Leadership Development, Learning and Styles

Define in detail “leader development” and “leadership development”

The notions of “leader development” and “leadership development” should not be confused although they are usually used interchangeable ones. Leadership development is directed at the collective’s capacity, while leader development is aimed at developing individual skills (Nicolaidou, & Petridou, 2011). Leadership development is defined as the improvement of the collective’s capacity “to produce direction, alignment, and commitment” (Velsor, McCauley, & Ruderman, 2010, p. 20).

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Leader development is just one specific aspect of the broader process of leadership development. Leader development is defined as the personal improvement on the way to the effective performance of leadership roles and processes (Velsor, McCauley, & Ruderman, 2010).

Discuss the process of “individual learning”

Individual learning is the capability of a person to get familiarized with personal development in their day to day relations with surrounding (Day, & Schoemaker, 2000). The classical psychological model of individual learning explains that prior to obtaining a certain skill an individual must go through the following stages. The first stage is obtaining knowledge which can be acquired in an unconscious incompetent state when one is unaware of recognizing them.

The next stage is the conscious incompetence phase where one is responsive to the difficulties while he/she has no initiative or knowledge to solve them. One may recognize what is required but he/she lacks the initiative and assurance to acquire it. In the next conscious competence phase, one is aware of how to solve a problem except that the process might consume time. Ability is prevalent and can only mature when an individual focuses on solving a problem at hand. The unconscious competence phase is whereby one is aware of the problem that does not necessitate one to worry about; one has nurtured the ability to solve it involuntarily (Wilson, J. & Gislason, 2009).

Define in detail “coaching” and “mentoring”

Even though there is much debate about whether to consider coaching and mentoring as homogeneous notions, many scholars agree that coaching and mentoring services for maximizing the effect of changes in the organization (Scotton, & Scott, 2012). The main difference between these two notions is in key goals. Coaching is aimed at correcting the behavior of employees, improving their performance, and affecting the skills they are to obtain for new responsibilities, while mentoring is aimed at supporting and directing the personal growth of a concrete person (Luecke, & Ibarra, 2004).

Describe the role of culture and cultural values in the process of leader development

Velsor, McCauley, and Ruderman (2010) state that leadership is based on shared values and the correct understanding of the culture by the leaders and stakeholders effectively impacts the development. Different cultural values create various attitudes to performance and in case the cultural values of a team are different, the leader development process may be stopped or even ruined. Nicolaidou and Petridou (2011) also support the same idea stressing the fact that the creation of a common culture in the organization with similar cultural values will positively affect the working environment in general and the leadership development in particular.

Why do most people resist change?

There are a lot of reasons why people resist change and the confrontation with the unknown and loss of the familiar are the main factors that impact employees’ desire to be involved in the reorganization (Agboola, & Salawu, 2011). People got used to the current state of affairs, they are aware of the main processes and got used to having the benefit even from the negative sides of the working responsibilities. The changes may be either positive or negative for them and in most cases, people think about the negative effect. Strategy, technology, structure, and employees are the four basic aspects that can be changed in the organization and each of these aspects impacts the working process which is connected with the staff directly (Van Dijk, & Van Dick, 2009).

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Discuss “integrity” and the impact on organizational leadership

Integrity is the harmony of actions, methods, principles, measures and outcomes of the performance in the organization. The role of integrity cannot be overestimated especially in the light of the organizational leadership as to be effective the latter should comprise all the organizational processes for better performance (van Aswegen, & Engelbrecht, 2009). Organizational leadership should be based on integrity is case the leaders are interested in successful outcome of the affairs. Only the unity of the principles and actions directed at the improvement in the company may give good results. Integrity is exactly what leaders need for successful organizational leadership (Brown, 2005).

Describe the differences between “transformational leadership” and “transactional leadership”

Transformational leadership is based on the morale motivation for encouraging employees for the future changes, while transactional leadership is based on rewards and punishments for conserving the current estate of affair (Michell, 2005).

Therefore, the main difference between these two notions is the final goal of the actions. Being directed at the change, transformational leadership is believed to be more innovation and more appropriate in the modern world where change plays an essential role in company development. Transactional leadership is believed to be more traditional. The absence of the change and the constant need for motivation requires from the followers of the transactional leadership constant search for the rewards and intellectual stimulation (Mosley, Pietri, & Mosley, 2010).

What is “ethical behavior”?

Ethical behavior can be defines in different ways, however, each definition is restricted to the right way to behave. There are no particular norms and principles of the ethical behavior as in most cases the definition of this notion is based on the moral considerations, norms and principles the concrete company pursues (van Aswegen, & Engelbrecht, 2009). Each company may have personal values which are not inherent to other companies (Brown, 2005). The level of the following the ethical behavioral patterns of the company identifies the level of the organizational leadership as it is one of the responsibilities of the leaders to inform the employees about the ethical norms of the organization and make those follow the principles applied in the company.

Describe “situational leadership”

Situational leadership is the leadership style developed by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard who pointed at the readiness of the leaders to adapt to the situation (Mosley, Pietri, & Mosley, 2010). Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership theory is based on the principle that here is no idea leadership model and each situation should be considered individually depending on the circumstances, impacts and the level of the integrity of different components in the organization (Fiore, 2004). Therefore, the situational leadership does not identify any specific model but encourages the leaders to apply different methods and measures as the means for performance of organizational leadership.

Describe your leadership philosophy and style

Defining my personal leadership philosophy, I would like to express my direction in the side of changes. I am sure that transformational leadership is the ideal concept for company development in combination with the strong motivation and healthy environment. Each company is to have personal ethical norms which should not contradict cultural values of the country they perform in and should be directed at encouraging the employees for better development.

What did you learn of “value” in this course?

Value is not the personal vision of the better performance, it is also the corporate worth of the performance. The cultural value is just the part of the values each employee is to apply to as value also comprises corporate, ethical and personal aspects of vision.

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Reference List

Agboola, A., & Salawu, R. (2011). Managing Deviant Behavior and Resistance to Change. International Journal of Business & Management, 6(1), 235-242.

Brown, M. T. (2005). Corporate Integrity: Rethinking Organizational Ethics and Leadership. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Day, G., Paul, Schoemaker, J. H. (2000). Wharton on managing emerging technologies. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Fiore, D. J. (2004). Introduction to Educational Administration: Standards, Theories, and Practice. Eye on Education.

Luecke, R., & Ibarra, H. (2004). Coaching and Mentoring: How to Develop Top Talent and Achieve Stronger Performance. Harvard: Harvard Business Press.

Michell, N. (2005). How to Hit the Ground Running: A Quick-Start Guide for Congregations with New Leadership. New York: Church Publishing, Inc.

Mosley, D. C., Pietri, P. H., & Mosley, Jr. (2010). Supervisory Management. Stamford: Cengage Learning.

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Nicolaidou, M., & Petridou, A. (2011). Evaluation of CPD programmes: challenges and implications for leader and leadership development. School Effectiveness & School Improvement, 22(1), 51-85.

Scotton, N., & Scott, A. (2012). Making good. Coaching At Work, 7(1), 30-34.

van Aswegen, A. S., & Engelbrecht, A. S. (2009). The relationship between transformational leadership, integrity and an ethical climate in organisations. South African Journal of Human Resource Management, 7(1), 221-229.

Van Dijk, R., & Van Dick, R. (2009). Navigating Organizational Change: Change Leaders, Employee Resistance and Work-based Identities. Journal of Change Management, 9(2), 143-163.

Velsor, E. V., McCauley, C. D., & Ruderman, M. N. (2010). The Center for Creative Leadership Handbook of Leadership Development. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Wilson, J. & Gislason, M. (2009). Coaching Skills for Nonprofit Managers and Leaders: Developing People to Achieve Your Mission. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

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