they will act as role models to employees. Therefore, through such role modeling roles played by good bosses, chances of an organization failing in its quest to achieve desirable results are minimal; hence, the importance of a good bosses (Bass, pp. 19-31).

Apart form good leaders being good sources of vision, in most business scenarios good leaders are sources of good relationships in an organization. Good relations depends on the communication methodologies adopted by bosses, which further depend on the leaders’ abilities to work and accommodate diverse views of all workers, regardless of their inherent differences. Apart from appropriate communication methodologies, good relationships also depend on the roles’ tasks.

Depending on the working patterns, whether individuals perform tasks alone or in a group, a good boss will always develop good interaction mechanisms, which are necessary in establishing such relationships. Good relationships are important components for organizational success, because such relationships afford employees opportunities of interacting and sharing innovative ideas. On the other hand, depending on the leadership orientation adopted by bosses, such bosses can either promote such relationships or destroy them hence, the need for good bosses, for they are advocates of healthy relationships (Davis and Newstrom, pp. 45-63).

Change in an organization is inevitable, whether it is the right time for an organization to undergo transformation or not. Hence, depending of the prevailing conditions, good bosses are primary agent s of ensuring that any effected changes in an organization’s general running achieve their mandate. The acceptance of such changes by all employees, primarily depend on their bosses’ ability to convince them that such changes are inevitable, failure of which can lead to many adverse effects not only to the smooth running of a business, but also to the general management of employees affairs.

Hence, to ensure that, all employees accept such changes, and adjust themselves for them to accommodate them in their daily working, there is need for good bosses, with the desirable management abilities. Such abilities are necessary in ensuring an organization goes through all the economic, social, and political turmoil, which can affect an organization in one way or another (Robinson, p.1). Such benefits of good leadership and importance of bosses as main agents of change were prevalent during the recent economic crisis, which hit many organizations hence, paralyzing their smooth running, leading to closure of some organizations.

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Relationship between Employees’ Attitudes towards Leaders and Work Performance

In any organizational setting, bosses primarily determine the general working condition of employees, who are the major contributors to an organization’s success. Bosses set the working standards, determine whether an organization will have skill enhancement trainings for its employees, and above all, they are the main determinant of the remuneration packages awarded to employees.

Hence, considering all this generally, organizations’ supervisors both directly and indirectly play a primary role, when it comes to an organization’s success, for they bridge the gap between top organs and employees. It is important to note that, provision of all this depend on the leadership orientation adopted by supervisors hence, the necessity of correct leadership methodologies. This is because; such leadership methodologies are primary determinant of an organization’s ability, when it comes to meeting not only its set goals, but also its employees needs; within set ethical and working standards.

The happiness of employees should be a concept that managements must achieve. Failure to achieve this means that, likelihoods of unrests and work boycotts are high. In addition, it is important to note that, depending on how supervisors treat their subordinates and other junior workers, in most mistreatment cases most workers develop negative attitudes towards such supervisors, a fact that affects production directly due to de-motivation of workers (Carey, p.1).

Because supervisors have a stake in the determination of the overall working conditions or environments, their leadership orientation can also result to different attitudes in employees, whose impacts on the general achievements of an organization varies. For example, if workers reject the leadership methodology of their supervisor, they are likely to revolt by organizing strikes. Such strikes or organizational unrests have adverse effects not only on the running of an organization, but also on the general work output of an organization. Most bad employee –employer relationships occur in form bad policies or negligence of employees’ needs; something that results to frustration and employees’ lack of self-worth or esteem.

As Simonton (pp. 4-12) argues, to frustrate employees’ efforts is like sacrificing all the organizational goals or to run an organization with no vision and direction, a factor that is the primary contributor to organizational failure. In addition, unless bosses put in place measures to control effects resulting from such bad relationships, many lead to many losses in an organization. Some of the losses can be huge to an extent that, an organization closes down, because of lack of required capital to support its smooth running. For example, in most unrest scenarios, many costly court cases accompany employees’ strikes, and incase an employees win such cases, then an organization has to suffer many losses in terms of compensations.

In addition to such tangible monetary losses, in cases where employees have developed negative attitudes towards there supervisors, likelihoods of work quality dropping are high. This is because; due to reduced levels of motivation in workers, most of them will lack the interest of ensuring the organization shines in all its sectors hence, will put little effort in their daily chores and assignments.

In addition, due to lack of interest in work resulting from the negative attitudes developed by such workers, in most cases the levels of innovation reduces. Such reduction in employees’ innovations correlates directly with the work output, because of reduced efforts to formulate better and effective production or working methodologies. It is important to note that, there is a direct relationship between employees’ attitudes towards a specific supervisor and the nature of response employees will give such a boss. In most working scenarios, most workers will always aim to fail oppressive supervisors.

Although in most organizational settings most authoritative leaders, will employ all means at there disposal to rule workers, it is crucial for all supervisors to note that, they are single individuals, giving directions to a cohort of workers. Whereby, in most of such cases, workers tend to group themselves and come up with a single remedy to topple such a supervisor from power. Owing to the fact that, most workers’ revolts take no consideration of the effects of their actions to an organization’s production and work output, in most cases it is an organization that suffers the brunt of such unrests hence, the need for good supervision (Carey, p.1).

Apart from reduced innovation in work and reduced level of performance, development of negative attitudes towards a supervisor can lead to cases of absenteeism, with lame excuses. This is a practice adopted by many workers in their quest to pin down efforts by supervisors in ensuring that their departments shine. Work performance goes hand in hand with motivational levels; however, because of poor supervisory mechanisms that some leaders may adopt, workers may opt to fake sickness or give other forms of excuses, which will give them a chance of avoiding such supervisors. It is crucial to note that, failure by most supervisors to recognize what is exactly happening and adjust there leadership strategies, can have adverse effects on an organization’s production and the general output (Judge and Saari, pp.399-400).

Contrary to what in cases where workers have developed negative attitudes towards their supervisors, the case is very different in cases where workers develop a positive attitude towards a specific supervisor. This is because in most cases, development of positive attitudes means that, workers will always to everything to their perfection for them to win their supervisors confidence. Workers develop positive attitudes in cases where their supervisors have adopted good and appropriate leadership strategies.

Such strategies include attending to individual worker needs, treating all workers fairly, and adoption of good motivational strategies, which are necessary for the smooth running of an organization. There exist a close correlation between work output and positive attitude, due to likelihoods of positive and innovative ideas emerging, as supervisors have fully motivated employees. On the other hand, it is important to note that, supervisors who create in workers positive attitudes are great role models to such workers; hence, in most cases such workers will ensure they maximize their work performance (Simonton, pp. 7-12).

Most liked supervisors are very flexible in execution of their duties whereby, although this might be the case, they usually have limits when dealing with employees. Due to this, employees will always know their boundaries when dealing with such supervisors, and for them to avoid colliding with such supervisors liked by other workers, they will always ensure they upgrade their performance. Such efforts are very crucial for the well-being of an organization primarily because, through development of positive attitudes towards a supervisor, workers will use all that is at their disposal to improve work performance; hence quality and increased outputs (Simonton, pp. 45-69).

Conclusion

In conclusion, good leadership qualities are primary determinants of an organizations viability and success in any prevailing conditions, whether economical, social and political. This is because; adoption of good leadership strategies is the only mechanism that leaders or organization’s bosses can use to ensure they meet the set goals and targets. It is important to note that, good leadership entails respecting employees’ rights, and always attending to their need, for this is the only primary mechanism of maintaining the desired or appropriate levels of motivation in employees.

On the other hand, it is important for all leaders to note that, regardless of their positions, at all times they must maintain close contact with the people they are leading. This is because; through such contacts a supervisor or boss can be able to learn employees’ needs hence, formulate timely mechanisms of dealing with them, before they result into an unrest, which have many associated negative on the overall running of an organization.

Works Cited

Bass, Bernard. From transactional to transformational leadership: learning to share the Vision. Organizational dynamics, 18.3, (1990): 19-31. Print.

Davis, Keith, and Newstrom, John. Organizational Behavior: Human behavior at work. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993. Print.

Carey, Benedict. Fear in the work place: the bullying boss. New York Times, 2004. Web.

Jago, Arthur. Leadership: perspectives in theory and research. Journal of Management Science, 28.3 (1982): 315-336, Print.

Judge, Timothy, and Saari, Lise. Employee attitudes and Job satisfaction. Human Resource Management 43.4 (2004): 395-407. Web.

Madison, Peter. Personality and assessment. American Journal of Psychology, 81.4 (1968): 609-611. Web.

Mills, Quinn. The importance of leadership. 2005. Web.

Northouse, Peter. Leadership theory and practice. (3rd ed.). Thousand Oak, London: Sage publications, 2007. Print.

Robinson, Jennifer. The business benefits of positive leadership. 2010. Web.

Simonton, Bennet. Leading people to be highly motivated and committee. Sun City: Simonton Associates, 2005. Web.

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