Portfolio management has an integral role to play in investment decisions. It is about building and overseeing various investments with financial gains and risk tolerance (Reilly & Brown, 2012). To make appropriate decisions, investors must understand the factors outside the business environment that can affect investment. For example, Russia’s invasion of Ukraine is an event that continues to affect the global economy and, by extension, investment. These countries are major commodity producers, and the disruption has caused global prices to rise, particularly for oil, natural gas, and grain (Kostopoulos, 2022). Based on this trend, an investor with knowledge of the current business environment must adopt investment principles and standards to make meaningful investment decisions. Therefore, the management of portfolios helps investors and businesses understand some of the environmental risks.
An Overview of the Current Event
The ongoing war in Ukraine is an event that has gained focus due to its impact on the global economy and investment. The conflict has caused discord in the financial markets and made it much harder to predict how the global economy will recover (Kostopoulos, 2022). Russia is the third-largest oil producer and second natural gas producer, while Ukraine is among the major producers of corn, wheat, sunflower, sugar beet, and others. Since the start of the invasion, the global financial markets have declined sharply, and commodity prices continue to rise. Even though high commodity prices were already known to be a risk, the escalation of the conflict makes it more likely that they may stay high for much longer (Kostopoulos, 2022). Therefore, it has become an important external factor when analyzing aspects that affect business and investment decisions.
The Trends in The Investment Industry
The cost and reaction time have historically been at the forefront of businesses’ minds when making decisions regarding their supply chains. However, according to Kostopoulos (2022), the ongoing war between Russia and Ukraine continues to disrupt the supply chains in many different marketplaces, particularly in those economic sectors with lengthy and intricate supply chain networks. Based on this, the businesses have been forced to reevaluate the significance of maintaining a secure and reliable supply chain throughout their operations (Daly, 2022). As a result, the resilience of supply chains has emerged as an essential factor for businesses to consider when evaluating and modifying their strategy for global production.
The escalation of conflicts has led to several nations and international organizations imposing various trade and financial restrictions on Russia. These limitations disrupt the typical operations of Russian banks, businesses, and entrepreneurs (Kostopoulos, 2022). These restrictions can have an impact on Russian businesses that produce both raw materials and finished goods. Even in the case of some products that are exempt from the sanctions, like oil, for example, Russian oil importers are having trouble making payments, fearing that logistical problems may delay or prevent shipments (Kostopoulos, 2022). This is the case even though some products are exempt from the sanctions. Because of these hurdles, purchasers may decide to transfer suppliers, placing more pressure on the timely supply of the items in question.
Developed and emerging markets are adopting the new technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. It is important to find a balance between technology integration, human capital investments, and the innovation ecosystem to increase productivity over the next decade (Chung, 2021). Workers can become agents who embrace, drive, and realize the potential of technology if they have the skills and training necessary to do so. This would prevent workers from across the globe from being replaced by technology. Therefore, investing in people can no longer be an afterthought; rather, it must be regarded as a primary structural component essential to growth and resilience in the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution.
Sustainable investing is becoming increasingly popular, especially among millennials and impact investors who want to put their money into companies with strong values that make the world a better place. This investing encourages companies to adopt sustainable practices, which can have long-term benefits for both society and the economy (Matteini, 2018). It is critical to understand sustainable investment practices because they help determine where and if an investor wants to invest based on values and trends. For example, asset owners are increasing pressure on some investors to concentrate on sustainability, just as firms are being urged to be more sustainable. Thus, investment firms must incorporate sustainability to attract customers who support social responsibility.
The Investing Principles and Standards
The first principle of investing is understanding trade-offs between risk and return. A solid and reasonable understanding of risk and reward is essential to investment (Reilly & Brown, 2012). There are many various kinds of investments, and each one comes with its unique level of risk. Comparatively speaking, bonds can be considered a lower-risk investment than equities. Equities traded in emerging markets typically carry a higher level of risk than stocks traded in developed markets. The higher the level of risk, the larger the possibility for a more significant return on investment (Reilly & Brown, 2012). As a result, an individual must be aware that the value of their investment might fall and rise at any point in time.
The analysis of macroeconomics is an integral factor that enables effective investment decisions. Even experienced investors risk becoming unduly preoccupied with the market’s short-term fluctuations when volatility in the market rises (Reilly & Brown, 2012). The most crucial step is understanding the markets and investing in the right area and time. Keeping things in perspective and one’s attention on the long term is essential for avoiding making hasty investment decisions (Reilly & Brown, 2012). A well-structured analysis involves knowing that day-to-day market changes may impact the investment approach. A good understanding of the market forces is critical to achieving the outcomes an individual seeks.
Portfolio theory promotes the diversification of asset classes in various investment platforms. It is integral for an investor to spread their investment across various asset groups. Diversifying investments across different types of assets, geographic markets, and industries is one of the easiest ways to increase their chances of success when it comes to investing (Reilly & Brown, 2012). The fluctuations in the financial market are not the same for products in the market. Different investments or asset classes, like cash, fixed income, and stocks, will do different things at different times in the market cycle (Reilly & Brown, 2012). As a result, inflation, the prospects for earnings reports, and interest rates, among other things, can have different effects on different types of assets.
Time Value of Money
The time value of money is an integral financial principle in portfolio management. The concept holds that money in the present is worth more than the same money in the future (Reilly & Brown, 2012). It is a crucial principle for people and businesses trying to decide what to do in the area of investment. When deciding whether to invest in a product or service, companies think about the time value of money. Inflation and buying power are similarly related to the concept of time worth money. Both aspects must be considered, as well as the rate of return that may be obtained by investing the money (Reilly & Brown, 2012). Therefore, when investing, the money’s time value should be considered to make appropriate financial decisions.
Efficient Market Hypothesis
The efficient market hypothesis is among the most important principles in investment. It asserts that the way rational investors act depends on what they choose to do in order to get the most out of useful market functions (Reilly & Brown, 2012). The market-efficient theory makes decisions based on theory after the risks have been considered. Investors who make decisions based on how well the market works are likely to lose money because they are too confident, and optimism does not work in real life. This makes market strategy different from market efficiency in that investors in market strategy can make decisions based on real facts from the assessment of market performance, making this strategy useful in real life.
Fair and Equitable Treatment
Fair and equitable treatment is a standard that creates favorable conditions for protecting all investors and their property within a state’s borders. The need for fair and equitable dealing is one of the most significant safeguards that an investing industry may put in place to protect the value of the money that people invest (Palombino, 2018). Every investor needs to be treated equally and fairly in the market. For example, the investment industry must have policies that provide a suitable environment for investment for local and international investors. Furthermore, all must be informed about the trends that might affect their investment to make appropriate decisions. Therefore, investors’ fair and equitable treatment is crucial for the industry’s success.
Security of Investors
The full protection and security standard in general and its flexibility make it apply to various situations. However, the investment industry must protect investors against unfavorable situations and harmful acts (Palombino, 2018). Under international law, this standard gives the State a duty of vigilance and care, which includes a duty of due diligence to prevent damage done by third parties to the property of foreigners on its territory. This does not mean that investors will be covered for any damage to their investments. Conversely, it means that investors will be protected from the host state’s interference in the physical integrity of their investments (Palombino, 2018). As a result, the investment industry must develop appropriate measures to protect investors.
Diversity and Ethics in The Investment Industry
Diversity and ethics are integral to the success of the investment industry. Diversity is having people with different qualities, points of view, identities, and backgrounds (Gomez & Bernet, 2019). On the other hand, ethics is the set of moral principles that guides the conduct of a business. To make a successful, diverse, and welcoming environment, each of these things must be consciously encouraged and used. Adopting acceptable morals and diversity can help an investment business perform effectively in the market due to a rising momentum for sustainable investment (Gomez & Bernet, 2019). In addition, many people want to invest in companies with intrinsic values that drive positive transformation. Therefore, there is a growing need for investment firms to consider the adoption of environmental, social, and corporate governance.
I found that having a good understanding of the market forces is integral for an effective investment decision. This is because different factors might affect investment. Knowledge of the market allows investors to know when and what to invest their assets (Reilly & Brown, 2012). An individual who wishes to invest in a market or company must do a lot of research on that market or company and make sure it has strong foundations that will allow it to stay in business even after the war between Russia and Ukraine is over. Based on this, understanding the macroeconomic factors impacts an individual or business’ decision. As a result, analyzing external market forces reveals aspects that can be used to make appropriate investment decisions.
I learned that applying the principles and standards of investing is beneficial. One of the things that an investor must consider before making an investment decision is forecasting risk and return (Reilly & Brown, 2012). There are uncertainties that an individual or business must take into consideration when investing. It is crucial to ensure that even when returns are sacrificed to lower the risk involved, long-term returns for a person or organization should always outpace inflation (Reilly & Brown, 2012). In addition, the other factor that investors need to understand is the need for an investment plan for effectiveness. Therefore, the principles and standards of investment are crucial in making an appropriate decision.
Moreover, financial planning involves the organized allocation of resources to accomplish one’s specific financial goals and objectives. A solid financial plan is essential because it helps lessen and, in some cases, even eliminate the potential for experiencing financial difficulties due to various duties and unanticipated events (Reilly & Brown, 2012). For example, people’s means of subsistence have been disrupted in some way or another due to the current war in Ukraine, which has adversely impacted the economy. As a result, they have been forced to readjust their financial situations to account for the changing environment. Therefore, choosing the kinds of investments one is willing to make as a part of their financial plan to assist them in reaching their financial objectives is an important part of financial planning.
In my view, macroeconomic analysis is important because it helps in understanding economic trends, long-term projections, and the impact of fiscal and monetary measures. The analysis is important, especially when figuring out how well the economy is overall in terms of how much money is produced by various nations. The data on the national income helps forecast the amount of economic activity and understand how income is distributed among the various demographic subsets that make up the economy (Reilly & Brown, 2012). In terms of monetary advancement, macroeconomics helps evaluate the resources and capabilities of an economy. It promotes the development of strategies to raise the national income, improve productivity, provide job opportunities, and enhance ways to increase the size of an economy’s workforce.
The following are suggestions for organizations in the investment industry;
| ||Diversification of assets||Diversification is an essential strategy for financial investment and is not just crucial during economic unpredictability. Suppose an investor diversifies their holdings among a number of different asset classes such as equities, bonds, and precious metals (Reilly & Brown, 2012). This will help cushion the blow if one of those areas experiences rapid depreciation.|
| ||Adopt an effective risk management plan||A risk management plan provides a platform for effective management of uncertain times such as the one being experienced by the world due to the ongoing war between Russia and Ukraine. It will enable an organization to develop appropriate mitigation strategies. In addition, planning will allow the organization to stand in the face of uncertainty due to effective decision-making.|
| ||Embrace resilience practices||An investment organization should adopt resilience practices. Building a foundation of resilience practices is important to help the business stay steady when things go awry (Reilly & Brown, 2012). For example, the financial market is uncertain due to external factors beyond an organization’s influence. With resilience, the firm operating in the investment industry can withstand the effects of uncertain events.|
| ||Embrace sustainable practices||The organization should adopt sustainable operations because there is an increase in the number of people who wants to engage with businesses that practice sustainability. For example, embracing diversity and engaging in ethical operations is important.|
The success of the investment industry depends on the effectiveness of portfolio management. It involves analyzing aspects that have an impact on the path or trajectory that a particular economy takes. For example, the invasion of Ukraine by Russia is an event that is having an ongoing impact on the economy of the entire world. Because of the disruption in production in these countries, which are important producers of commodities, prices around the world have increased, particularly for oil, natural gas, and grain. Due to this pattern, an investor operating in the present-day corporate world must adopt investment principles and criteria to make investments that have real value.
Chung, H. (2021). Adoption and development of the fourth industrial revolution technology: features and determinants. Sustainability, 13(2), 871. Web.
Daly, M. C. (2022). Steering Toward Sustainable Growth. FRBSF Economic Letter, 2022(10), 1-6. Web.
Gomez, L. E., & Bernet, P. (2019). Diversity improves performance and outcomes. Journal of the National Medical Association, 111(4), 383-392. Web.
Kostopoulos, L. (2022). Emerging Domains of Conflict in the 21st Century. Raisina Files, 52. Web.
Matteini, C. (2018). Sustainable investing for institutions: A case study. The CPA Journal, 88(7), 16-18. Web.
Palombino, F. M. (2018). Fair and equitable treatment and the fabric of general principles. The Hague: TMC Asser Press.
Reilly, F., & Brown, K. (2012). Investment and portfolio management (10th ed.) Boston, MA: Cengage.