Training and Development Programs in the US

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The objectivity of training and development and its sustained learning procedure has constantly been influenced by the software industry. Currently, it has turn out to be rather an overarching tendency of social needs. This means that organizations ought to instill learning culture as a social task. It has been confirmed by several scholars that there are strong correlations between training and development strategies and practices of organizational productivity (Delery, & Doty, 1996). Training and development has its premeditated role and it unswervingly contributes towards company aims and objectives. Conveying training through the utilization of innovative technologies and acclimatizing inventive training techniques, such as programmed information, computer/virtual games, role taking and audio/visual apparatus, are more effectual. As a result, they are being expansively employed in contemporary training prospectus. These newer methods, together with conservative methods, such as speeches, meetings, film/pictures and case studies, offer efficient means that could be utilized for training and edification. This paper reviews the need for training and development. Moreover, the paper gives the cost analysis of training program whereby it compares in-house and consultant training. In the subsequent section, the paper gives the best practices for training and development. In this section, the performance of three American firms is discussed. Finally, the paper gives some recommendations that would help H20 to take up the lion’s share of the market, given the fact that the organization is new in the US.

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Review of Training and Development purpose and strategic alignment with organization

Before proceeding to discuss the importance of training and development to employees, it should be understood that skills and techniques are very important for the human resources. Through training, officers are able to execute their services swiftly. Training offers employees with a decisive and flexible decision-making process. This helps them in offering quality services to clients. Customer handling is a very challenging undertaking that calls for adequate skills and knowledge. Moreover, the methods used in handling customers are very complex implying that suitable training should be provided to employees. Officers working in a challenging environment, such as that of H20 Organization should be offered with enough training for them to cope with the many challenges. The business environment of the United States is different from that of Germany. The standards applied in the United States are different from those applied in German

Training and development is the process utilized to acquire or convey desirable facts, abilities, and capabilities, which are necessary in conducting certain actions or duties. Consequently, the importance of training and development both for companies and workers are premeditated in nature. In this regard, training and development should be understood in a broader way. In order to convene the modern and prospective challenges facing H20, training and development would take an extensive learning action, varying from teaching the employees to be competent in their current everyday jobs to equipping them with future knowledge. This focuses on information sharing, which would help develop the business scope and customer’s service. It would as well focus on their occupational advancement, which enlarges personal, group and managerial efficacy. An inclusive training and development curriculum facilitates the deliberation of knowledge, skills and approaches, which are essential in realizing organizational aspirations, as well as generating competitive advantage (Peteraf 1993). In actual fact, in the beginning of the 21st century, human resource managers have suggested that one of the major problems they have been forced to deal with are related to training and development (Stavrou, Brewster, & Charalambous, 2004).

To make sure that H20 staff is prepared with the accurate abilities, information, and capability to carry out their allocated responsibilities, training and development must play its critical responsibility. This would lead to the intensification of skills and sucess of the business. By picking the precise variety of training, H20 management would be making sure that human resources have the exact skills for the new business in the United States. Moreover, the same should be incessantly restructured, following the most excellent and new human resources techniques. To convene existing and future business ambitions for H20, training and development practice should presume its deliberate role. Scholars such as Apospori, Nikandrou, Brewster and Papalexandris’s (2008), have conducted extensive research on the importance of training and development. Their studies have gained much value since they underline the training and development practices in cross-national perspectives. Apospori (2008) observed that there is a substantial effect of training on the performance of the organizational. However, a study conducted by Cunha, Morgado, and Brewster (2003) concluded that training and development does not have an impact on the organizational performance. This means that further studies need to be conducted to establish the real relationship between organizational performance and training. In other words, training and development does not always help the organization attain its organizational goals and objectives. This is why the organization should implement the training and development policy cautiously.

Jackson (2002) was of the view that some cultural postulations inspire human resource management. However, the intellectual development of workers should always be considered. He came up with a suggestion that emphasized the difference between the hard and soft approaches to strategic management. The hard approach suggested that workers in organizations are simply resources whose main role is to realize the ambitions of the organization. On the other hand, the soft approach perceives workers more as respected assets that are capable of taking the organization to the next stage (Tyson, & Fell, 1986). This shows that the need for equipping H20 employees with relevant skills is undeniable since a strong training and development strategy has its benefits, which is to increase the output and improve the quality of work. The development policy decreases staff turnover and non-attendance and also helps in motivating workers. In order to beat market competition, H20 must come up with training and development strategy that integrates originality and reinvention. This is only doable when training covers an extensive variety of learning measures. Therefore, a perfect training should be part of a company-wide policy and it has to be related to organizational aspirations and performance.

Best Practice for Training and Development Programs in the United States

Employees form a very important part of a company. According to Tyson and Fell (1986), employees are the most important assert in the organization. They always determine the success or failure of an organization based on their activities in the organization. Many firms in the United States have come to realize this fact. They have come to note that in the current competitive market, they can only make a difference through their employees. When the employees are individuals who are determined and able to work in the best way possible, it can give the firm a competitive edge in the market. This way, a firm can be in a position to achieve the best results in the market.

According to Apospori, Nikandrou, Brewster, & Papalexandris, (2008).), the best practice is not a one-off event where an individual company can consider taking at one particular event. It is a process that is continuous, consistent, and well programmed. It is a three-staged event, especially when viewed from a broader perspective. The first stage is during the pre-employment stage. This is a very broad stage where the firm looks at the quality of the labor in the market. Google is always concerned with the technological knowledge of the employees that they intent to recruit. The company evaluates the community before deciding on whether to employ some of them. The management of this firm has also developed outreach programs whereby it can reach out to the best labor available in the market. In this pre-employment stage, the last activity is always pre-employment assessment, which is done on the available applicants through interviews.

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The second stage is the employment. Once an individual is confirmed as an employee, a firm will always consider developing him or her to be within the level that the firm expects. Yahoo is always keen on ensuring that its employees learn its culture. The management has therefore developed career guidance whereby employees can improve their skills while at work. There is also leadership training that always take place to improve the capacity of the employees while at work. Yahoo has also developed a monitoring and coaching unit where employees’ performance can be gauged and developed appropriately. The employees must also understand safety measures while at work to eliminate cases of accidents, which has a negative effect on the entire firm.

The third stage is on post-employment. When an employee is at work, such an employee will always be concerned with his or her fate after quitting the firm. Such an individual will predict what will happen to him or her after moving away from the firm based on what happened to others. Bing Inc realized this and it has been concerned with the process of releasing employees. The firm has developed a program where all employees are rewarded when they leave the firm based on the duration each employee has been in the firm. The one who has taken more time working for the firm gets the best service. This way, employees are always encouraged to stay longer in the firm.

Most firms are always concerned with the development of employees while they are in the firm. These firms always take a number of facts into consideration. Competency models help in defining the abilities and skills needed in each unit. This allows the determination the workforce that best fits the criteria. Google has leveraged its online system. This helps in managing employee’s common needs. Training through internet helps in the reduction of the cost of training. Google has also formalized its leadership and development program. It has a successive plan where current leaders induct future leaders on how they can perform their tasks in the best way. Yahoo believes in augmenting and adjustment. This is to ensure that the firm changes with the changing condition in the external market. Bing has maintained a skill-based training. It trains employees on specific skills needed. For instance, if there is a need to adjust the programming department, employees in this department will be taken for training to learn the new trends in the market. Google has developed a comprehensive career development program whereby its employees are able to determine how they can develop their skills and knowledge.

Cost Analysis of Training Program (In House vs. Consultant)

For an organization to achieve its objectives, a cost effective training program should be adopted. In-house training refers to the use of organizational instructors to guide employees in their training. Consultant training entails hiring the services of an independent organization specializing in offering training needs to various clients. Both forms of training have advantages and disadvantages (Cunha, Morgado, & Brewster, 2003). However, it is established that in-house training is cost-effective as compared to consultant training. Consultant training is known for its power to introduce something different in the organization. However, it is associated with high costs since the consultant has the power of coming up with his or her budget. Moreover, consultant training will need more time since it might demand that employees be given leave and extensive off for them to attend training. This would generate losses to the company, both in terms of human resources and financially. After training, an employee would demand additional pay, unlike the case of in-house training whereby the organization would set the salary of each employee after the course. In an in-house training, training is fully-customized implying that each individual can take part in the course that he or she feels more suitable.

In-house training is flexible because employees can attend the training sessions at intervals, given the fact that there would be various sessions. The organization would come up with the training timetable based on the work schedule. Apart from being flexible, in-house training is always set up with considerations, such as convenience. Compared to sending an individual employee to an external institution, in-house training is much cheaper because transport and other charges are reduced. During training sessions, employees speak with the same tone in an in-house training set up, which makes learning conducive. Finally, in house training encourages team building, as well as capacity building.

Recommendation for Training and Development Programs for H2O

H2O is planning to enter into the US market. It should be clear to the management of this firm that this market is one of the most competitive markets in the world. For it to operate in this new market successfully, it should consider employing some of the strategies that have kept some of the largest American firms above competition. The following are some of the recommendations that this firm should consider observing in this new market.

  • The management of this firm should consider having a training and development program that follows the three stages explained above.
  • In the first stage, this firm should engage the community and colleges to ensure that it gets the best skills available in the market.
  • In the second stage, the management of this firm must ensure that its employees understand the current trends in their respective departments.
  • In the third stage, the management should consider rewarding the longest serving employees better than those who were there shortly.


Apospori, E., Nikandrou, I., Brewster, C., & Papalexandris, N. (2008). HRM and Organizational Performance in Northern and Southern Europe. International Journal of Human Resource Management 19(7), 1187–1207.

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Cunha, M., Morgado, A., & Brewster, C. (2003). Market Forces, Strategic Management, HRM Practices and Organizational Performance, A Model Based in a European Sample. Management Research, 1(1), 79–91.

Delery, J.E., & Doty, H.D. (1996). Modes of Theorizing in Strategic Human Resource Management: Types of Universalistic, Contingency, and Configurationally Performance Predictions. Academy of Management Journal, 39(4), 802–835.

Jackson, T. (2002). The Management of People across Cultures: Valuing People Differently. Human Resource Management, 41(1), 455–475.

Peteraf, M.A. (1993). The Cornerstones of Competitive Advantage: A Resource-Based View. Strategic Management Journal, 14(3), 179–192.

Stavrou, E., Brewster, C., & Charalambous, C. (2004). Human Resource Management as a Competitive Tool in Europe’ working paper. London: Henley College.

Tyson, S., & Fell, A. (1986). Evaluating the Personnel Function. London: Hutchinson.

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