Motivation: Working With and Leading Others

Required Knowledge, Skills, and Experience for a Team

To organize a team effectively within an organization, it is essential that the team members, as well as the leader of the team, should possess some skills, knowledge, and experience to achieve organizational goals. In Fast-Life Events (FLE), the team has lacking the necessary knowledge, skills, and experiences so that the effectiveness of the team and its performance has reduced to a significant level. Here, the report has identified some required skills, knowledge, and experiences of team spirit that will help the team of FLE to perform in the right direction.

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Communication Skills

To be an active and efficient team member, it is essential to have good communication skills in accordance with the objectives of the team that would interact with the team members and other stakeholders related to the objectives of the team. Communication takes place in various forms including formal and informal, verbal and nonverbal those need to use according to the situation. Communication skills help the team members to communicate more efficiently with the different parities using the various means of communication skills.

These communication skills may be inherent or learned and whatever it is, it largely depends upon the culture of the team, organisation, and outside environment. Feedback is an important issue in communication while team members and the team leader must have the ability to receive feedback from whom he or she is communicating. In FLE, the team members like Fatima and Moosa do not have the communication skills to maintain a good relationship with the other team players.

Interpersonal Skills

Interpersonal skills closely related to communication skills, but it is something more than the communication skills. These interpersonal skills are very much significant for team cohesiveness and avoiding any kind of conflict. It refers to the unique ability of the individuals that include understanding what the others say, clearly giving the ideas about own saying, give and take the constructive criticism, have useful impact on others, ability to work with others, effectively solve or initiate the conflict resolution and finally change the work direction to the highest productivity.

These interpersonal skills are totally absent among the team members of FLE like Fatima, Moosa, and Aliya. Most of the time the conflict and frustration in a team occurs due to the lack of interpersonal skills among the team members and this skill can be acquired through the training or possess through experience and heredity.

Managerial Knowledge

Weihrich & Koontz (2005) argued that the managerial knowledge and skills refer to the experience of managing people and working in an organisational environment. Management knowledge includes the clear understanding of the rules and norms of the team, work boundaries, knowledge about the work, motivational requirements, legislation, work standard procedures and some other knowledge outside own work or departments. Both the team leaders and the members must have this managerial knowledge to perform the job better and managing the situation that is not predictable or experienced in the past. In FLE, Fatima has no managerial skills to manage the colleagues and she used the wrong way to deal with them.

Teamwork

Teamwork is prerequisite for effectively performing in the team, and without it, team will not be able to achieve its objectives. Teamwork refers to the ability to understand clearly the objectives of the team, current stage of the team, how to be an effective team members and supporting others in performing their duties. It is quite possible that team members do not understand the objectives of the team forming or reluctant to cooperate in other jobs and in such situation endangers the main objective of the team building. To get rid of this situation, team members must have the ability to do the teamwork otherwise training required to teach the members how teamwork has to be conducted. In the following case, only Suleman has the skills and mindset to work in team and he always appreciates other for getting the job done.

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Personal Effectiveness

Personal effectiveness includes the assertiveness, time management, personal goal setting and maintain network with people in own work arena. Assertiveness refers to the expression own feelings, protect own rights and expressing own views with honesty, integrity and respect to others. It reduces the chance of conflict among the team members and gives more chances to generate new ideas on the completion procedure of work.

Time management is very important in this context as some job depends on the successful completion of the other jobs so that the members need to be punctual in performing the assigned task. In FLE, Aliya is quite aware of time management and aware of performing the assigned tasks on time. It is difficult for the team members to perform most of the tasks of the team without the help of them, so the manager should maintain a good network and contact with other team members and outsiders who have relation with the projects

Decision-Making Skills

Decision-making and problem solving skills are very essential for team performance and with the help of these skills, team member, and the leader can make a decision that would necessitate to achieving the objectives. Within the team, there may arise some situation when prompt decision has to make to resolve the problem and the outcomes were depend upon the effectiveness of the decision-making process and problem solving techniques.

However, in FLE, team members like Fatima, Moosa tried to mislead the decision of the boss through persuasion and do not understand the importance of decision-making. Most of the time, the decision-making abilities of the members and leaders come from their gained experiences and in course of time, it will bring more accuracy. However, the team members must have the ideas about the decision-making steps and problem-solving techniques to understand which process will be more fruitful in the given situation.

Project Management

If the team has organised for specific project work, the team members must have the idea about the project management. In the current case, the company undertakes the different projects where the assignment many be different, but management is the same that is the project management. In the field of management, separate discipline for management of projects arises and team members of the projects need clear about this discipline. The main activities of the projects include the management of the resources and scheduling the activities according to the limited length of time, otherwise it will not be able to keep pace with the expectation. In FLE, most of the time the members do not have the clear ideas about the projects especially the procedures to complete the project.

Team Dynamics and working relationship in FLE

A dynamic team must have some characteristics like clear mission, combination of required competence and finally the support from the leaders of the team. Team dynamics refers to the driving forces those drive the team towards the mission and objectives of the team. Team dynamics is essential for achieving the objectives of the team and without this attribute; no team could demonstrate its success. In FLE, there is a team for completing different projects, but team dynamics are very absent in the company especially team members such as Fatima, and Moosa have lacking of team dynamics. The reason of such lacing is that the individual objectives of the members have largely fluctuated from the organisational objectives while there is absence of proper coordination of work

The working relationship between the employees and team members are the determinant of the effectiveness of organising team. A good working relationship mainly depends upon the skills like interpersonal skills, group dynamics, communication etc, and the absence of such features may hamper to achieving the objectives and create many problems. In FLE, the working relations among the current employees are not satisfactory. Employees like Fatima, Moosa working individually and try to exploit the weakness of the other members.

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Team spirit refers to the combination of trust, respect, good connection between the members and the enjoyment of work. The team members essentially required the team spirit, loyalty with the members, willingness to work in team and not to be self centred. Thus, following are points those could assist to building team spirit and good working relationship at FLE –

  • Frequent arrangement of the employees meeting and set different agenda on which free and frank discussion can take place.
  • Every year, the job description of the employee should be reviewed for assessing the requirement of any change in it due to the change in work setting.
  • For evaluation purpose, it is crucial to develop uniform criteria of job evaluation for everyone.
  • Employees should be open-minded, to listening and communicating with others.
  • Mutual trust, respect, and courtesy are most imperative for good relationship.
  • Respect to the other employees is a vital motivation without distinguishing their profession, age, sex, and race.
  • Recognise the natural talent and creativity among the others,
  • Maintain a good cooperation with the other team members,
  • Support each other in case of any difficulty arise in the work situation.
  • Always respect the privacy of other person and make constructive criticism,
  • To enhance team spirit the working environment should be easy going for employees where they feel happy to work,
  • The employees should assign tasks according to their skills and abilities.
  • The final destination of the team or organisation must be clear to the employee.
  • There should standard procedure for performing the task;
  • The organisation and team should create a unique culture to get support from the members of the team.

The different role can play by the FLE employees

According to Belbin theory, nine roles can play by the team members of the company, and in case of FLE, it can adopt this team role theory in both training department and team expansion for successful completion of the projects-

  • Plant Role: Plant role refers to the ability of the team members to show creativeness, imagine the situation, unorthodox it works, and have the ability to solve the difficult problem. When performing the task in the projects, the employees of the ELE can play these roles and it will contribute to the overall performance of the team.
  • Coordinator Role: When performing the team duties and responsibilities, the team leaders and members should exhibit the maturity in work and decision-making, doing the job with certain confidence, clarifies the goals, objectives, delegate the authority, and responsibilities to others. It is very essential for the employees of FLE to reduce the problem of team that they face in work currently. Fatima and Moosa do not coordinate their works with the other members like Aliya and Suleman.
  • Monitor, Evaluator Role: The team member can play the role of the monitor and evaluator and these roles are perfect for the team leaders. Chong (2007) pointed out that the role of monitor and evaluator includes “rational, strategic in all aspects, evaluation of all alternatives and finally correct verdict”. When monitoring and evaluating the task and the performance of the team members, the monitor or evaluator must play the above-mentioned role to get cooperation from the team members.
Belbin’s Theory.
Figure 1: Belbin’s Theory.
  • Implementer Role: The managers mainly focus on the implementation of the plans to the definite actions and it includes reliabilities, a certain level of conservatism, discipline in action and finally efficient in doing the task. Implementer is able to implement the generated idea into practical action and always implement in through right direction;
  • The Role of Completer: This role refers to the completing and finishing the specific task or the whole projects. To play this role the members are painstaking throughout the jobs, make frequent inspection on the job for searching any kind of error or mistake, and finally complete the job on time. High eagerness to the work and punctuality is prerequisite for completing and finishing a projects or works.
  • Resource Investigator Role: A Resource investigator role refers to the extrovert, enthusiastic, explore the opportunity, and make contact with others. Team members with these roles maintain a good network within the work ambit and always strive to explore the potential opportunities for performing more on the achieving the objectives.
  • Sharper Role: The sharper roles refer to the inherent ability of the team members to overcome any kind of obstacles and have the courage and dynamics to do the job with more courage. These team players are always prefer to work on pressure and enjoy the challenging jobs to perform. Any kind of hindrance in the way of performing the job cannot deter the team member from performing the job or completing the projects.
  • Teamwork Role: Teamwork is the precondition role for performing under a team and this teamwork includes cooperating to other team members, listening and delivering feedback from others, perceptive to other and work and finally little bit diplomatic in work situation. Team members with this role can work in the cooperative environment with others and able to manage other person with whom need to work for goal achievement.
  • Specialist Role: Specialist role refers to the helping others in different situation with knowledge, ability and experiences. Team member with this role works as mentor, giving ideas in situation where the knowledge is not available, open hearted, dedicated to others, and self-initiator of any required job.

Team Empowerment

Team empowerment refers to the decision-making ability of the team on the way to perform the assigned tasks and implement the decision on the work procedure without any interference of the outside. Empowered team can perform the job more precisely and efficiently than those not empowered and the team is more responsive to the change in the environment and have the abilities to exert the potential from the team members. Team empowerment increases the productivity and quality of employees and simultaneously improves their morels. In FLE, the empowerment is unequal as Fatima and Moosa have more power than Aliya and Suleman. There are seven popular ways to empower effectively the team without interfere with the freedom of work of the employees.

  1. Assign the team members the task that has the potential to grow and additional responsibilities. This assignment creates a sense of ownership among the team members and grows the feelings that they are valuable to the team and organisation.
  2. Explain why the task has assigned to them and let them know what the task contains that will beneficial to them. This is actually give team member a clear understanding on what purpose the task given to them and make them aware about the fact that the task has the potential for personal growth of the employees.
  3. Give the team members clear direction about the task that assigned on them. In case of a project, at first give team members a general overview on the projects and then give the details ideas and task of the project with the individual responsibilities of the members.
  4. Ensure that the understanding of all the team members are in the same level and give them chance to question on the unclear area. During this process, repeats and over repeats the idea if the members have the fogginess on the idea and do all with the congruence of the team members. Finally, assign the individual part to the members and observe on the understating issue of the members on the given task.
  5. Give the employees clear idea on the procedures for doing the job and explain why these particular procedures have been followed. It will allow them better understanding on work procedures and raise low query on it when performing the jobs.
  6. The members need to give certain level of authority required for performing the task and authority should show the trust upon the employees. It is not required to inspect every aspect of the job with much details but necessary to exert control over the members so that they can understand when checking will essential.
  7. Take frequent suggestion from the members on the better way on completing the task or projects and sometime they may generate ideas that will be effective. Give the chance to the members to do the task on their own way if the works show satisfactory results.

The above-mentioned steps will be effective for FLE to empower its employees when does not interfering with the independence of the employees in doing their jobs. Actually, tea empowerment refers to giving authority and responsibilities to the team members to do their job on their own way. Here, the matter of consideration is that the way followed by the employees need to be effective for the completion of the projects.

Theories and styles of leadership

Great Man Theory: According to the Great man theory, the leadership has been identified as an attribute that carried out by birth rather than gaining through practice or learning. This theory developed at the early stage of leadership research when those are considering leaders who have by-born ability to lead people and who possess leadership quality inherently. This theory originated at the time when the world observed some great leader who did not have any learnt quality of leadership quality rather what they had come from the origin (Katzenbach & Douglas, 2003).

In such society, the issues of gender did not come into question, as all the leaders were male. However, most of the recent development in the area of leadership does not put much emphasis on this leadership theory but still some leaders have in-born quality of leadership. This great man leader has the capabilities to lead people without any kind of leadership training. In the ancient fairy tales, there were a number of great leaders those who motivated individuals and society with a mass character, but come out from the people, and generally come from the peers of the realm while raising of leadership from the lower class has no strong evidence.

Trait Theory

The basic assumption of trait theory demonstrates that some individuals have a number of inbuilt personalities and influential characteristics and these traits especially well fitted for the conquering leadership and the people who have such criterion would be accounted as leader for their faithful combination of traits.

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Early research on the leadership stressed upon the psychological issues, found that there are some specific traits for successful leadership, and inherent in some person. This specific combination of traits discovered from the study of the life of the successful leaders and it believed that if other persons have the same traits, then they would also be a good leader.

Some researcher found that to be a good leader a person required some traits and skills that include alert to social environment, assertive, ambitious and achievement-orientated, cooperative, decisive, adaptable to situations, intelligent, diplomatic and tactful, conceptually skilled, creative and so on. Some researchers of this leadership have supported the approach by bring into being of four traits those are essential for successful leaders which claimed for

  1. Emotional steadiness and self-control,
  2. Intellectual depths,
  3. Strong interpersonal skills, and
  4. Admitting error and omissions.

Behavioural Theory

Behavioural theory leadership comes from the great shift of the traditional theory of leadership where the underlying believes is that leaders created by born. According to behavioural theory of leadership, it believes that leadership comes from learning process and not from the heredity. This leadership theory mainly focuses not on the traits of the leader rather on what the successful leaders do. The action of the successful leader can learn through the training and experiences and it will be effective in a situation, which aroused in case of the successful leader.

Contingency Theory

As a part of the behavioural theory, contingency theory implies that the leader will not follow only one style in leadership rather the style will vary according to the situation. This theory firmly believed that there is no one correct way of doing things in every situation and the means will need to change in the changing situation. A successful leader is one who changes the style of leadership according to the situational demand. A leadership style proves success in one situation may fail in other situation and that demand the change of the styles.

Participative Leadership Style

Participative leadership style is more relevant to the democratic style of leadership where the leader involves other in the decision making process that closely related to implementing the decision. It generally apparent that, the people who are involved in decision-making process exert more effort to implement the decision then those not involved in decision-making process. Participative leadership style actually comes from this assumption and the leader always makes the decision based on the participation of others. Participative leader includes the peer, subordinates, superiors and others to the decision making process though taking the suggestion from them.

Autocratic Leadership Style

Autocratic leadership style is the older style of leadership where the leader took the decision by him and subordinates or team members had to follow the decision. In the lower level or first level management, the leaders took this type of leadership and in such situation; the members are large in number that does not allow the leader to take feedback from the members. In the modern organisational set up, this type of leadership style does not prevail and it was very popular in the time of industrial revolution when people treated as a machine. In modern time in some situation manager may take the autocratic style when the situation is out of control.

Situational Leadership Style

Situational leadership style does not follow any specific style of leadership rather leader takes the style according the few factors of the given situation. The situational factors refer to level of motivation of subordinates, the ability of the organizational members, leader-subordinate relationship, how leader perceive the situation, the level of stress, mood and so on (Robbins & Judge, 2008).

Weihrich & Koontz (2005) stated that there are mainly six influential aspects to the style of leadership that include efforts of the followers, outside coordination, structure of work, support and resource, group cohesiveness and collaboration, capability of follower and finally clarity of role. Tannenbaum and Schmidt found another three influential factors that affect the behaviour of the leader and these factors include the subordinate’s forces, the situational forces and leader’s forces (Robbins & Judge, 2008);

Transactional Leadership Style

Transactional leadership style follows some rules and behaviour that will require for maintaining the harmony of the organisation and work. According to this theory, people motivated by the reward and strong chain of command are necessary for properly functioning of the organisation. A clear structure have established by the leader so that the subordinates get a clear idea about the duty and responsibilities and supreme authority lies on the leader. The important aspect of transactional leadership is when the leader assigns a job on the subordinates then subordinate will fully responsible for it whether the resources are adequate or not. This leadership style always binds the subordinates to clear rule and structure and omitting these rules are punishable.

Transformational Leadership Style

Transformational leadership style is opposite to the transactional leadership and according to this style; leaders inspire the subordinates to perform the required task. It is very motivating for the team members to work with the transformational leader as the leader always tries to build a vision in the mind of the subordinates. Then, the leader continuously instigates vision in the mind of the subordinates and tries to achieve the trust from them. Actually, transformational leader knows well how to exert the potentials from the subordinates, and through it, he or she can achieve the objectives. The leader does not follow any convention and rules of the organisation in performing the task and give freedom to the subordinates in performing their jobs.

Necessity for effective communication of vision, goal, and values to colleague

  • Helps in Planning: Communicate the visions, goals, and values of the organisation or team with the subordinates and colleagues helps in planning for achieving the organisational goals as well as personal objectives. If the colleagues like Fatima, Moosa, Aliya, and Suleman do not understand the congruence among the vision, goal, values and delegated objectives than the employees will confuse about how to make the personal planning to achieve the delegated objectives.
  • Vital for Decision Making: Decision making is very important for achieving the overall objectives of organisation and the success of the decision making largely depends upon the success of the effective communication of vision, goal and values to the team members. If the team members have the clear understanding about the long-term vision of the organisation including the goals and values and the relationship of delegated objectives with those goals then the decision making process will getting much easy for the members.
  • Facilitate Delegation: Delegation of authority is very important for the achievement of individual objectives on the team member or employees. The delegation will not take effect if the employees do not understand the vision, goals, and values of the organisation as well as the connection between these organisational requirements and the personal requirements. In FLE, Fatima, and Moosa do not understand the visions, goals and values of the organisation so that they misuse the authority delegated to them.
  • Facilitate leadership: Communication of visions, goals, and values of the organisation will help to develop the leadership skills among the employees. An organisation may have the core value of developing leadership between the employees and the individuals’ while their objectives reflected the value. If the employee does not understand it, he or she cannot be able to develop leadership skills within the person.
  • Employee Motivation: Congruence among the delegated objectives and organisational objectives motivate employees in performing better. Clear understanding of the organisational visions, goals, and values help the employees to predict the relationship among the personal objectives and organisational objectives. Work motivation comes from the fact that employees feel a sense of ownership when they find similarities among the organisational vision and individual objectives.
  • Coordination: Coordination is very important for directing the personal effort to the organisational goals. The employees of FLE have minimum level of coordination of work and they work individually to compete with each other. Organisation first set the overall goals and values and then set the personal goals. Achievement of organisational goals depends upon the achievement of the personal objectives, which required clear understanding of the organisational goals, visions and objectives. Communication of these visions, goals, and values to employees help the better coordination.
  • Save time and resource: If the employees do not clear about the organisational visions, goals and values and the relation of those on the delegated objectives then it will mislead the employees. As a result, valuable time and resource of the organisation and employees will lose which may not occur in case of proper communication of visions, goals, and values to the employees. In FLE, employees like Fatima and Moosa waste the time and resources of the organisation due to the lack of vision and goals.

Motivation of the employees

Motivation refers to direct the employees’ effort to the particular objective and it is an important tool for achieving the organisational goals and objectives. There are some motivation theories and approaches have developed in the field of motivation, which motivate employees to perform to the standard.

  • Equity Theory: Equity theory based on the assumption that people wants to treat fairly in relationship to others. Inequality arises when employees believe that the inputs and outcome of particular employees is less than the other employees are. Inputs refer to the contribution of the employees to the organisation in terms of labour, training, and efforts. On the other hand, outcome refers to the reward in terms of salary, benefit, and bonus that employees received from the organisation. To motivate the employees to achieve the objectives a fair level of equity should maintain in the organisation. In FLE, inequality is clear from the fact that Fatima and Moosa have the illegal privilege whereas Aliya and Suleman are underprivileged;
  • Need Hierarchy Theory: This hypothesis has developed by Abraham Maslow, which plays a significant role to motivate the employees. It has been assuming that every employee has five levels of needs that require fulfilling chronologically and fulfilment of one need give raise to another needs. At the very bottom of the hierarchy are the basic needs that include the food, shelter, medical and at the top level is a self-actualization need that is tough to achieve. According to this hypothesis, organisation needs to fulfil the demand of workers according to the level of needs of them to achieve the objectives by motivation;
Hierarchy Theory of Maslow.
Figure 2: Hierarchy Theory of Maslow.
  • Achievement-Power-Affiliation Theory: David McClelland proposed Achievement-Power-Affiliation Theory where he described that according to the nature, people has three types of need fulfilment of which motivate the person to achieve the objectives. The first need is achievement, which indicates the need for performing better to achieve the goals; the second is the power need that indicates the need to influence others and finally, the affiliation need that indicates the need for establishing relationship with the others. The intensity of this need varies from person to person and organisation should try to assess the needs of the employees and then fulfil the need to motivate them to achieve the objectives.
  • Motivation-maintenance approach: This motivation theory developed by Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman implies that manager cannot motivate the employees rather motivation comes from the work factors like the work environment or the work. Robbins & Judge (2008) pointed out three possible ways to motivating human resources to achieve the organisational objectives and the factors are
    • job enlargement,
    • enrichment, and
    • rotation while all these attributes have direct influence on the employees.
  • Job enlargement refers to give more similar job to the employees, job enrichment refers to upgrading the current jobs, and job rotation refers to rotating employees from one job to another periodically.
  • Expectancy Approach: Expectancy approach indicates that the motivation of the employees depends on three factors that are Expectancies, Instrumentality, and Valence. FLE should predict the level of belief of the employees that directly affect the motivation and try to increase the level of belief, so that they will motivate to achieve the objectives.

The role of leader in promoting the confidence among the colleague for change

In FLE, the leader need to build confidence among the employees like Fatima, Moosa, Aliya, and Suleman to undertakes the change. In the following ways, the confidence can build among employees.

  • Strong personal faith: The leader must build a strong sense of faith among the colleague so that they can trust the leader in any issues regarding the goals and objectives. Trust building is very important for the reason that it directly affects the morale of the employees they can believe the dictation of the leader. On the other hand, trust in the leader increases the confidence level of the employees and the employee believe that change will be possible under a leader whom they can trust. Using the faith of the employees or colleagues, leaders can inspire them for initiating the change keep effort to understand that the change will beneficial to both the employees and organisation.
  • Shared Decision Making: Shared decision-making is an important tool for building the confidence within the employees and they feel them part of the organisation. As a result, they will not resist the change and helps the organisation and other colleagues to initiates the changes. Actual sharing of decision-making focuses on participation regarding the important decision-making including the team forming, and project implementation.
  • Provide support for effective functioning: Leader should ensure that the required skills and understanding is available in the colleagues to initiate the change. Effective functioning refers to defining the purpose, setting the goals, developing the working procedures, and performing the tasks. The leader can continuously monitor the activities of the colleague and give the feedback to them when required and these will raise the confidence among the employees to initiate the change.
  • Instructive leading with learning opportunity: Instructive leaders are those who always help the colleagues to perform their job effectively. He may assess the training and other requirements of the employees and take action to create the learning opportunity to the employees. In such a situation employee can get the confidence and motivation to initiate the changes.
  • Developing collaborative accountability: In an organisational set up there are some working team for some special purpose and it observed the members responsible in groups for the action of the individuals. To cope with the pitfall of group responsibilities, leader can develop the individual accountability so that everyone can responsible for his or her own actions. This will bring the confidence of the colleagues and they feel that they will not hold responsible for others action. In FLE, Aliya and Suleman will motive and initiate change if Fatima and Moosa will responsible individually for their action.
  • Maintain and monitor the change: Effective leader always monitors the change process in the organisation initiated by the colleagues and stresses upon maintaining the change. Change is necessary for organisational development and the change should follow the proper channel otherwise it will not contribute to the development. The duty of the leader is to monitor the change process and motivate the colleague on positive changes that will bring high confidence among the members.

Leader’s role in empowering the co-workers

French & Bell (1999) and Robbins & Judge (2008) pointed out that organisational members need to be empowered in order to perform the tasks efficiently, and managers can empower the co-workers for better performance and inspiration. Actually, the leader needs not to empower the colleague rather he or she can create an environment where the colleagues can empower themselves. It is not a barrier for a leader, but helps the leader to get the job done from the colleague more accurately. In FLE, employees like Fatima, Moosa are empowered by the boss that they used adversely and Aliya and Suleman do not get the required authority. Following are the roles the leader can play to empower the colleague.

  • Give the opportunity to the colleagues to do the job that they think meaningful and fulfilling for them. It actually means giving freedom to the colleague to choose the job and the process of the job that is interesting and motivating to them.
  • Understand what the colleague expected from the job including the achievement and what the expectation on performance review process. It general this is the achievement need of the colleagues from the job and pattern of performance review.
  • Clearly describe how the performance or output of a colleague fit with the overall goal of the organisation and task of the other colleagues working with him.
  • Understand and describe the resources requirement of the colleagues for successfully performing a specific tasks or job.
  • Describe the basis and forms of feedback delivered to the colleagues and developed the system that allows the feedback to the leader on performance.
  • Illustrate the opportunities and chance the colleagues has on the enhancing the capabilities for performing well.
  • Understand and describe any opportunities present where the colleagues may take more responsibilities or assignments those are encouraging.
  • Motivate the colleagues for sharing the information with others and help other colleagues to perform when required. The colleagues also clear the sources of information and support as required.

The above-mentioned process is not a direct way of empowering the colleagues for presenting own ideas, working procedures within the boundaries. This is a well-defined process where the leader helps the colleagues in performing the job and within the helping process, colleagues can empower themselves.

Scenario

As a special project manager of FLE, this researcher/ prompter considered that participation of Moosa as a team member, his team working skills would positively boost during role-playing, and this manager would allow him under a hypothetical state of affairs that would be draw near to him as easy and authentic setting. This special project manager has agreed with Moosa’s limitation and cooperated with him taking into account that the situated learning allows Moosa to assemble his own understanding of team sprit and develops his outcomes.

Under the given case context, the role-play intervention would assist Moosa to promote his teamwork skills and spirit while this Role-play has designed in bona fide settings where this manager allows Moosa the opportunity to attain the projected learning outcomes of teamwork through making any extend of mistakes in unharmed surroundings that does not affect his carrier.

Objective setting technique and process

Moosa is one of the employees of the FLE whose performance is not conforming to the expected level and the reason behind his unhealthy performance has identified as the unclear vision and objectives of him. To mitigate this dilemma, it is essential to communicating with a clear vision of the company to Moosa, and to do so a process should follow mentioned below-

  • Task: In this face, the specific performance expected from Moosa, this promoter would clearly discuss with him so that he can well understand what the company expected from him and what the tasks he currently performs;
  • Time: Every task come up with a specific deadline and it is very much important for an Event Management Company, manager will give him advice about the importance of deadline, as Moosa never meet the deadline.
  • Style: Style refers to the manner or behaviour that needs to follow when performing the job and it incorporates both work behaviour and behaviour with other team members. Moosa did not follow the standard work procedures and his relationship with the other team members is not satisfactory. However, expected behaviour should clearly communicate with him.

Negotiate assignment with proper delegation and motivation

Generally, proper delegation is one good way to motivate employees in the organization and in case of FLE, proper delegation and motivation has not followed. It is one of basic reason of odd behaviour from Moosa. To giving, the assignment to Moosa following technique of delegation would apply-

  • Give better understanding about what organization expected from Moosa and how his expected performance will fit with the organizational objectives.
  • Give proper feedback on the performance and certain level of freedom to work selection.

Moosa needs motivation for performing well and the motivation must be behavioural in nature. This is because the behaviour of Moosa did not fit with the organizational perspective. He should motivate through expectancy approach and need-power affiliation approach etc. The work environment should design in a way so that Moosa can motivate from the work itself.

Development need of the employee

The employees of FLE required development especially Fatima and Moosa who have very low level of Morale. For the development of Moosa, few training will work well, such as –

  • Job Rotation: Job rotation is a very effective training for Moosa and through this training, Moosa will get the practical experience about the different area of organization, so that he can realize the work pressure of others.
  • Behavioural training: Behaviour training refers to the program through which the behaviour of the employees can change. Moosa need this behavioural training for changing the different aspects of the behaviour of him. Role-play is a very good way to change the behaviour of Moosa.

Employee performance assessment

The following method should use to evaluate the performance of the employees in FLE and especially the performance of Moosa.

  • MBO Method: MBO method refers to set objectives or goals by the employee and periodically analyse the performance regarding the achievement of the goal. Moosa should give the opportunity to set the objectives for his own work area and then periodically examine the progress towards the objectives.
  • Behavioural Anchored rating method: Behavioural anchored rating method is very useful for evaluating the performance of Moosa. According to this method, some behavioural factors should set and rating the behaviour of Moosa within the framework of selected factors.

Factors affecting the performance of employees

There are some work related and environmental factors that affect the performance of the employees of FLE like Moosa. The factors that affected the performance of Moosa are as follows –

  • Attitudes towards work: The attitudes of Moosa towards the work directly affect his performance and he possesses negative attitudes towards the work. The attitudes towards the other employees and clients are also not good;
  • Organizational Climate: Organizational climate including the work environment is very important to the performance. In FLE, the work environment is not congenial as Moosa and Fatima make the environment worse.
  • Skill Level: The skill level of Moosa does not conform to the performance required for do the job and certainly, it required the development program to make the situation better;
  • Motivation: The employees of FLE including Moosa are not enough motivated to better so that they are using unethical ways to gain benefit;
  • Span of Supervision: Moosa is not trustworthy for FLE as the span of supervision by the supervisor is not adequate, so it directly affects the performance of Moosa.

Using these factors leader can construct some feedback and give to Moosa for betterment of performance.

  1. The leader can give the feedback regarding attitudes towards the work of Moosa and clearly mention the requirement of change in behaviours.
  2. In giving the feedback on different issues like motivation, lack of supervision give the feedback using the positive word rather than the negative word.
  3. Give every feedback precisely in separation to Moosa that do not mix one feedback with another when delivering.

Development and appraisal plan

Form the assessment of the performance of Moosa and other employees, it is clear that Fast-Life Events should arrange development program and appraisal plan to ensure the right behaviour and performance of employees.

  • Development requirements of different employees are different in nature, but everyone required the behavioural training and delegation in FLE. In the case of Moosa, he required training on both skills and behaviour. Other employees like Suleman required training for skills. The details plan regarding the arrangement of training should prepare for implementation.
  • From the motivational perspective, every employee of FLE required the motivational program and for Moosa, the motivation should behavioural in nature.
  • A good performance appraisal program should undertake for all of the employees in FLE like 360-degree evaluation method and for workers like Moosa required behavioural rating scale method.

Reference List

Chong, E. ‘Role balance and team development: A study of team role characteristics underlying high and low performing teams.’ Web.

French, W. L. and Bell, C. H. Organizational Development, New Delhi: Pearson Education Inc, 1999.

Katzenbach, J. R. & Douglas, S. The Wisdom of Teams: Creating the High-Performance Organization, Harper Paperbacks, 2003.

Robbins, P. S. & Judge, A. T. Essentials of Organizational Behavior. London: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008.

Weihrich, H. and Koontz H. Management a Global Perspective, New Delhi, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2005.

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