Leadership in Organizations

Critically analyze the criteria that have been used to evaluate leadership effectiveness, and are some criteria more useful than others.

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Leadership is essential in every business organization. Its effectiveness can be measured using different approaches. A manager’s ability to motivate others and influence change is a good example. Another criterion is a person’s capability to deliver quality results within the shortest time possible. The leader’s influence in a given firm can be used to measure his or her effectiveness. Since human beings differ significantly, some criteria will be more useful than others. The most important thing is to analyze the strategies and skills utilized by a given manager to drive performance.

Analyze and explain the reasons why efforts to change organizations often fail? Cite few examples from UAE or the region.

Business leaders implement new changes to ensure their companies remain profitable. However, various reasons can explain why efforts to change organizations tend to fail. Any undefined change effort will definitely fail. Employees are usually resistant to change. Lack of adequate resources and support can also affect the process. Underperforming players, leaders, or followers can disorient the plan and affect the targeted goals. Ineffective communication models can make the change unsuccessful. Many firms in the UAE propose and implement changes that do not resonate with the needs of workers from diverse backgrounds. The situation results in conflicts and resistance, thereby affecting the entire process.

What are the potential benefits of delegating decision-making, and when it is most successful?

Managers delegate various roles in their organizations such as decision-making. The first benefit is that the leaders can get adequate time to focus on the core functions of management such as coordinating, planning, and organizing. Delegating decision-making also maximizes efficiency. Conflicts can be resolved before they get out of hand. The practice increases the levels of collaboration and motivation. The strategy empowers workers to support every outlined organizational goal. Additionally, individuals with personal power can make desirable decisions. Delegation processes succeed when competent employees are allowed to take up various decision-making roles. The identified individuals should be empowered to make meaningful decisions.

Evaluate the traits which are the best predictors of a business leader’s performance and achievement?

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Successful business leaders possess specific traits that support performance and efficiency. Conscientiousness refers to a person’s ability to work hard and guide others. Extroversion is the second trait that can be used to predict a leader’s achievement. This characteristic means that an individual is concerned with different aims in an institution. Dominant and sociable individuals have also been observed to assert themselves and ensure their ideas are embraced by every follower. The possession of such traits can be considered whenever predicting a person’s performance or potential as a leader. Another powerful trait is the ability to appreciate new experiences and ideas. The trait makes it easier for individuals to focus on emerging challenges.

To what extent are the effects of traits and skills dependent on the situation?

Leaders possess specific skills and traits that support their goals. Whenever focusing on a given situation, managers must apply apposite competencies in order to deliver positive results. This means that the best proficiencies might be informed by the targeted situation. The leader will identify the nature of the problem and promote desirable behaviors or action plans. The ultimate goal should be to ensure every aim is realized. The traits exhibited and skills applied, therefore, depend on the situation. Managers who apply the best competencies will be able to address every issue much faster.

What is the difference between position power and personal power? Share few examples from UAE.

Position power differs significantly from personal power. This is the case because personal power is an intrinsic ability to mentor, empower, and guide others to achieve their goals. For instance, many UAE organizations have benefited from the personal power exhibited by various chief executive officers (CEOs). Such leaders use powerful ideas to guide every follower and ensure their organizations succeed. Position power, on the other hand, is possessed y those in senior positions of leadership. For instance, managers in different departments in the UAE have position power. They are required to make decisions and communicate them to their followers.

Critically analyze the differences between the position and personal power.

Position power is a form of authority derived from a company’s leadership hierarchy. The topmost managers influence the behaviors of those below them. This authority is determined by a person’s leadership position. Followers have less influence. Personal power is usually appreciated by teammates within a company. Individuals who possess this kind of authority use it to guide and mentor others. The person’s leadership ability is what makes this kind of power appreciable. A business manager has position authority. However, not every leader is known to exhibit personal power. Employees in an organization can also portray personal power. Such leadership abilities empower workmates to realize their potential.

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Synthesize the effective process for a business leader do to improve the decision-making process in a group meeting?

Business leaders must be good decision-makers. Whenever in a group meeting, such individuals must develop strategic plans to guide them throughout the decision-making process. They should be able to analyze existing situations and identify the most appropriate goals or outcomes. They should be able to think critically, engage others, and listen attentively. They should be willing to compromise and encourage their followers to focus on the best results. It is also necessary to come up with more than one solution whenever making appropriate decisions. Leaders should develop the best communication skills. These efforts will make it easier for business managers to improve decision-making processes in team meetings.

Why is leadership more difficult in cross-functional teams than in functional teams?

Experts in organizational theory acknowledge that leadership is more difficult in cross-functional groups than in functional teams. Cross-functional teams are characterized by reduced levels of cohesion. The targeted group members have diverse skills and ideas. Conflicts are usually high due to emerging concerns such as rivalries and egos. The leader will, therefore, be required to manage individuals with diverse ideas, address conflicts, and encourage them to focus on a common goal. The members exhibit inconsistent interests that must be identified. Functional teams are cohesive and easy to lead because the individuals have reduced levels of conflict. Such teams are also not affected by egos, conflicts, and rivalries.

Compare and contrast shared leadership, relational leadership, and complexity theories and how these theories increase our understanding of leadership in organizations?

In shared leadership, a team of administrators is formed to come up with decisions and ensure goals are realized. The practice differs significantly from relational leadership. The latter is embraced by leaders to establish meaningful relationships. Such relations foster decision-making, collaboration, and communication. The two models also differ from complexity theory. This concept focuses on the existence of interacting systems that are adaptive and dynamic in nature. Such associations create a favorable environment for adaptability and creativity. Although shared and relational leadership models are different, they can work synergistically whereby managers promote positive associations among workers. Complexity theory supports this kind of interaction to deliver desirable results. Managers can combine these models to achieve their aims.

Critically analyze organizational culture and how can leaders influence it? Cite 1-2 examples from your work experience or from other UAE business/educational organizations.

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The term “organizational culture” refers to every value, idea, assumption, and belief dictating the manner in which employees in a given company behave. Such attributes dictate people’s practices and relations. Some of the characteristics of culture include innovation, rule orientation, collaboration, natural support, language, national customs, technology, and leadership practices. Managers can influence a firm’s culture by promoting specific action plans that resonate with the targeted aims. The managers in my organization in the UAE have been able to take appropriate actions. They always encourage their followers to behave positively. Best practices such as teamwork, respect for one another, and natural supports have become part of my company’s culture.

What new insights are provided by theories of transformational and charismatic leadership?

Transformational and charismatic styles have the potential to sustain business performance. However, the approaches ignore the issue of valuable communication behaviors. This observation explains why new leadership approaches characterized by charismatic communication approaches are needed. Similarly, making charisma part of transformational leadership can improve the effectiveness of the model. A systems perspective has also been suggested to ensure the two styles promote inter-related processes in every organizational or dyadic level. Although the two theories have been treated as equals, new insights explain why their differences should be analyzed carefully. Transactional leadership has emerged as a superior theory that links the two.

Evaluate similarities and differences between charismatic and transformational leadership?

The first similarity between charismatic and transformational theories is that they guide individuals in order to effect meaningful change. The second one is that they are applicable in teams. Additionally, the models create a position whereby workers and leaders interact and exchange ideas continuously. The concepts also have unique differences that must be understood by leaders. Charismatic leadership articulates vision while transformational approaches are founded on the concept of sharing power. Transformational managers share ideas while charismatic leaders ensure their followers submit to an established vision. Transformational leaders liaise with their followers while charismatic managers have higher statuses.

What leadership attributes having the greatest cross-cultural variability? What leadership- attributes are best suited for UAE public sector organizations?

Leadership attributes that have the greatest cross-cultural variability include awareness, charisma, cultural flexibility, and communication. Individuals who want to succeed as leaders in cross-cultural environments must develop such skills. Similarly, leaders who want to empower others in the UAE public sector organizations should possess some of these attributes. For instance, they should be good communicators and listeners. They must learn more about other cultures and be willing to empower their followers. This is the case because the sector employs workers from diverse backgrounds. Such traits will ensure every employee is empowered to deliver desirable outcomes.

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