Research Methodology in Human Resource Management

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Table 1. The List of Articles Used in the Project

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Article Name Author Name(s) Journal Method Used Volume Issue Year
The impact of human resources development on small and medium enterprises (SMEs) performance Voca, Z. and Havolli, Y. Journal of Economics and Management Sciences Quantitative 2 2 2019
Integrating strategic human capital and strategic human resource management Boon, C., Eckardt, R., Lepak, D. P., and Boselle, P. The International Journal of Human Resource Management Qualitative 29 1 2018
Human resource management and employee well‐being: towards a new analytic framework Guest, D. E. Human Resource Management Journal Qualitative 27 1 2017
High commitment human resource management practices and employee service behaviour: Trust in management as mediator Rubel, M. R. B., Rimi, N. R., Yusliza, M. Y., and Kee, D. M. H. IIMB Management Review Quantitative 30 4 2018
Greening the hospitality industry: How do green human resource management practices influence organizational citizenship behavior in hotels? A mixed-methods study Pham, N. T., Tučková, Z., and Jabbour, C. J. C. Tourism Management Mixed 72 2019
A quantitative and qualitative review of what meta-analyses have contributed to our understanding of human resource management Pindek, S., Kessler, S. R., and Spector, P. E. Human Resource Management Review Mixed 27 1 2017

In the academic environment, the quality of data obtained through research depends on a variety of factors. Modern studies utilize several approaches in this regard, which are quantitative, qualitative, and mixed. In the first case, the findings are analyzed and presented in the form of numbers and statistics. It enables a clear, concise visual presentation of the study’s results, adding credibility to the discussed theories. The article by Voca and Havolli (2019) utilizes this method to describe the effect of human resource management on the performance of small and medium organizations. Rubel et al. (2018) have chosen a quantitative model, as well, when researching the correlation between effective management practices and employee behavior. This method allowed the authors to confirm the assumption that high commitment management builds mutual trust and enhances a company’s productivity.

At the same time, the qualitative model relies on narrative descriptions of studies and findings. Boon et al. (2018) applied this model when studying strategic human resource management. It allowed them to describe global research streams and propose areas of future finding integration. Another study, which utilizes a similar methodology, is proposed by Guest (2017), who analyzed employee well-being in relation to human resource management. A mixed approach uses a combination of both methods, supporting theoretical discussions with numerical data. Pham, Tučková, and Jabbour (2019) used it to show the importance of green human resource management in environmentally-friendly hospitality management. Pindek, Kessler, and Spector (2017) applied a mixed model on a large scale, researching meta-analyses of human resource development. This approach allowed them to show both theoretical and practical contributions of prior studies to the matter. The purpose of this report is to present an in-depth analysis of the articles discussed earlier in terms of their methodology.

Critical Analysis of Literature

Accurate selection of relevant literature is a critical component of quality research practices. The first article discussed within the framework of the present report focuses on strategic human capital and human resource management (Boon et al., 2018). These aspects are widely discussed in the modern corporate environment, as companies devote increasing attention to the importance of human capital. Boon et al. (2018) had the objective of increasing their readers’ knowledge in terms of human resource management and utilization. The study analyzed a substantial database of sources, as the total number of references reaches. The second article, which is evaluated in this section, also relies on qualitative research due to the nature of the study. David E. Guest (2017) devotes his attention to the way in which human resource management affects the employees’ well-being. The author notes that prevalent theories of human resource management focus on efficiency and performance. In turn, Guest’s (2017) objective is to propose an alternative framework and refers to a considerable amount of prior studies to support his ideas. The choice of methodology and literature seems adequate and serves the general purpose of the article.

The focus of the third article was on the hospitality industry, in which the authors discerned a lack of relevant research. In order to compensate for the insufficiency, Pham, Tučková, and Jabbour (2019) opted for a mixed methodology, as it would allow them to review the topic in a comprehensive manner. The authors introduced credible perspectives of previous researchers, who worked in adjacent areas, and the choice of literature corresponds with the nature of the study. Some of the sources focus on the theoretical side of such aspects as environmentally friendly business activities and human resource management, while others reflect on the previous findings in relation to practice. The selection appears to be adequate and sufficient, as dictated by the objectives of the research.

Simultaneously, study number four used meta-analyses from journals related to human resource management and development as the basis of their work. Overall, four Pindek, Kessler, and Spector (2017) analyzed 407 meta-analyses, which forms a substantial foundation in terms of literature. Such a large variety of sources allowed authors to consider all major points of view and introduce sufficient evidence to draw an objective conclusion. The scope of the study accounts for its credibility, and the correct choice of methodology contributed to the general success. Rubel et al. (2018) explore the sphere of human resource management from a practical standpoint, relying on existing theories without devising their own. High Commitment Human Resource Management (or HCHRM) is the core of their study, which is why a large portion of the literature is devoted to it. Rubel et al. (2018) investigate the evolution of the theoretical perception of HCHRM, and the utilized sources provide sufficient evidence. The study does not attempt to cover the global aspect of the discussed theory, focusing on a specific group in terms of occupation and geography.

The issue of effective human resource management has been an area of intense interest for researchers on a global level. The sixth article discussed in the present report was prepared by researchers from Kosovo, who wanted to evaluate existing theoretical findings in their setting of interest. The primary hypothesis of this article is based on the principle of human resource development. Accordingly, Voca and Havolli (2019) considered relevant literature and presented the outline of the theoretical foundation of their work. The sources were recent and credible, which implied that the hypothesis was based on solid facts. The reference list comprises researchers from different parts of the world, which has added a global perspective to the hypothesis. The selection reflects the objectives of the discussed article and ensures the credibility of the further findings.

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Critical Analysis of Methodology

The authors of the discussed articles had a major objective, which consisted of explaining a profound theoretical framework of human resource management. The qualitative research method appears to be an effective instrument in this context, as it serves to formulate complex ideas and theories. An in-depth review of relevant literature is one of the main data collection techniques applied in qualitative research, and Boon et al. (2018) demonstrate it at length. When presenting the theoretical findings, the author of the present paper follows a particular structure using the qualitative method. First, Guest (2017) describes the current situation in human resource management, underlining its negative aspects, thus prompting the reader to consider alternative ways. Next, the author of the discussed article provides extensive references to other researchers who have examined particular sides of the proposed theory. A large number of references adds credibility to Guest’s (2017) findings and introduce varying perspectives. This direction of research corresponds with the nature of qualitative research and becomes an appropriate manner of presenting new theoretical perspectives.

As mentioned previously, the authors wanted to cover the topic from various perspectives. Such goals required that a mixed approach should be used by Pham, Tučková, and Jabbour (2019), and their choice was correct. The qualitative side revealed itself in the first part of the main section, in which the authors described prior research. The Ability-Motivation-Opportunity theory serves as the foundation of this study, and it is discussed with the use of qualitative data. Subsequently, once the theoretical basis is introduced and solidified, the authors continue with a practical survey of 203 employees, which is a classical instrument of quantitative analysis. Overall, six hypotheses were tested in a quantitative manner, whereas the qualitative approach was applied in two practical cases, as well. The combined methodology allowed the authors of the article to attain their goals effectively, and the study’s outcome correlates with its basis.

Similar to the previously described study, the next article does not rely on one particular method, utilizing their combination instead. Among various formats of research, meta-analyses occupy a special position due to their large scope and accuracy. The purpose of meta-analyses is to systemize large arrays of academic data and draw a common conclusion, reflecting a weighted average of all findings. Pindek, Kessler, and Spector (2017) conduct an in-depth review of the literature, which is the core of this study. Such a method of data collection is qualitative in nature, which is completely justified by the premise of this research.

As the fifth study does not aim at introducing a new theoretical framework or transforming the existing one, quantitative methodology appears to be adequate in this scenario. As discussed above, its purpose is to test hypotheses in practice, and Rubel et al. (2018) pursued a similar goal. A hierarchical model was used to assess the variables, which were determined by quantitative research. The purpose of the final article was to confirm whether there was a positive correlation between human resource development and the performance of an organization. Voca and Havolli (2019) note that the topic is not a new one, but most of the previous studies were conducted in developed countries. The authors used quantitative research methods to assess their assumptions in the practical environment of Kosovo. In order to evaluate the practical effectiveness of the theoretical framework, the authors correctly opted for a quantitative approach.

Critical Data Analysis

The correct utilization of research methodology allowed all six groups of authors to attain success in their research. Using an array of evidence, Boon et al. (2018) were able to come to their main conclusions, consisting of two major research streams, which can improve strategic research in the area of human resource management. Boon et al. (2018) wanted their findings to promote scholars’ interest ineffective human capital development techniques. The qualitative methodology allowed them to do so, and all objectives of the article are met. Simultaneously, having laid the foundation for an alternative approach to human resource management, Guest (2017) accumulates his findings in a general theoretical framework. Overall, the author managed to accomplish the objectives, which were introduced in this paper, using the correct methodology and relevant evidence-base. Therefore, this article serves as a valuable example of successful qualitative research in the modern academic environment.

On the other hand, two mixed-model studies also revealed a substantial level of finding accuracy. Pham, Tučková, and Jabbour (2019) managed to describe six major hypotheses, which allowed them to draw a generalized conclusion regarding the field. Subsequently, the theoretical framework was applied through quantitative methodology, allowing the authors to attain their research objectives. As for the next article, during the second stage, Pindek, Kessler, and Spector (2017) conducted a citation analysis using the ISI Thomson Web of Science database, thus introducing the quantitative side to this article. Finally, the authors give their findings a narrative description, systemizing the results of the research. This paper underlines the effectiveness of the combined utilization of two approaches to research. However, such a dual approach must be utilized only when it is justified by the complex nature of the study and its objectives.

The two final studies attained their objectives using quantitative models. Having introduced the basis of HCHRM to their readers, Rubel et al. (2018) proceeded to evaluate its effectiveness in the chosen setting. The empirical stage involved 365 line managers of the banking industry in Bangladesh (Rubel et al., 2018). Next, the researchers outlined the hypotheses and used questionnaires to receive empirical evidence. Rubel et al. (2018) correctly utilized judgmental sampling, as they were interested incredible responses from managers with over one year of experience. A hierarchical model was used to assess the variables, which were determined by quantitative research. Using this model, the authors were able to make correct conclusions and list both practical and theoretical implications. The sixth study was set in an emerging country, which added novelty to the findings. Consequently, Voca and Havolli (2019) were able to draw a conclusion, which reflected the situation in their particular setting. Their choice of methodology was corrected, which accounted for the accuracy of the results, despite possible limitations.

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Conclusions

The studies, which were discussed above, reflect the variety of research techniques utilized in the modern academic environment. The qualitative approach is effective in discussing new theoretical aspects of various issues, as it describes them in a convenient verbal form. Within the context of the present report, two articles were examined, in which the authors relied on qualitative data models. Boon et al. (2018) focused on contemporary views on human resource development, analyzing a large number of credible sources. The objective of their article was to introduce the current situation to their readers while outlining possible avenues for future development and research. Boon et al. (2018) were able to attain their goals due to the correct implementation of qualitative research. Simultaneously, Guest (2017) utilized a similar model, as he discussed the mutual gain model in the context of human resource management and employee well-being. He was able to collect sufficient data, proving this standpoint, through appropriate research. Accordingly, qualitative analysis is effective in establishing new theoretical points.

On the other hand, quantitative models aim at translating previous theoretical findings into practice. Such research does not attempt to revise the existing perception of the issue. Instead, it evaluates different hypotheses in practical settings, thus providing empirical evidence of their effectiveness or of a lack thereof. Rubel et al. (2018) utilized the High Commitment Human Resource Management principle and assessed it through a survey. They were able to discern a positive correlation between the implementation of the aforementioned principle and the in- and extra-role behavior of employees. Using a similar methodology, Voca and Havolli (2019) confirmed that motivation and positivity improved the organization’s performance, while managers’ education was not a relevant criterion in this respect. Therefore, quantitative research allowed both groups of authors to collect credible evidence supporting their hypotheses.

Finally, when the nature of the study demands a complex approach to the issue, a combination of both research methods can be used. In this case, qualitative data is formulated in the form of a theoretical framework, followed by an empirical analysis using quantitative instruments. Pham, Tučková, and Jabbour (2019) introduce the Ability-Motivation-Opportunity theory and evaluate its effectiveness in the form of a survey, confirming the hypothesis with solid evidence. At the same time, Pindek, Kessler, and Spector (2017) used mixed methodology in their comprehensive review of meta-analyses in the field of human resource management. The objective was colossal in scale, but an effective combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches became an adequate choice in this scenario. Overall, each research method pursues its own goals, and the correct choice of approach to data collection and analysis accounts for the success and credibility of a study.

Reference List

Boon, C., Eckardt, R., Lepak, D. P. & Boselle, P. (2018) ‘Integrating strategic human capital and strategic human resource management,’ The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 29(1), pp. 34–67.

Guest, D. A. (2017) ‘Human resource management and employee well‐being: Towards a new analytic framework,’ Human Resource Management Journal, 27(1), pp. 22–38.

Pham, N. T., Tučková, Z., and Jabbour, C. J. C. (2019) ‘Greening the hospitality industry: How do green human resource management practices influence organizational citizenship behavior in hotels? A mixed-methods study’, Tourism Management, 72, 386–399.

Pindek, S., Kessler, S. R., and Spector, P. E. (2017) ‘A quantitative and qualitative review of what meta-analyses have contributed to our understanding of human resource management,’ Human Resource Management Review, 27(1), 26–38.

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Rubel, M. R. B., Rimi, N. R., Yusliza, M. Y. & Kee, D. M. H. (2018) ‘High commitment human resource management practices and employee service behaviour: Trust in management as mediator,’ IIMB Management Review, 30(4), 316–329.

Voca, Z. and Havolli, Y. (2019) ‘The impact of human resources development on small and medium enterprises (SMEs) performance,’ Journal of Economics and Management Sciences, 2(2).

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