The Issues of Human Resource Management


Macrotech Group is a company operating in Hong Kong and striving to deliver excellent professional service for prominent and leading companies and stores, including DFS, Gucci, Apple Store, Foreign Bank, and governmental agencies. Nevertheless, the company has recently begun experiencing noticeable problems in the quality of its security service and the performance of security guards, which retards its business development and results in a loss of clients. In this regard, this paper aims at conducting an in-depth literature review on the issues of human resource management, recruitment, and on-job training and development.

Strategic Human Resources Management

The chapter profoundly examines the theme of SHRM, primarily the most effective techniques and practices related to HRM. First, the author defines SHRM and describes its main prerequisites, provisions, and assumptions. SHRM’s methods comprise position management, staffing, compensation, performance management, and employee relations. Specifically, position management should be directed at developing the correspondence between position or competencies and employees’ skills, traits, and attitudes.

Staffing should be focusing on appropriate outside selection (or recruitment) and inside the selection, namely, on-job training. Besides, compensation strategy can be divided into two methods: performance-based compensation and efficiency wage. Finally, employee relations should be built on the provision of voice and goal-setting motivation.

The given publication is specifically devoted to strategic human resource management (SHRM) and extends to other issues and topics directly related to the central theme. The author defines SHRM, describes its aims and principles, and presents views and perspectives on strategic HRM. According to Haidar (2021), SHRM is a specific approach, determining how an organization’s long-term objectives will be attained through employees and integrated HR strategies and policies.

Besides, the publication contains SHRM’s three core assumptions: the human capital is the primary spring of competitive advantage; HR strategies should be tightly connected to the overall business strategy, and segmental HR strategies should be coherent and interrelated. The researcher is also concerned with effective HR strategies, their development, barriers to their realization, and the connection between SHRM and organizational structure.

This highly reliable study summarizes current knowledge about SHRM and associated issues, providing the theoretical basis and empirical results of studies for the past three decades. Specifically, Jiang and Messersmith (2017) detail the historical development of SHRM, indicating that the Scopus database contains 8126 related publications since 1980. The researchers also state that the most frequent theories associated with SHRM include human capital theory, resource-based view, behavioral perspective, and others. The authors must reveal the noticeable relationships between SHRM and organizational outcomes, including financial performance. Finally, the article concerns the issue of SHRM’s implementation, specifying that designated managers should supervise this process.

Human Resource System

The objective of the study is to explore the impact of the human resource system (HRS), Management Development Index, and employee engagement (EE) on an organization’s performance. First, the author explains the terms mentioned above and their connection with firm performance (FP). In particular, Hooi indicates that much research discovered a considerable correlation between HRS and FP irrespective of size and activity. In addition, HRS can have a significant effect on EE, which eventually reflects on the organization’s outcomes. Herewith, the research notes that efficient HRS should possess specific stimuli, such as job security, advancement opportunities, participation programs, and information sharing, encouraging workers in decision-making. Overall, the present study has found an association between HRS and organizational performance.

The book provides detailed and up-to-date information about human resource information systems (HRIS), an in-depth describing the history of the system, the implementation process, the fields of application, and other topics. Kavanagh and Johnson (2018) state that HRIS is specific technology developed to support HR functions, procedures, and activities, including the management of employees’ data, payroll processing, training, etcetera. The authors are also concerned with such points as the difference between electronic human resource management and HRIS, enterprise resource planning, and types of HRIS.

The problems of the implementation process can primarily be associated with users’ attitudes towards HRIS because of the lack of its functionality, the wrong selection of software packages, the cost of the system, and others. Finally, the authors write about future trends connected with HRIS’s application and raise the issue of HRIS’s privacy and security.

This study aims at examining relevant aspects that allow for gaining benefit from human resource information system (HRIS) and implementing it successfully. The researchers give an adequate description of HRIS and its step-by-step development. Specifically, HRIS can be determined as a set of hardware, software, database, and computer applications to store, collect, present, distribute, process, and manage data related to HR. Mauro and Borges-Andrade (2020) specify that three factors affect the use of HRIS: implementation process, users’ perception, and the quality of the automated model.

Concerning the first factor, the authors note that implementation should be controlled by experienced professional who understands the system and the business rule of HR. In terms of findings, it is worth noting that the most favorable characteristics of the system are ease of use and friendly interface.

Recruiting and Screening Strategies

The article highlights the importance of human capital in the organization’s success and development and, thus, outlines the reasons for adopting AI-enabled recruiting systems in the HR department. The authors claim that, in this century, the source of competitive advantage has shifted from tangible assets, such as property and equipment, to people, especially talented, skilled, and qualified.

Moreover, with the recent skyrocketing technological progress, digital recruiting has acquired raised popularity and significance among employers. In this regard, Black and van Esch (2020) describe three epochs in digital recruiting, the first of which began with the introduction of the Internet and the first digital job boards, including Concerning AI-enabled recruiting systems, the reasons for their employment are primarily connected with facilitating the conducting of activities such as outreach, assessment, screening, and coordination. Additionally, the scholars give comprehensive recommendations for managers regarding potential challenges and concerns, the system’s characteristics and tasks, and many others.

The given book is a comprehensive research-based source containing various articles by different scholars on themes and issues about e-HRM, concepts, innovations, and strategies. The book has items about SHRM, HRIS, HR Digitalisation Technologies, Social Media and HRM, or HRM’s implementation and its implications. However, one of the most valuable points of this source is articles about e-recruiting, selection, talent identification, the Applicant Tracking System (ATS), and social media screening.

For instance, an article by Holm unfolds the foundations of e-recruiting, its benefits, helpful resources, such as corporate career websites and Social Network Sites, and data protection. The article about the ATS explains the system’s benefit in the screening process, data analytics, and communication with candidates, as well as concerns about efficiency issues. It is worth noting that the main advantage of the ATS is reduced time related to applicants’ selection and a higher chance to hire the right employees.

The given research aims at defining specific recruitment and selection procedures currently conducted in companies and identifying methodologies involved in this process. The authors describe the stages of traditional and recruitment processes and methods of recruitment overall. These techniques include internal recruitment, job bidding, and job posting, employee references, external recruitment, and formal and informal recruitments. For example, internal recruitment implies seeking deserved candidates inside the company, whereas external recruitment is related to outsourcing.

The researchers note that the first method is more beneficial since it promotes employees’ retention, commitment, and engagement. The article also expands on the selection process and its indispensable elements such as CV screening, writing tests, interviews, background and reference checks, and others. The author concluded that most employees believe that applied selection methods are critical in the recruitment process.

The article investigates novel developments in the area of recruitment and selection with a strong emphasis on current technologies. The author provides examples of technological developments in the principal stages of the recruitment process, namely, attraction, screening, selection, and onboarding. For instance, in the attraction phase, Nikolaou (2021) recommends recruiters to use online specialized job sites or social media and include video testimonials of current workers in their career sites. In the second stage, it is useful to appeal to LinkedIn, encouraging job-seekers to have CVs or application forms.

The researcher also mentions the advantage of ATS in this process. Concerning selection, Nikolaou (2021) states that employers can use gamification assessment or asynchronous interviewing able to determine candidates’ experiences and reactions. Finally, onboarding involves such techniques as on-the-job training, coaching-mentoring, and formal or informal apprenticeship with the utilization of various digital applications or technologies.

The objective of the study is to detect various innovations and preferences of different age groups concerning digital recruiting strategies and determine their benefit for job-seekers. The study was conducted by using questionnaires with multiple-choice questions sent to 94 individuals. As a result, the researcher discovered that 45 percent of candidates prefer video interviews, while the Applicant Tracking system – only 16 percent. In addition, based on answers, organizations’ portals that are easy to use were regarded as the most efficient digital recruiting strategy. Thus, the researchers concluded that in current conditions, digital recruitment has become preferable to traditional recruitment.

On-job Training and Development

The given source is of high value since it explores the relatively new method incorporated into training and development, namely, gamification. The authors provide a comprehensive insight into gamification as a technique of web-based employee training, touching on widespread related misunderstandings and challenges. Furthermore, Armstrong and Landers (2018) give helpful advice on the effective application of gamification in the context of workplace training and describe procedures for gamification in an evidence-based way.

The article also contains an example of gamified content delivered to trainees to boost their understanding of the content, indicating elements needed for the success of such an approach. These elements comprise leaderboards, badges, points, interesting narratives, challenges, and immersion. Finally, the scholar provides the literature proving the productivity of gamification for on-the-job training.

The given study aims at examining the influence of training & development programs and a working environment on organizational performance. For this purpose, the researchers gathered data from 300 respondents using a self-completion survey and cross-sectional research design. As revealed, training and development, working environment employee engagement had robust relationships with the organization’s performance. The article also gives a useful literature review on the questions such as training and development, training and development and employee engagement, training and development and job satisfaction, and others. However, it is worth noting that training and development have an adequate effect only when employees are engaged in and satisfied with their work.

The article delivers the conceptual framework for training and development programs and analyzes current data confirming the diverse advantages of these programs. First, the researchers give a historical overview of the programs’ development since the 1950s, noting that mostly, they were assigned to newcomers and young workers. In this way, companies equipped employees with advancement opportunities and, hence, tried to guarantee their long-term loyalty to firms.

The authors also state that training programs are needed to improve workers’ knowledge foundation, teach them new skills and roles, and build conducive corporate culture. The benefits of training and development programs include the ability to learn technical, soft, and organizational skills, lift their job satisfaction, while companies gain better organizational performance, market growth, and employee retention. Finally, it is worth noting that the article is rife with various relevant examples, facts, evidence, and statistics.

The book supplies readers with extensive knowledge about workplace training and development, considering different aspects and issues. The authors describe major components of learning, effective design for programs, forces inspiring for training, and the roles and competencies of training professionals. Moreover, the book in-depth considers strategic training, associated best practices, employee development process, and organizational characteristics impacting the outcomes of training.

In terms of designing, Noe and Kodwani (2018) notice that it necessitates a thorough assessment that consists of organizational analysis, individual analysis, and task analysis. Besides, readers can find various learning theories and concepts rooted in many training and development programs. Finally, the scholars shed light on the program evaluation process, including the reasons for evaluations, elements of successful completion of the programs, and the determination of return on investments. The book is also equipped with various interesting and motivating examples, facts, and statistics.

The article presents an in-depth overview of different HR-related concepts such as employee training and development, employee performance, and employee performance evaluation. In particular, Rodriguez and Walters (2017) define training and development, indicating that this practice is meant to fill the gap between existing and expected performance.

Besides, it is used as a tool to enhance employees’ job satisfaction and retention and maximize the returns of individuals. The authors also note that, for satisfactory results of the programs, managers should identify the most critical needs relevant to organizational objectives. The approaches to the programs comprise problem-centered, profile comparison, formal training, on-the-job and off-the-job training, coaching and mentoring, role-playing, and others. The benefits of training and development are employees’ increased morale and involvement, reduced production costs, a better sense of security, lower absenteeism, and higher quality and availability of the personnel.


The given paper has provided a profound literature review on different aspects of human resource activity, including SHRM, HRS, recruitment, and on-job training and development. Concerning the first theme, the review contains definitions, assumptions, principles, valuable practices and strategies, and useful recommendations. In the second section, the paper determines the basics, future directions, and applications, HRS, the connection between HRS and employees’ involvement, and related innovations. In terms of recruiting strategies, AI-enabled systems place a prominent role in current contexts and gain increasing utilization and diversity in functionality and design. Finally, the review considers both traditional employee training and development methods, including formal training or coaching, and up-to-date approaches, such as gamification.


Armstrong, M. B., & Landers, R. N. (2018). Gamification of employee training and development. International Journal of Training and Development, 22(2), 162-169. Web.

Black, J. S., & van Esch, P. (2020). AI-enabled recruiting: What is it and how should a manager use it?. Business Horizons, 63(2), 215-226. Web.

Bondarouk, T., & Fisher, S. (Eds.). (2020). Encyclopedia of electronic HRM. De Gruyter Oldenbourg.

Chaudhry, N. I., Jariko, M. A., Mushtaque, T., Mahesar, H. A., & Ghani, Z. (2017). Impact of working environment and training & development on organization performance through mediating role of employee engagement and job satisfaction. European Journal of Training and Development Studies, 4(2), 33-48.

Daley, D. M. (2015). Strategic human resources management. In N. M. Riccucci (Eds.), Public personnel management (pp. 120-125). Routledge.

Haidar, I. (2021). Strategic human resources management. The Syrian Virtual University.

Hamza, P. A., Othman, B. J., Gardi, B., Sorguli, S., Aziz, H. M., Ahmed, S. A., Sabir, B.Y., Ismael, N.B., Ali, B.J., & Anwar, G. (2021). Recruitment and selection: The relationship between recruitment and selection with organizational performance. International Journal of Engineering, Business and Management, 5(3), 1-13. Web.

Hooi, L. W. (2019). Leveraging human assets for MNCs performance: The role of management development, human resource system and employee engagement. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 32(13), 2729-2758. Web.

Jiang, K., & Messersmith, J. (2018). On the shoulders of giants: A meta-review of strategic human resource management. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 29(1), 6-33. Web.

Kavanagh, M. J., & Johnson, R. D. (Eds.). (2018). Human resource information systems: Basics, applications, and future directions. Sage Publications.

Khan, M. M., Ahmad, R., & Fernald, L. W. (2020). A conceptual analysis of training and development. Global Management Sciences Review, 5(3), 14-22. Web.

Mauro, T. G., & Borges-Andrade, J. E. (2020). Human resource system as innovation for organizations. Innovation & Management Review, 17(2), 197-214. Web.

Nikolaou, I. (2021). What is the role of technology in recruitment and selection?. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 24, E2. Web.

Noe, R. A., & Kodwani, A. D. (2018). Employee training and development. McGraw-Hill Education.

Rajkumar, E., & Mohan, N. (2019). An innovation in digital recruiting strategies – Job seeker’s perspective. Adalya Journal, 8(10), 232-236.

Rodriguez, J., & Walters, K. (2017). The importance of training and development in employee performance and evaluation. World Wide Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, 3(10), 206-212.

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