The Role of Information Management in Business

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Abstract

The role of information management cannot be ignored in today’s society. People have to work with large amounts of information and base their decisions on thoughtful evaluation. They develop information systems and follow the standards to create, store and exchange facts and data, with a specific value for communities and organizations. In this paper, the concepts of information governance and information security will be discussed because of the Procter and Gamble case and the airline company that uses technology to encourage staff development and establish efficient management.

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Being recognized as a holistic approach to distributing information throughout an organization, information governance helps to balance risks and benefits. To make sure all information is protected new opportunities, information security policies are promoted. The analysis of these concepts will introduce for the airline company to manage information, enhance progress, and improve working processes with respect to the chosen goals and available resources.

Introduction

The growth of the information technology (IT) field can no longer be ignored today. Companies are interested in the development of new information systems (IS) to protect their work and their clients’ interests. Such processes as virus attacks and hacking challenge information management in a variety of ways and destroy the reputation of organizations in a short period. Different approaches to minimise risks exist, and the application of information governance and information security policies is an available option. Any organization has access to a particular number of sources and people, and the development of IS depends on how well senior leadership is able to control multiple working processes.

This paper aims to investigate information systems of one airline company and discuss the impact of IT on staff development, communication, and decision-making, addressing the Procter and Gamble case and critically analysing the literature. Security and governance are the concepts that determine the quality of work and guarantees the company gives to its employees and customers. Information management is a complex process, and the examination of governance and security policies will help to improve company’s characteristics and internal processes.

Information Governance and Information Security

Debate Background

In the modern world of business, people cannot stop working with information. They store and remove data, collect and exchange facts, curate and disseminate documents. These processes have to be properly organised and controlled by information management (IM) principles. Multiple IS are virtually developed to provide users with unlimited resources and opportunities to make decisions, maintain control, and build settings (Bourgeois et al., 2019; Soomro, Shah and Ahmed, 2016). Due to a variety of responsibilities and impact of information on today’s business, leaders and managers enhance its appropriateness and significance.

Many concepts create a basis for IS management, and information governance and security are one of them. Bourgeois et al. (2019) find the terms “information management” (IM) and “information governance” (IG) interchangeable. However, Hanzo (2017) underlines that they represent different ways of how information is used within an organization: governance is proactive, and management is reactive.

These opinions do not contradict each other but contribute to a better understanding of operations with information. IM strategies are necessary to control the already made decisions, while IG activities focus on planning and predicting mistakes. Security is promoted to protect companies and their clients and analyse crisis factors that could influence the working process.

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Information Governance

IG plays a vital role in information management processes. It is a critical aspect of corporate governance that is the highest level of authority of an organization (Smallwood, 2019). According to Rasouli et al. (2016), IG is a holistic approach to maximise the value of information and improve the quality of data exchange. To support the same position, Smallwood (2019) admits that it is also the way for companies to meet the existing ethical standards, improve implementation processes, and comply with regulations. IG programs have to minimise risks, reduce human resource costs, and meet quality standards.

There is no simple rule on how to manage information and avoid losses. Therefore, researchers develop opportunities to control all the processes of the information lifecycle and make choices as per personal interests or needs (Md Ajis and Baharin, 2019). However, one should never confuse the main idea of IG, and Hanzo (2019) gives clear recommendations on this point.

IG is not just a single process that has its beginning, requirements, and end, but a combination of technologies, strategies, and processes to optimise the information and meet business needs (Hanzo, 2017). When a company develops its information flow, IG is considered.

The value of information depends on how well leaders and managers control their resources and save data. Therefore, IG should address different spheres of work, promoting the quality of information, privacy of users, information security, and safe access (Rasouli et al., 2016). To avoid chaos and unpredictable losses, organizations establish frameworks to be followed by the staff, and employees must introduce these policies to customers in a more comprehensible and less detailed way.

Information assets vary, depending on the needs of customers, leaders, managers, and other stakeholders. To avoid misunderstandings and manage all business processes properly, IG policies have to be identified, discussed and established beforehand (Rasouli, 2016). A company cannot focus on risk prevention or cost analysis only and has to combine such disciplines as document management or recovery.

Following the principle of information ladder, information and data are never the same. Data is a collection of facts and numbers that may not have meaning or power in an organization, and the task of managers is to turn them into information. As a result, employees who are not able to distinguish between data and information governance provoke problems in IG (Merkus, Helms and Kusters, 2019).

However, the coherency of these concepts promotes control and an effective organization of working activities. Data governance deals with structured and unstructured data in terms of its storage and transfer, including loss prevention and service level identification (Dunn, 2017). IG is also associated with structured and unstructured data but aims at improving categorisation, access, and lifecycle (Dunn, 2017). IG assures accountability and integrity of enterprise information as an organizational asset for further implementation and exchange.

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Information Security

In addition to effective governance, the success of organizational and informational management depends upon the application of information security (IS) policies. When people share their personal information, they expect it to be protected. Companies guarantee the safety of “the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information assets, whether in storage, processing, or transmission, via the application of policy, education, training and awareness, and technology” (Whitman and Mattord, 2018, p. 10).

Regarding such a definition, three main objectives of IS programs are identified: confidentiality, integrity, and availability. As soon as information is sent from one source to another source via a local system or the Internet, it becomes exposed to online attackers and spy programs, questioning the concept of security (Safa and Solms, 2016). As a result, many concerns and ambiguity exist around the concepts of IG and IS in terms of IM. Therefore, an understanding of the main elements of IS enhances the quality of working processes, as well as the relationships between a company and its clients.

IS is predetermined by available technologies and policies with the help of which people keep their information safe. Failure to protect personal data results in certain legal liabilities and other unpleasant consequences. For example, confidentiality is one of the main elements of IS according to which information cannot reach unauthorised parties (Kumar, Raj and Jelciana, 2018).

However, Aldossary and Allen (2016) underline that due to the development of cloud computing technologies, it becomes difficult for modern companies to ensure confidentiality. As soon as an individual logs on the website, much information becomes available to the third parties and shared around the web. Encryption methods are frequently applied to protect information against cloud computing attacks (Aldossary and Allen, 2016). Corruption and configuration errors exist, making top management and senior leadership take responsibility for legal consequences.

Integrity is another property of IS that ensures information security. It is explained as the confidence of a company that stored information cannot be fiddled by hackers or other unwanted individuals (Kumar, Raj and Jelciana, 2018). Compared to confidentiality, protection of data integrity can be managed either by a client or by a third party with the help of MAC algorithms and hashing value calculation (Aldossary and Allen, 2016). Attention to integrity considerably facilitates decision-making processes and organizational tasks.

Finally, availability is the concept under which companies make sure that information is always accessible upon customers’ or managers’ demands without any delay. As soon as a person offers some information to a company, it is possible to ask it back or for a regular check-up, without denial or another excuse to postpone a procedure (Kumar, Raj and Jelciana, 2018).

Organizations may need additional information about people, communities, or society, and business relationships presuppose the exchange and accessibility of information. Following all these properties promotes a possibility to perform activities at different levels, without questioning information security and safety.

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Senior Leadership in Information Governance: Procter and Gamble Case

Information remains one of the most critical aspects of any organization. Leaders and managers are responsible for information exchange, storage, and analysis; thus all of them play a crucial role in IG and IM. The case of Proctor and Gamble (P&G) company proves the importance of governing information by means of following specific standards, processes, and approaches securely.

According to In et al. (2018), IG is viewed as a philosophy (the creation of a strategic plan), activity (the necessity to take a list of steps), and control (understanding of mechanisms to govern information). One person or a group of people can hardly succeed in completing all these functions. Therefore, the leaders of P&G promoted restructuring and reorganised the small and independent business into global independent organizations, with senior leadership being responsible for IG.

P&G History

P&G was founded by William Procter and James Gamble in Ohio in 1837. The company became one of the leading soap suppliers in the United States and easily entered the global market in several decades. In addition to promoting safe and high-quality products, P&G leaders paid attention to innovation and branding, which created an opportunity to spread its services in more than 180 countries.

The company had to deal with large data sets, and the importance of information management, along with IS and IG, was critical. In 2014, P&G sales brought profits in about $83 billion, following a homogenous set of resources (people, equipment, and finance) (Khan, 2017). The first significant changes were observed in its organizational structure in 1999 to reorganise several independent businesses into focused units.

Each unit should have its senior executive to control and promote the completion of specific tasks in regard to the established rules and expectations. Global Business Units (GBUs) aim at developing strategies, manufacturing products, bringing innovation, and coordinating activities. It is not enough for a senior leader to create a plan and make the team follow it.

The progress depends on how well coordination and support are promoted, following the main principles of information governance (Maynard et al., 2018). Market Development Organizations (MDOs) analyse preferences, identify trends, and investigate the conditions for competition either at local or international levels. Competitive advantage sets the tone of work and the ideas that promote creativity, innovation and opportunities for a company (Ward and Carter, 2019).

Global Business Services (GBS) encourage support either to customers or to employees with respect to accounting services, IT, and logistics. Senior leadership should consult all unit managers to make sure that everyone’s needs and opportunities are considered, and unnecessary costs are avoided (Fahy, 2018). Finally, a Corporate Functions group has its responsibilities in terms of establishing corporate support functions.

IG Practice at P&G

Using the context of P&G business, one could get an idea of how to manage human activities and information flows through the prism of senior leadership. Monitoring and evaluation become the two significant responsibilities that consist of regular inspections, reviews, and meetings. Employees have to understand how to achieve new goals and control working processes. IG policies are created to identify additional areas of improvement.

During the last years, P&G succeeded in applying open innovation technologies on the basis of purposive information inflows and outflows and combining its resources with external partners (Han et al., 2019). According to Earley (2016), organizational leadership helps to link IG efforts to data and processes and increase business value for stakeholders.

P&G invited new analytics to its centralised services to underline the holistic nature of transformations, discovering talents and cultures and controlling information. As far as analytics share their ideas and observations on how to save resources, increase profits, and avoid losses, leaders identify the professional needs of employees and use the information they offer. Senior leadership is responsible for providing opportunities to employees and performing operations with information.

The example of P&G proves that changes and transformations may be explained by large amounts of information and the necessity to manage it properly. Davenport and Westerman (2018) agree that P&G was able to make a significant digital push in the 2010s, but similar attempts were made by other companies, which made P&G less competitive.

Today, the leaders do not find it necessary to take new digital initiatives if they do not meet their strategies (Davenport and Westerman, 2018). Any new information has to be captured, documented, and maintained, regardless of the area of business (Pierotti and Meehan, 2017). Still, if employees are not able to turn data into information and, later, in knowledge, senior leaders cannot ignore their duty to strengthen the positions of their organizations and support the staff.

The experience of P&G can be properly applied to other companies because the use of IS, technologies, and policies is not only about external factors. Many internal factors like social media, technological progress, types of leadership, and software determine the quality of the working process and the possibilities of the staff in different business areas.

Information Systems and Information Technology in Staff Development, Communication Flow, and Decision-Making

The assessment of one of the local airline companies will be developed to understand the importance of IS and IT. The airline industry is characterised by social and environmental impacts, corporate social responsibility, data collection, and IS management (Ringham and Miles, 2018).

The use of IS and IT in the airline business continues to grow, and much attention is paid to the opportunities and challenges in discussing the role of IS and IT, including mobile computing, cloud services, and social media (Kim, Joshi and Lee, 2018). All airline companies become dependable on IS to carry out their activities and invest as much as possible in IT development (Almazán, Tovar and Quintero, 2017). The analysis of how to use IT IS and IT will prove the connection between technologies and personnel development.

Airline Company Principles

The chosen organization aims at providing air transportation services within the Arab region. Many modern companies try to reach the international market and satisfy customers, promoting high-quality services, opportunities, and choices. Although the airline company focuses on local services, its progress is remarkable. More than 300 employees are engaged in several units, and new human resources are always necessary. To build a strong brand and understand preferences of clients and employees, a number of IS and technologies need to be implemented (North et al., 2019).

Its information system introduces an appropriate combination of software, hardware, and telecommunication networks to manage data processing, storage, and exchange. For example, Web 2.0 is used to support online activities and the work of the official website. Instead of absorbing information passively, employees and customers are able to participate in activities and influence the events (Koch and Tritscher, 2017). The effectiveness of decision-making processes is increased because different opinions and observations are considered.

Use of IS and

The aviation business is based on the exchange of information and its effective management and storage. Therefore, IS in aviation can be introduced in different forms to support employees, to satisfy customers, and to run all flights and the flow of human resources. According to Information Systems Associates (2016), today, airline companies are reliant on IT more than ever to reconsider their operating models, review strategic priorities, and reduce unnecessary costs.

Technological progress is associated with the possibility to transform face-to-face services to self-services when customers know and understand their needs and choose the required services respectfully via the Internet. In the airline organization under analysis, information systems are used either by customers to choose a service or by employees to improve the quality of work. In addition to the creation of the official website with detailed information about the goals, vision, mission, and services, the airline company relies on social media to establish direct contact with customers and demonstrate their care and interest in staff development, communication, and decision-making.

Staff-Development

The progress of information technologies has already changed the work of many airlines companies. In the organization under analysis, several systems and technologies are combined to promote staff development. For example, cloud computing is used to remove information and services outside the organization’s firewall and share resources within local servers and personal devices. This technology creates a good chance for the company to succeed in digital marketing, track customers’ activities, and strengthen communication (North et al., 2019).

Employees are developed in different areas, and the success of the airline industry depends on how well stakeholders combine their resources and possibilities with technological innovation and customers’ expectations. Haqaf and Koyuncu (2018) explain the importance of the combination of such skills as understanding security processes, learning financial aspects, leading teams, and assessing activities. The use of IS in the airline company facilitates many working processes.

Still, many authors agree that development has to be continuous with respect to innovations and personal achievements (Han et al., 2019; Haqaf and Koyuncu, 2018; Koch and Tritscher, 2017). Staff-development is crucial as it ensures that the team has enough up to date knowledge to compete and grow.

Communication Flow

Another crucial goal of the airline company is to support effective flows of communication. Flight optimisation is one of the evident examples of how cloud services are used by the organization to improve cooperation. The company estimates travel times and identifies aircraft that are available at the moment. The staff is responsible for information exchange, making facts available for all clients and travel agencies through a scalable infrastructure.

Many modern airlines companies, as well as other types of business, prefer to use social media platforms for marketing and communication purposes. Users create and exchange information, share opinions, and give recommendations from any part of the world in a short period (Thao, Wozniak and Liebrich, 2017). With the help of social media technologies such as Facebook or Instagram, people remain informed about recent changes, developments, and services with the company. Communication is an integral part of human life, and the airline company succeeds in using social media and cloud services.

Decision-Making

To gain a competitive advantage in the chosen field, the staff has to make fast and effective decisions. At the same time, professional goals have to be properly combined with entertainment, not to lose interest in doing something. Therefore, Facebook and Instagram platforms turn out to be an effective solution for the airline company to keep in touch with customers and decide.

ublicity, brand building, and market research are the main purposes of the company to use Facebook as its social media marketing tool (Loo, 2020; Menon et al., 2019). The use of Facebook and other social media services helps to engage customers, underline their opportunities, and make decisions, following available resources.

Improvements to Staff Development, Communication Flow, and Decision-Making

An understanding of information systems influences the way of how employees work, make decisions, and cooperate. Even the implementation of the best technologies does not guarantee that all goals may be achieved because many things depend on people. The analysis of information management through the prism of the information systems can be a good opportunity to realise how to combine staff development and technological progress.

The use of Facebook or Instagram as the means to share data has a number of positive outcomes for the work of the airline company. Employees develop their communication skills and relationships with potential stakeholders (Fahy, 2018). Properly implemented information systems determine the levels of employee productivity. The time for decision-making is considerably reduced because much information and findings are available online.

Senior leaders, as well as local managers, get access to the entire information, analyse the already made decisions, and forecast new views of development, the same way the P&G staff did it with the help of generally time series-based models. Propensity models help to gain a better understanding of the drivers and causes of the company’s activities and base forecasts on this information.

Staff-Development

As well as any airline company, this organization aims at improving its services and discovering new ideas on how to increase the desire of clients to cooperate and promote employee satisfaction. Talking about information systems in the airline company and their impact on staff development, the role the information ladder cannot be ignored as one of the possible improvements. Four levels of information add to each other and create additional value, including data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. Employees of the airline company have several goals as a starting point and a client database as available resources.

They use information technologies to learn how to exchange data, gather opinions, invite new clients, and realise if the offered system works. As soon as they manage to analyse information, they obtain knowledge on how to achieve their goals faster (or succeed in professional development). The more experience they gain with time, the wiser they become. Employees understand that they should not rely on the offered data and information only but focus on their wisdom, which proves staff development.

Communication Flow

The improvement of professional relationships between the staff is a necessary step for the company. Researchers frequently discuss the implementation of specific networks as it helps to support communication and facilitate coordination of work tasks (Rubinstein et al., 2016). Communication has to be organised either vertically or horizontally, with all hierarchical patterns being considered in a plan. The creation of a comprehensive technology plan within information systems communication is a solution for the airline company.

A technology usage agreement contains the description of the staff responsibilities, confidentiality issues, and downloading policies, providing equal opportunities and regulations. It will help to address well-timed replacement and evaluation of technologies and a quick understanding of how the industry changes today. This step focuses on the strengthening of supply chain management, forecasting, and transaction processing (Hartley and Sawaya, 2019). To succeed, employees of the company establish cooperation between the departments, choose leaders, and organise regular meetings.

Decision-Making

An understanding of organizational goals and decision-making processes depend on a variety of factors. For example, any company should plan and manage its resources and analyse data. In this case study, the airline organization could use enterprise resource planning systems to regulate supervision and integrate different work units (Susanto, 2019).

Executive information systems help to assess and choose information and implement strategic goals. The employees of the company have to work with huge amounts of information every day: personal data, number of flights, working staff, schedules, delays, and unpredictable events. To make sure that airline services are properly offered, the information technology management department controls the ways of how hardware and software work, how people use programs, and what external sources are addressed. Mainframes make it possible to run queries and return information quickly (to speed up decision-making).

Personal computers and minicomputers for public access allow searching for information, ask questions, and support communication 24/7. Cloud computing services create enough space for organizational and personal data, and education on how to use it (including brochures, brief TV lectures, and live support) improves information management.

Importance of Secure Information Management

The progress of technology in the modern world makes many companies improve their information systems and management approaches. This importance is explained by the necessity to understand the goals, available resources, and client databases. The promotion of IS security is one of the most critical tasks for airlines companies, and the creation of good passwords or high-protected firewalls are not usually enough. Digital information is available around the globe, regardless of the true geographical location of the source.

In addition to effective human resource management and awareness improvement, Soomro, Shah and Ahmed (2016) recommend participation from top-level management, information security training, and involvement of strategic decision-making. Even the most protected information can be stolen, and employees of the airline company must develop new security systems and protect personal information against any theft.

The cooperation between IT and security departments is another method for organizations to promote secure information management. When the staff is interested in their careers, they are involved in discussions and innovation. The company should allocate as many funds in its budget as possible to promote security and underline the need for skilled workers. Any disruption in the working process is associated with additional time and money to make decisions and find solutions.

The company should stay confident about the chosen security levels and never stop looking for additional ways to avoid errors and leakages (Ringham and Miles, 2018). At this moment, the airline company may ensure information security in information management by looking at three major aspects that have already been mentioned (confidentiality, availability, and integrity). The implementation of regulatory standards, risk assessment tools, and the promotion of organizational security awareness are the steps for senior leaderships to be taken as soon as possible.

The promotion of security means the control of operations and applications in the company. The airline industry undergoes internal and external threats regularly, and the ability to function well and protect users are the tasks that have to performed without questions. In this company, information security managers should not only identify the best practice but also to assess team performance, scope projects, develop mitigation strategies, and align objectives of the departments (Haqaf and Koyuncu, 2018).

Compared to well-known international airline companies, this organization focuses on a particular group of people, the locals of the Arab region. The improvement of security services means extra-protection for every client, which is highly appreciated by business people and governmental representatives.

The analysis of security management in terms of aviation has a long history, and the events of 11 September 2001 are connected with many airline companies’ collapses. The combination of social, international, and technological factors in airline security cannot be ignored. In addition to questioning the work of airline companies, such industries as tourism and travelling were reconsidered (Brondoni, 2017). The company should know enough information about passengers and share information quickly to know what decision has to be made, how to react to an accident, and when to call for help.

Conclusion

When a person shares information with a company, confidentiality and non-disclosure are expected. Many people cannot understand how vulnerable they are in regard to the existing IS and IT. When it is necessary to order a ticket, send a message via Facebook, or find a service online, a user shares much personal information without thinking about the consequences. To protect their clients, organizations pay close attention to information management, governance, and security.

The example of P&G management and the analysis of the airline company activities prove a variety of information technologies and their impact on human life. Regarding the existing services, social media sources, and growing demands, information management has to be properly governed and secure.

Focusing on the goals of the airline company like the promotion of high-quality services and the connection with clients, new information systems and security management have positive effects on communication, decision-making, and staff development. Any organization has enough chances to find clients, following the principles of information confidentiality, availability, and integrity.

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