Psychological Differences in Cross-Cultural Communication in Organization

For centuries business has operated across national borders. However, it is widely acknowledged that we now live in an era of unprecedented global economic interaction and interconnectedness. The increasing globalization of business, the emergence of developing economies allied with the growing popularity of organizations forming strategic alliances and engaging in joint ventures present international organizations with many opportunities and challenges. This includes recruitment of employees from various backgrounds like culture, gender, language, ethnicity, religion, class, etc. This is in the cross-cultural communication diversity of the modern business environment and the psychological differences are a major issue in the organizational structure of today and it affects the organization by a great margin.

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Workforce diversity is an encouragement of creative ideas and understanding and ultimately the measure of “outside the box” through the process would develop. A diverse workforce always possesses the ability to bring out ideas, effective or ineffective, but it would reflect the active mind behind the day-to-day work schedule. A creative worker would follow the laid down policies of the company but at the same time would be energetic enough to formulate strategies that would be motivated towards the benefits of the company. This freethinking and creative approach would create a vibe of cultural openness that would accommodate all cultures, races, and colors. As a result, there would hardly be any real conflict at all. However, there would be competitiveness and it is a welcome note as long as it is creative. (Sims, 101-113)

There are many hindrances or several sources of the problem that can be the cause of improper communication process. A few of them are language, self-protectiveness, unclear perceptions, misunderstanding of body language, self-fulfilling assumptions, pre- assumptions, perceptual biases, Cultural Differences, etc. People in any organization or society which has enough diversity spend most of their time in an interpersonal situation. This is most often the root of an organizational or social problem. Successful communication is a necessary element of organizational success whether it is at the interpersonal, inter-group, intra-group, organizational, or external levels. (Black, 511-530)

Globalization signifies escalating global connectivity, incorporation, and interdependence in the economic, cultural, technological, social, ecological, and political orbs. Globalization has an assortment of characteristics, which influence the world in numerous dissimilar ways. The various forms of Globalization are as such, Industrial Globalization, pseudonym Trans-nationalization is surfacing of worldwide manufacture markets and wider access to an assortment of merchandise for consumers and companies. However, it appeared that the result of this process would be a world with one culture and elements like cultural pride, sovereignty, individuality would fail to exist in the long run. The derivation of this conclusion was deciphered with the help of socio-political instrumentation and economic influences that directly affect/affect the rise and fall of culture. Thus, even if a cultural minority can gain independence or sustain independence over a long period, economic sustainability would not allow it t maintain its sovereignty as a culture. As a result, in the long run, minority communities based on ethical culture would cease to exist. (Chamberlain, 435-477)

Cultural Globalization is an intensification of cross-cultural relations, initiation of fresh categories of perceptions and distinctiveness such as Globalism, which exemplify cultural conduction, the craving to get through and have the benefit of foreign commodities and ideas, take on innovative technology and practices, and play a part in world culture. Ecological Globalization refers to the beginning of global ecological defies that can not be worked out devoid of international collaboration, for instance, climate alterations, cross-boundary water, and air contaminations, excessive fishing of the ocean, and the multiplicity of invasive species. Social Globalization is the term for the accomplishment of gratis flow by people of all countries.

The largely outstanding form of this is Westernization, but Sinicization of cultures has occurred over most parts of Asia for several centuries. Augmented intercontinental travel and tourism, greater than before immigration even though it may also pave the way for illegitimate immigrations, dispersal of local consumer merchandise such as food products to other countries over and over again making them acquainted to their culture, wide-reaching fashion and pop culture such as Pokémon, Origami, Idol series, etc, global sporting events, for instance, FIFA World Cup and the Olympic Games, configuration or growth of a set of universal standards, etc are the contributions of Globalization. (Chamberlain, 435-477)

Thus, it could narrate the aspect of the basic issue of globalization and hybridization as but a two-way approach. There the basic maxims of a capitalistic economy are taken into consideration at every step of formulating the strategies of marketing. The basic impetus of any business is to deal with the principles of profit and the methods of maximization of profit margin. In this context of a market-induced economy that the issues of globalization and hybridization should have been considered by people who want independence as a cultural and ethnic minority. A cultural or ethnic minority may gain independence in today’s world but would never be able to sustain the values and norms that were the main instigators of attaining independence in the first place. (Dierickx, 1504-1511)

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Over the last decade, numerous authors have sought to describe the key competencies required by MNCs and their managers to be successful. However, the general competencies required of managers, including flexibility, resourcefulness, and the ability to articulate a vision for the organization, irrespective of managerial or operational domain. Whilst these general competencies are important, there are unique competencies required to succeed as a global manager. MNCs require talented managers possessing ‘global mindsets’ who are equipped to navigate the complexities of transnational business and able to articulate and execute the corporate strategy from a multi-country perspective, requiring them to connect and engage with numerous parties, including employees, staff, customers, suppliers and government officials possessing fundamentally different values, assumptions, beliefs, and traditions.

IHR Management, in this context, can be defined as the art of creating industrial relations of any kind, between people engaged in the industry, such as the relation between employers and employees, relation between individuals entering into commercial contracts, relation between investors and debtors, etc, to maintain true cooperation of all concerned. The efficiency of management lies in not only making the employees work but to make them work willingly, sincerely, and consciously, by employing new knowledge, new methods, new designs, new machines, and novel techniques of production and by allaying mistrust and antagonism. In this case, the most important aspect is to form an aligning context between the different national cultures. (Sims, 101-113)

To understand this statement it is important to analyze and evaluate a cross-culture difference particularly in the context of organizational culture and national culture. China and UK would be a good example of this. China is fast becoming an economic power with might and the direct impact is recognizable in UK’s business culture. UK use to follow a specified mode of ethical and mandatory code of conduct like dress code and other such variables but with the emergence of China into the bigger scene a homogenous format of business culture is seen to be developing at a brisk pace. Chinese businesspeople from diverse regions have revealed distinct individuality. In business transactions among themselves, Chinese on the odd occasion put into practice “cold calling,” or arriving devoid of an appropriate foreword. Being behind schedule for a rendezvous is considered a severe affront in Chinese business culture.

Similar to in UK business culture, if any individual would be late for an appointment, in that case, a call should be made informing the Chinese business partner declaring the predictable impediment and at the same time allow them to make modifications or rescheduling. Before visiting a Chinese business associate, it will no doubt be a marvelous idea to get ready by going through aspects of the Chinese language, culture, history, and geography. These sorts of initiatives are appreciated by Chinese businessmen. Thus it is needed to comprehend the differences with many vivid studies with the help of IHRM. (Dierickx, 1504-1511)

In the modern IHRM system it is assumed that the business should be team-backed routine-oriented, administratively led, and very aggressive. Along with all these qualities, the organizations should have a humanitarian working environment. Organizations should have flexible working conditions. The business process should be improvement-oriented, employees should be efficient and milt skilled so that they can tackle the increasing pressure and new challenges in work as required in today’s organizational infrastructure. If a trade union exists in an organization, its function is to create a link between the employees and the management. It can create an environment in which communications can be held between groups of employees and the organization. (Black, 511-530)

It can be concluded that healthy relations among countries, the management, and the employees only can bring prosperity to the company. Thus the International Human Resources Management (IHRM) system is not simply about trade unions and industrial relations. Instead of all drawbacks in IHRM ideologies of management, it has numerous facilities. Thus this approach could always be followed by the companies for finding solutions to their management-employee problems and all these factors would lead to competitive advantages for the MNE/MNEs. (Dierickx, 1504-1511)

On a personal ground, it can be stated that diversity is the challenge of thought and expression is the most effective strategy that a company can implement to encourage the “outside the box” procedure. To achieve this goal a company must encourage its staff to sit together under informal scenarios and chat on different elements not necessary on a specific official topic. Communication is simply a process of sending information from one being or group of persons to another. Superior communication will make sure that all these people and institutions comprehend the message sent. It will help in a favorable response to the message if it appears to be reasonable and fair to both the receiver and the sender. Thus, it is obvious that in the context of Behavior in Organizations, psychological differences in cross-cultural communication creates a lot of problems and should be properly addressed and resolved for the betterment of any organization.

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Black, James. A practical but theory-based framework for selecting conflict management training methods. Human Resource Management, 28.4 (2005): 511-530.

Chamberlain, Karl. ‘Teaching & Learning Guide for: Social Psychology and Media: Critical Consideration’. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 71.6 (2009): 435-477.

Dierickx, Ivan. ‘Asset Stock Accumulation and Sustainability of Competitive Advantage.’ Management Science, 35.4 (2006): 1504-1511.

Sims, Richard. Comparing ethical attitudes across cultures.’ Cross Cultural Management, 13.2 (2006): 101-113.

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