Management and leadership
Management and leadership usually mean the same thing. In recent years management has been taken to mean the driving force to the success of a business. The following are some of the main distinctions between management and leadership. The role forms the first distinction, leadership is deemed as what managers do to be effective It, therefore, means that a person can be a leader but not the manager, taking an example of a technical project; the leaders in those projects are not necessarily the topmost people. Managers are therefore viewed as outwardly focused while leaders are viewed as being inwardly focused. The situation that they are in is the second distinction between managers and leaders, leaders tend to be more situations specific as compared to the managers. Managers tend to be appointed to the position in the organization, and the job description defines by the terms of the contract, but leaders can emerge at different times as the situation may demand. A good example is a play in the movie Admirable Crichton, where the shipwreck transforms the normal social order of the group and a servant is the one who took the position of the leader at that particular time (Needle, 2004).
The context that they are in forms another distinction between them. Some organizations put more emphasis on leadership more than management, for example, the armed forces have such a context where roles are clearly defined, and the role holders are drilled into their tasks since the main role of the officers is to lead. What the leaders and the managers do forms the other distinction, management activities tend to be focused more on routine procedures while leadership skills, on the other hand, are not necessary and are under conditions of change (Needle, 2004).
Managers are reactive and they prefer working with other people to solve problems, but they do so with low emotional involvement. On the other hand, leaders are emotionally active and involved, developing ideas and directing them to solve problems, which might be in the company (Northouse, 2009). Leaders have a multidirectional relationship while management has a unidirectional authority relationship. Leadership is therefore concerned with a process of achieving mutual purpose while management is involved in giving directives towards coordinating activities to get the job done. To sum it up, the roles of leaders and managers overlap. Managers are involved in leadership when they are influencing a group to meet their goals; leaders are also involved in management when they are involved in planning, organizing, and controlling. The two processes are both involved in influencing a group of people towards goal attainment (Northouse, 2009).
Managers and leaders involved in a healthy organization culture creation
Organization managers can do so much to ensure that they maintain a healthy organizational structure. For a start, they can optimize the staffing levels and skill mix. An organization should have the right number of people with the right skills both in each unit of the organization as well as across the entire organization. The organization should also be attuned to shifting of staff requirements as to responses to current and future needs. Building up the right skills and culture is also another role. An organization should have staff who can offer the necessary range of job-specific skills and whose attitude towards their work colleagues enables them to channel their energies and skills into the productivity of the organization.
Managers therefore must be able to identify necessary skills and altitudes that collectively compromise the institutional culture of the organization. The managers also have a role to organize people to work effectively, to be able to control the human resource effectively the management needs to build up an organizational structure that is designed specifically to carry out the organization’s mission and strategies. Managing individual and unit performance to achieve institutional goals is another role. As the organization grows in size and becomes complex, external pressures may increase as well as the internal demand of resources, the resources they have may become scarce, and achieving performance research may become a problem. Meeting the performance goals requires skilled management as insight leadership (Dietz, 1992).
Leaders may also become facilitators of the organization, by ensuring a good relationship between the workers and the staff they can make sure the environment the workers are working under is conducive. They may also act as a motivation for the workers to increase their efforts. Careful implementation of the organization policy and developing the trust amongst the workers may also be a way of ensuring the organization meets its goals. Formulating a budget is another role that managers should play in ensuring the success of an organization structure. A good budget should lay down the goals that an organization desires to achieve and how it will do so, if well formulated and followed it would develop the organization structure to be healthy and successful. Evaluating the policies of the organization is also another step that the management may do to ensure that the organization structure is working in the right way, ensuring the satisfaction of the staff and the workers is of great importance (Dietz, 1992).
Effect of globalization and management globally
Globalization can be defined as the phenomenon that is created due to the interaction of humans globally where the creation of new development is the basic effect. A scenario where economy, technology, and politics interact is created as well as a reduction in the state’s regulations. Management and globalization have numerous effects. The need to have legal knowledge among managers has been encouraged, due to venturing into new areas managers need to know the implication of their policies and decisions in the new areas to avoid acting against the policies put by different governments. It is, therefore, wise for the management to have a multiplicity of experience where they integrate managerial skills a legal perceptiveness. The educational community has been transformed into the senses that can meet the challenge that comes with management in a globalized society. The solution to solving this problem has been the production of graduates who have a broad-based foundation in their knowledge is many disciplines to cope up with the challenges that are occurring in the market. On the other hand, multinational companies have set up foreign operations that are consistent with the legal and tax objectives. Through this problem, of coordinating business activities that include, production, sourcing, marketing in multiple markets is solved. Legal issues have been solved where the personnel involved have helped the managers in identifying areas where there is the minimal tax for the multinational companies.
Through management research in technology, new technologies have been introduced into various organizations, and this has to lead to a decrease as well as lowering of the production cost. Managers have become more technology proficient: this is a result of knowledge gain in school integrated with the work experience attained through the years and everyday life. The result of this is more competitiveness within the global market as an organization tends to outdo each other in a race to secure markets. Movement of management personnel to other countries has arisen the multinationals tend to employ people that they have worked with to head the new areas hence managers in the mother countries of the organizations are most of the time employed to the new areas and are working as expatriates. In some countries, a problem has arisen as people tend to complain about unemployment, yet expatriates take the available jobs. The presence of free-market competition has subsequently lead to companies coming together and forming synergistic alliances that are beneficial to them in terms of offering cheaper research, cheaper designs, as well as cheaper manufacturing and design. Alliances continue to be built as partnerships are been formed between companies of distant parts of the world to achieve certain goals that include; development of new and sophisticated technology, cross-licensing, and joint marketing.
Strategies adopted by managers and leaders in maintaining a healthy culture in their organizations
Establishing a health-working environment can be a good way that leaders can come up with in establishing a healthy working culture. Achievement of this can be done by evaluation of the organization’s capabilities and their intellectual capability, then integrating them to come up with a framework that defines the way the workers activity is to be carried out. The motivation of the workers will be the resultant, and managers or the leaders should ensure there is a smooth transition to any new organization strategy. Leaders and managers should make sure that they establish frameworks that ensure that the implementation of strategies is accomplished as well as the objectives of the organization are met. Ensuring that the objectives of the organization are met creates confidence among workers as well as the staff and through this, a culture is created of ensuring that the organization’s objectives are always met. In return, strong, healthy organizational culture is created between the management, the leaders, the staff, and the workers since every one of them is aware of the work he/she is supposed to do (Arbinger Institute, 2002).
Leaders and managers are also required to have organizational capabilities that can instill values and add a positive change to the organization. Using social factors like having quality technology, instilling good individual behavior leaders and managers will be able to attain the objectives’ of the organization. Having an organization that has instilled values is an assurance that there is healthy organization culture since everyone in the organization will be such that they are aware of what they are expected to do at each particular time (Arbinger Institute, 2002).
Ensuring that the organization is running smoothly can be the managers and the leader’s strategy of ensuring that there is a healthy organizational culture. For such a culture to exist the procedures and organization system needs to be controlled to ensure that the organization is not only disciplined but also well controlled. By ensuring both managers and leaders are doing their work properly, a healthy working culture can easily be achieved.
List of References
Arbinger Institute.(2002). Leadership and self deception: getting out of the box. Arbinger: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
Dietz.C. T., McNaughton.D., Carson.D. G. (1992). Building strong management and responding to change. Washington D.C: World Bank Publications.
Needle, D. (2004). Business in context: an introduction to business and its environment. London: Cengage Learning EMEA.
Northouse, P. G. (2009). Leadership: Theory and Practice. Califonia: SAGE publications.