Job Training Program and Global Youth Unemployment

Introduction

Creating job training programs is very important for any country to boost its skilled labor force. At workplaces, training help companies’ new hires quickly learn about the company’s operations. Job training is also vital to long-term employees due to state institutions’ constant changes in regulations and policies. Every country has different demands for skills; therefore, they have different training programs, but in some cases, each country might have some similarities in training programs. According to the International Labor Organisation, youth in the labor market continues to drop globally, from 53.3 percent in 2000 to 45.8 percent in 2016 (ILO, 2016). This has prompted the policymakers across the globe to work towards responding to the challenge, which has negatively affected the labor market and influenced the global financial crisis.

In Arkansas, the Division of Workforce Services is the department charged with designing various programs that target to meet the demand of the labor market. The department designs specialized programs to meet the state’s demand, the needs of the unemployed people, and the general public. Some of the Arkansas Division of Workforce Services programs include Career Readiness Certification (CRC), Governor Dislocated Workers Task Force Program, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, and Veteran Services, among other programs (Arkansas Department of Workforce Services, n.d.). The Career Readiness Certification is a job training program designed to demonstrate to employers that a specific worker has valid basic skills needed in 21st-century workplaces.

In the current market, employment opportunities are very competitive; therefore, employees need also to possess the right skills, which will enable them to be absorbed into the limited job market. CRC programs are an effective way to build nationally recognized skills for the unemployed to acquire employment. Arkansas offers apprenticeship training to the locals, and the Arkansas Office of Skills Development oversees the training. The department oversees the Registered Apprenticeship Programs in Arkansas through the Office of Apprenticeship. The office collaborates with the companies to design and launch programs and seeks funding for the programs. Under the program, the trainees are paid for their services, and their wages increase with the growth of their skills. In addition, reskilling programs offered in Arkansas are also offered to underpaid or unemployed people to help them acquire stable jobs.

Arkansas lags in implementing training policies that promote employability; the state needs to engage the policymakers in developing long-term training policies to enable the public-private partnership to promote training. Due to a lack of sufficient skills across various sectors of the economy, various governments, for instance, Ireland, India United Kingdom, the United States, and France have enacted job training policies that Arkansas can emulate to ensure they are creative in meeting the state’s labor demand by skilling its labor force.

Ireland

The Ireland policy on formalizing the technical training under apprenticeship and traineeship programs has been robust. The policies ensure that necessary actions are taken to ensure more Irish are trained in key skills needed by companies. Some of the policies used by the government of Ireland include funding the training programs where the government sets the National Training Fund and a policy that guides the contribution of the employee-employer and National Training Fund towards training (McGuinness et al., 2019). The policy also allows employers to form networks where secure engagement between employers and government engages in identifying areas that need traineeship and apprenticeship programs and designing the programs.

The job training system in Ireland targets to equip the country’s citizens with the necessary knowledge and skills, which can help the country grow its economy by boosting its labor force. The country’s performance in their target of meeting their skills for tomorrow through education and training reforms has been excellent. Population increase in Ireland has increased pressure due to full-time enrolment into job training programs. Over 171,000 people enrolled in the program in the last decade, which continues to increase (McGuinness et al., 2019). Post Leaving Certificates is one of the technical training programs in Ireland, which attracts many students. This program targets citizens of Ireland who finished their secondary school education and are interested in developing their technical skills in vocational and technological training.

The training aims to prepare the students for further learning or the job market. The program target both adults and school-age students, and the courses offered under the program are full-time and last for around one to two years. Upon completion, the students are awarded the National Framework of Qualification either in level five or six. The program contains courses with technical and practical skills which are industry-recognized. These courses also offer the students the opportunity to acquire higher education. The courses are available at school, college, and community levels, and they are designed to meet the skilled labor market and are closely linked to industrial needs. Post Leaving Certificate Training Programs include courses that deal with electronic engineering, computing, catering, art, and business, among other courses.

The Post Leaving Certificate courses in Ireland programs are considered successful because they attract many learners. Between 2015 to 2016, it had about 32,000 students enrolled in the courses within the program at an estimated direct cost of 70 million euros per year. Other descriptive evidence about PLC (McGuinness et al., 2019). In Ireland, PLC has currently considered an easy route toward employment or further education and is no longer considered by students as a contingency plan. Currently, around 24,500 students are enrolled in the PLC courses in 240 centers in Ireland (McGuinness et al., 2019). The program was launched in Ireland in 1985, intending to bridge the gap between employment and school, preparing students for employment within their areas of interest. The ministry of education conducted the largest survey about PLC in 1998, and the outcome of the survey indicated that 64 percent of the PLC students were directly absorbed in the job market while 36 percent proceeded with their education (McGuinness et al., 2019). However, with the economic boom in Ireland, most PLC students are employed even before graduating.

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, apprenticeship programs include both on and jobs training. The trainees in the country are given the same rights as other employees. The policies in the country demand that the employees get paid with the apprenticeship rate included in the national minimum wage. Skill Bootcamps or Employer-Led Training Programs is one of the initiatives the U.K. government runs to train its citizens to equip them with new skills or reskill the skilled personnel (Department of Education, 2021). The program has similarities with the Ireland PLC, with the only difference in courses offered. PLC focuses on technical and soft skills, while the U.K. skill boot camp offers limited technical courses. The program was rolled out in 2020 with a target of helping the country’s nationals adjust to changing needs of the industries due to the growth in the economy. The training program contains a limited number of technical skills courses but comprises intensive short courses that target meeting the company’s skills needs. The program offers 89 courses that range from level 3, level 5, level 6, and level 7 (Department of Education, 2021). All the courses are incorporated with digital courses, covering digital marketing, software engineering, computer-aided design (CAD), social media, digital marketing, and cybersecurity. The technical courses offered within the program encompass fields such as welding and fabrication, marine design, mechanical skills, and electrical skills.

According to the department of education targeted, about 60 percent of small and medium enterprises employers participated in the program; however, this target was surpassed, and 76 percent of the employers took part in the program, and the program involved over 350 employers (Department of Education, 2021). The training aims to meet employers’ skills demands and equip employees or people with industry experience. According to a survey conducted on the participants of the courses offered by the program. 76 percent of the participants were satisfied with the quality of the courses offered by the program, and 79 percent of the participants were satisfied with their courses (Department of Education, 2021). This success rate is tied to the teaching methods of the trainers as they went the extra mile in teaching the course content.

India

India is one of the countries offering liberal apprenticeship programs, which are equivalent to those offered in swiss and German vocational training institutions. The Indian prime minister introduced these programs as a National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship. The apprenticeship training in India is managed by the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship. Under the ministry, Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana was initiated as the flagship program for apprenticeship training (IBEF, n.d.). The program’s goal is to provide the Indian youth with certification after acquiring industry skill-based training, which targets to help them secure good means of finding themselves a better livelihood. Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana program training centers target unemployed graduates, school and college drop-outs, and those of Indian nationality to benefit from the program. Apart from offering short technical skills-based courses, the program also offers short courses in soft skills, which include financial literacy, entrepreneurship, and digital literacy. Under this program, the Indian government fully supports students, including the placement of the student after successful

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana is a government program that targets improving the country’s development by improving the country’s workforce. In the Indian labor market, there is a huge gap between the type of skills that the industries need with the continuous expansion of the Indian economy (IBEF, n.d.). Due to limited skills, employers struggle to find people with the right skills which meet their workforce demands as many people struggle to regain their livelihood. In 2015 the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana part one was launched as a pilot program. Between 2015 to 2016, 1.985 million people received training under the flagship program. Upon the successful implementation of the program under the pilot stage, the program was approved for another four years. Under the program’s second phase, the sector was augmented to accommodate digital skills to build a digital India.

The short-term courses offered by the program have helped many participants in India. For example, 73 percent of the participant acknowledges that they have the training they have received helped them improve their self-confidence (National Skill Development Corporation, 2019). In comparison, 62 percent agree that the program’s courses have helped them improve their technical knowledge (National Skill Development Corporation, 2019). In addition, 30 percent of the graduates from the program were considerable, not interested in employment but considering pursuing further education (National Skill Development Corporation, 2019). Forty-five percent of the graduates from the program were employed, but 47 percent of the employed graduates and certified and 27 percent of trained but not certified are reportedly employed and working within the line of their training (National Skill Development Corporation, 2019). As a result, the country has a high demand for skilled-based technical and soft skills training.

United States of America

The U.S. Department of Labour monitors job training programs and funds job training programs to improve the employability of citizens irrespective of age. The government also runs a separate program that targets to equip dislocated workers with the necessary skills to increase their employability. The United States federal government has designed about 47 training programs across the country, and they are delivered through the Employment and Training Administration. All these training programs are guided by the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act of 2014, which was reauthorized by congress to enable the training of the citizens to continue. The act authorizes the federal government to fund the training programs. In the United the training programs offered focus on specific sections of the labor market and are not generally offered by various countries. According to the United States Department of Commerce (2021), 91 percent of the trainees who completed their training were employed immediately, while 70 percent found employment from career services. This indicates how these training programs are very effective for finding employment opportunities.

France

In France, apprenticeship is one of the job training programs offered to the country’s citizens. In France, apprenticeship training is preserved for the employed and combined with academic courses via a tri-partite contract. Apprenticeship policy in France requires that one be a part-time student and part-time worker with a varying training schedule that the training center and the employer influence. The aim of the vocational training policy in France targets to ensure that employees who are also students integrate with the French labor market, allowing them to explore the French work culture. In France, the training programs offered by vocational training systems are financed by employers. Therefore, the job training program policy in France, like in the rest of the world, targets reducing unemployment. Due to the policy of French employers majorly, companies have already spent 1.68 percent of their wages bill on training (Thomson, 2018). Upon enacting the law that requires the employers to contribute to the training of the employees, the unemployment rate in the country dropped by 9 percent in 2017.

Importance of Training Programs

The training programs offered by various countries encourage skills development and empower employees and citizens to gain the key skills and knowledge they need to adapt to the changing market. The global demand for skilled labor is changing and rising, and therefore countries are shifting their attention to equipping their citizens with the necessary skills (Ullah et al., 2019). The training programs at any level enable citizens of a country to transit from education to the world of work. In addition, it enables youth employability because it equips them with relevant skills, recognized qualifications, and personal development. Training programs aim to match the country’s available skills with the labor market needs and enable youth to start developing their real careers.

The youth are known for their innovative ideas, which are vital for the development of the sustainability of the country and economy. The country can tap on these creative ideas through job training programs and encourage youth to learn a wide range of new skills in a different environment. Apart from contributing to the economy through creative ideas, job training programs such as apprenticeship programs can build a skilled labor force that a country can export for income. The job training programs offered by various countries are a cost-effective way of training youths. Through the training process, the trainees contribute to the company as laborers helping the company cut costs on acquiring a workforce.

Challenges Faced by Training Programs

Cultural differences are some of the major challenges countries face in implementing training programs. Training programs developed by various countries globally are faced with diversity and inclusion problems due to diverse cultures across countries. Language is one of the major challenges in the delivery of the various training programs as a multicultural setting requires that the training be taught in a language that the majority of the participants can accept. Despite the high success rate of PLC in Ireland, it is faced with many challenges. The program has a higher drop-out rate of 23 percent (Solas, n.d.). One of the causes of the high drop-out rate is believed to be caused by a rise in demand for PLC students in the job market. The program also faces significant challenges in including the participants with special needs. According to a study about PLC enrollment, it was realized that some educational institution, especially post-primary schools, operates under a restrictive enrolment policy that excludes student with special need which requires special education and other students with other learning differences. These policies operated by schools have forced the students with special needs not to participate in the program fully.

The inclusivity challenges also affect the Job Training Programs in U.K, India and United States, and France. The Bootcamp learners in the U.K experience challenges with inclusivity and diversity regarding employment. The white majority in the U.K were most likely to be absorbed by employers at the onset of their courses. As a result, there is a rapid increase in the number of participants in these programs. This challenges the department of education in recruiting qualified teachers and instructors who can deliver learning content effectively and maintain the student-instructor ratio. In India, the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana program has proved to be very fruitful to the country’s demand; however, it is faced with many challenges. The country lacks sufficient avenues where its citizens can acquire this program. The policy changes toward a green economy and the wide adoption of more environmentally friendly approaches toward production have changed the work and skills required for specific jobs. The development of skills to meet the demands of the green economy is faced by insufficient trainers and training facilities globally. Changing the physical environment due to unsustainable consumption within the environment is the main cause of changes in policies that already affect work practices and skill needs.

Conclusion

Job training programs are very vital for the growth of any country by boosting its skilled labor force. At workplaces, job training enables companies’ new employees quickly learn about the company’s operations. On-the-job training is also vital to long-term employees due to constant changes in regulations and policies by the government. The Arkansas state offers various job training programs that target to help people reskill or acquire the desired skills to meet the market need. The state’s job training programs include Governor Dislocated Workers Task Force Program, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, and Veteran Services, among other programs. In the current job market, people without skills find it very difficult to be employed. Therefore, the labor force needs to be equipped with the right skills, which will enable them to be absorbed into the limited job market. Like in India, France, the United States, Ireland, and the United Kingdom, Arkansas offers apprenticeship training to the locals. The Arkansas Office of Skills Development oversees the training. The department oversees the Registered Apprenticeship Programs in Arkansas through the Office of Apprenticeship.

Unlike in Arkansas, United Kingdom, apprenticeship programs include both on and off-jobs training. The job training policies in the U.K accord the trainees the same rights as other employees. The policies in the country require that the employees get paid with the apprenticeship rate stated in the national minimum wage. U.K. government aims to train its citizens to equip them with new skills or reskill the skilled personnel through skill Bootcamps. The difference between Ireland PLC and the U.K Bootcamp program is that the PLC focuses on technical and soft skills, while the U.K. skill Bootcamp offers limited technical courses.

In contrast to the United States, United Kingdom, India, and Ireland, apprenticeship training is preserved for employed and combined education in France. The policy formulated by the French government requires those who participate in job training programs to be employed as part-time workers and part-time students. The policy aims to ensure that employees who are also students integrate with the French labor market and interact with the job market. Despite the success of these programs, environmental policies enacted globally and the lack of diversity and inclusivity due to cultural differences are still major challenges that need to be addressed to ensure their success. The environmental policies emphasize green production, which still lacks the right programs to be implemented into training programs.

The target of the job training programs globally encourages skills development by allowing the country’s workforce to gain the key skills and knowledge they need to adapt to the changing market. Equipping the citizen or country workforce with the necessary skills is driven by a rise in demand for skilled labor. These training programs help the citizens to transits from school to employment. In addition, it enables youth employability because it equips them with relevant skills, recognized qualifications, and personal development. Training programs aim to match the country’s available skills with the labor market needs and enable youth to start developing their real careers.

References

Arkansas Department of Workforce Services. (n.d.). About ADWS/Department contact information. Web.

Department of Education. (2021). Skills Bootcamps Process Evaluation

IBEF. (n.d.). Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana Scheme (PMKVY).

ILO. (2016). Global youth unemployment is on the rise again. World Employment and Social Outlook 2016: Trends for Youth: Global youth unemployment is on the rise again.

McGuinness, S., Bergin, A., Kelly, E., McCoy, S., Smyth, E., & Whelan, A. (2019). Policy paper evaluating post leaving Certificate.

National Skill Development Corporation. (2019). Dashboard – skillsip.nsdcindia.org

Solas. (n.d.). Learning works.

Thomson, R. (2018). French workers to get up to 800 euros of job training annually. Reuters.

Ullah, A. K. M. A., Mohamad, S. M., Hassan, N. H., & Chattoraj, D. (2019). Global skills deficiency: Perspectives of skill mobility in Southeast Asian countries. Asian Education and Development Studies, 8(4), 416–432.

U.S. Department of Commerce. (2021). The benefits and costs of apprenticeships: A business perspective. U.S. Department of Commerce.

Cite this paper

Select style

Reference

BusinessEssay. (2023, April 8). Job Training Program and Global Youth Unemployment. Retrieved from https://business-essay.com/job-training-program-and-global-youth-unemployment/

Reference

BusinessEssay. (2023, April 8). Job Training Program and Global Youth Unemployment. https://business-essay.com/job-training-program-and-global-youth-unemployment/

Work Cited

"Job Training Program and Global Youth Unemployment." BusinessEssay, 8 Apr. 2023, business-essay.com/job-training-program-and-global-youth-unemployment/.

References

BusinessEssay. (2023) 'Job Training Program and Global Youth Unemployment'. 8 April.

References

BusinessEssay. 2023. "Job Training Program and Global Youth Unemployment." April 8, 2023. https://business-essay.com/job-training-program-and-global-youth-unemployment/.

1. BusinessEssay. "Job Training Program and Global Youth Unemployment." April 8, 2023. https://business-essay.com/job-training-program-and-global-youth-unemployment/.


Bibliography


BusinessEssay. "Job Training Program and Global Youth Unemployment." April 8, 2023. https://business-essay.com/job-training-program-and-global-youth-unemployment/.