Operational efficiency influences an organization’s competitiveness, hence its long-term competitiveness. This aspect underscores the importance of investing in effective operational processes, technologies, and procedures to achieve the intended goals and objectives. However, the implementation of organizational processes, procedures, and technologies is a complex undertaking. Most organizations experience challenges in improving their operational processes.
Therefore, it is important for organizations to invest in effective operational practices. One of the strategies that organizational leaders should consider is the project management concept. Projects are complex, and thus they require the inclusion of different stakeholders such as the project owners, sponsors, and the team members. Different interests, which characterize the project stakeholders, must be addressed.
DP World is a well-established international company that was founded in 2005 in Dubai. The company operates as a public company, and it is listed on the Dubai stock market as a dual-listed company. DP Word has developed a strong financial position by improving its ability to generate revenue. In 2014, the company’s annual profit amounted to $ 782,130,000 compared to $ 721,788,000 in 2013, which represents an 8.36% growth (“DP World” par.6). The company’s product portfolio is comprised of ferries, logistic services, and port services.
The company has established a portfolio of over 65 marine terminals located on the six continents. DP World core business mainly entails container handling. DP World handles approximately 9% of the total global container trade, which is facilitated by over 6,000 container handling capacity (“DP World” par.3). In 2014, the company handled over 60 million twenty-foot equivalent container units TEU]. The firm serves approximately 66,000 vessels annually or 180 vessels per day. The company has total human resource base 36,000 employees. DP World estimates that the total TEU will increase to over 100 million by 2020, due to the increase in demand for cross-border transportation.
DP World is dedicated to offering quality services to customers. One of the aspects that the firm has considered in achieving this goal is undertaking a constant improvement of its facilities, terminal infrastructure, and people. DP World’s objective is to establish a customer-centric approach to create and sustain a superior relationship with its clients across all the terminals. DP World’s terminal at Jebel Ali facility has sustained a rating of being the best seaport in the Middle East for two consecutive decades (“DP World” par.3).
DP World recognizes that its success depends on the productivity of its workforce. Thus, the firm is focused on establishing open communication with its workforce and promoting dialogue between individual employees and the line managers. The organization’s management team holds that engaging employees will improve their satisfaction (“DP World” par.25). Furthermore, DP World believes in providing employees with an opportunity to grow. Subsequently, DP World has developed comprehensive training programs to address the needs of employees located in different departments. The training programs are facilitated by the adoption of iLearn web-based management systems, which enables the firm to undertake e-learning courses and work-based assignments (“DP World” par.5). This highlights that DP World considers technology as a fundamental aspect of its strategic human resource management process.
To improve its operational efficiency, DP World has designed a flat organizational structure, which is based on the concept of departmentalization. The organization has established several departments as illustrated by the organizational chart below. Its rationale for adopting the flat organization chart is to promote internal communication hence improving its efficiency in serving clients.
Description of the project
DP World is focused on improving its approach towards human resource management across all the terminals in the world. To achieve this goal, DP World is the process of investing in a Human Resource Information System (HRIS), a new human resource management system. Given that the firm has terminals located in different regions around the world, implementation of the project will be undertaken in phases. The first pilot project will be undertaken on its Australian terminal. The project will involve an overhaul of the DP World Australia human resource management system. The responsibility for implementing the new human resource management system will be assigned to an in-house team headed by a Project Manager selected from the Project Management department. The project will involve digitalizing the different human resource management practices.
Aim and purpose of the project
DP World has identified human capital as a fundamental component in promoting operational efficiency and positioning itself as a customer-centric firm. The firm’s management team appreciates the importance of satisfying employees in attaining sustainability.
The new HRIS is expected to assist DP World in developing a database containing details on individual employee performance. Consequently, the HR manager will be in a position to track the individual employee performance. Implementation of the new HRIS is expected improve the ease with which the HR Manager undertakes different HR roles and responsibilities.
The new HRIS will enable human the organization to evaluate the employees’ performance efficiently. DP World rationale in implementing the new HRIS is that a motivated workforce is more efficient in serving clients hence improving the level of customer experience.
Some of the areas in which the new system is expected to improve are employee recruitment, selection, and performance appraisal. By tracking the individual employee performance, DP World’s human resource management team will be effective in undertaking its HR administrative processes. For example, the firm will be in a position to implement and adjust the reward system according to the employees’ performance. Thus, the firm’s staff will be rewarded according to their performance. Through this approach, DP World will successfully entrench the concept of equity in its appraisal processes and eliminate redundancy. Moreover, DP World will improve its competitiveness in the labor market. The firm’s competitiveness will arise from the fact that the current and potential employees will consider DP World as an attractive workplace.
Despite the DP World commitment to improving its efficiency in managing human capital, the Project Manager recognized the existence of constraints that might affect the project outcome. One of the constraints identified in the project includes financial constraints. Projects require sufficient budgetary allocation to enhance execution of the project activities. Implementation of the new HRIS at DP World will be funded internally using the firm’s financial reserves. However, funding the project might be affected by economic changes such as an economic recession. Negative economic occurrences affect an organization’s capacity to generate revenue.
DP World’s objective is for the new HRIS to be implemented within all the departments. The likelihood of changes in the proposed budget is high due to effects of different macro-environmental changes such as the rate of exchange and inflation. To minimize funding constraints in the implementation process, the project owner, DP World, has implemented effective financial measures such as cost control. Furthermore, the organization has formulated a contingency budget intended at catering for economic changes. Integration of a contingency budget will enable DP World to caution for negative economic effects that might affect the project budget hence increasing the chances of successful project execution.
Another major constraint in the implementation of the project entails project time. DP Word intends to complete the project within three months. Complying with the set timeframe presents a challenge in managing projects because of influence by external factors. Failure to comply with the set period might adversely affect the project budget. The Project Manager will ensure that the project time is managed optimally by establishing benchmarks and milestones.
Implication of project management tools and techniques
In the process of implementing the new HRIS, the project manager will adopt different project management tools and techniques as evaluated in this section.
Project Human Resource Management
In constructing the project team, the Project Manager has taken into account the concept of team development. Prior to the construction of the project team, the head of the Project Management department integrated the negotiation technique. The “Project Management Body of Knowledge” affirms that responsible “functional managers must ensure that projects receive appropriately competent staff” (112). The selection of the project team members was based on the employees’ skills and expertise. These dimensions were considered to ensure that the project team members contributed on the different aspects associated with project execution.
Other factors considered in constructing the project team entail the previous experience, personal interests, competencies, proficiency, and personal characteristics. Employees within the organization who have previously engaged in project implementation processes were given preference in constructing the project team. The Project Manager ensured that employees who are interested in working in projects were considered.
According to Cobb, team development contributes to overall improvement in an organization’s ability to manage employee conflicts in the workplace (42). Thus, the likelihood of resolving the issues that arise in the project implementation process is improved remarkably. One of the team’s development activities that the firm took into account entails the adoption of a group approach to executing project tasks. Furthermore, the Project Manager has ensured that the project team members understood the prevailing interdependence between the various project tasks.
The decision to assign the project implementation process to an in-house team was informed by the need to reduce the cost of the project. Through this approach, DP World will be able to avoid the high cost of outsourcing for a project team. Furthermore, consideration of an in-house team has improved the probability of increased employee development. DP World will invest in a comprehensive employee-training program to equip the organization’s project team with the right skills regarding the new HRIS. Thus, employees participating in the project implementation process will attain additional skills hence increasingly the chances of future career progression.
The communication process comprises an essential element in project implementation. Adams, Means, and Spivey argue that organizational “performance is influenced by the extent to which the various internal organizational stakeholders collaborate with each other” (76). The Project Manager has appreciated the importance of project communication. Consequently, DP World’s management team has ensured that sufficient level of awareness of the intended project is created to all the stakeholders. The decision to incorporate communication was informed by the need to enhance a high level of participation in the project.
Project communication is critical in establishing the critical links between the different project stakeholders hence the likelihood of attaining a high rate of success. Moreover, project communication contributes towards the establishment of an environment that advocates for the flow of information and ideas. According to “Project Management Body of Knowledge”, “everyone involved in the project must be prepared to send and receive communications and must understand how the communications in which they are involved as individuals affect the project as a whole” (117).
Ineffective project communication hinders effective project implementation. The project participants are not in a position to exchange vital information on project tasks. Accordingly, the project might be affected by the lack of understanding of the need for establishing interdependence between project tasks. The Project Manager in collaboration with other departmental managers at DP World has undertaken a comprehensive project communication planning by assessing the information and communications needs of the different project participants. This goal was achieved by evaluating the appropriateness of the information required concerning content, detail, and format.
The Project Manager will periodically communicate to the project stakeholders on the project status. This goal will be achieved by formulating a communication policy outlining the frequency within which communication on project should be undertaken. The communication policy further specifies the frequency of communication. The Project Manager has adopted different communication methods that include internal memos and information communication technologies. This approach has led to increment in the level of understanding on project tasks.
Project communication will enable the Project Manager to establish a strong level of trust between the project team members. According to Beel, the relationship amongst project team members influences the chances of collaboration and hence the probability of attaining the project goals (24). Moreover, the collaboration between project stakeholders minimizes the chance of conflicts occurring in managing project.
Project risk management
The chances of attaining the desired project risk might be hindered by the occurrence of different risks. The “Project Management Body of Knowledge” emphasizes that risks in project arise from different sources such as the project’s technical and relational aspects, project timing, the project assumptions made, and the budget (127). Project Managers cannot rule out the occurrence of project risks. Nevertheless, it is imperative for Project Managers to develop relevant skills and techniques for risk management. According to “Project Management Body of Knowledge”, risk management entails “a systematic process of identifying, analyzing, and responding to project risks” (127).
The Project Manager charged with the responsibility of implementing the new HRIS has taken into account several risk management processes that include risk identification, risk response planning, risk analysis, risk monitoring and control and risk management planning. Furthermore, the Project Manager has developed a comprehensive risk management plan that outlines the possible risks that might be encountered in the project implementation phase. Implementation of the project will be based on a project charter that stipulates different projects management practices amongst them stipulation of risk management policies.
The risk management planning processes has been undertaken by organizing planning meetings involving different stakeholders. By undertaking risk management planning, the Project Manager has been in a position to define the risk methodology, thresholds, timing, and tracking. The risk methodology outlines the tools and approaches to be used in managing risks. The thresholds specify the criteria to be adopted in dealing with project risks. According to “Project Management Body of Knowledge”, the threshold determines the level of risk that is acceptable in the project (130).
In addition to the above aspects, the Project Manager has integrated the concept of risk timing, which entails the determination of the frequency within which the risk should be assessed. The risk tracking aspect will be undertaken by recording the different facets of risk activities. Through this aspect, Project Manager will be in a position to establish a knowledge repository on the risk that can be used in managing future project risks.
The risk identification process entailed the determination of the different risk categories. The core risk categories considered include technical risks, organizational risks, project management risk and external risks. The technical risks entailed assessing the complexity, performance and quality of the new HRIS intended to be integrated into DP World’s human resource management processes. The assessment was achieved by evaluating whether the technology complies with the industry standards and the desired performance goals. The project management risks relate to risks that might arise due to poor resource allocation and implementation of project management disciplines. The Project Manager further assessed the external risks that might affect implementation of the new HRIS. Some of the external risks that affect the project implementation entail changes in regulatory aspects, changes in owner priority, and labor relations issues.
In identifying the project risks that might affect implementation of the new HRIS, the Project Manager has taken into account the Delphi and brainstorming techniques. The brainstorming technique is undertaken by a multi-disciplinary set of experts under the guidance of the Project Manager. The technique is increasingly being adopted by organizations in developing a risk profile. Conversely, the Delphi technique entails a process through which project team members try to reach consensus on the different project risks under the guidance of a project risk experts.
Project Quality Management
Prior to the implementation of the new IT system, the Project Manager at DP World will incorporate several quality management processes that include quality planning, quality assurance, and quality control. On quality planning, the Project Manager identified the relevant quality standards that would be observed to make the new HRIS fully functional and benefit the firm. Several tools and techniques, which include cost-benefit analysis, benchmarking, and flowcharting, were used in planning the quality of the project.
The decision to adopt the new HRIS in managing human capital management at DP World has been informed by findings of a cost-benefit analysis undertaken by the Human Resource Management Department. The analysis revealed that the effective implementation of the HRIS would enable the firm to implement effective HR strategies hence increasing the level of productivity amongst the workforce.
The Project Manager in collaboration with the DP World management team has integrated the concept of benchmarking. This goal has been achieved by comparing the planned project outcome with the results of actual HRIS projects undertaken by other organizations. The benchmarking technique has enabled the Project Manager to generate ideas to be used in implementing the project. Furthermore, the benchmarking technique will enable the Project Manager to determine whether the implementation process is within the required principles. Conversely, application of flowcharting will entail the establishment of flow charts that outlined the interrelation between the different project tasks.
To improve the quality of the project, the Project Manager will integrate the concept of quality assurance. According to “Project Management Body of Knowledge”, quality assurance entails the process of ascertaining that the implemented project is aligned with the stipulated standards (101). To achieve this goal, the Project Manager will undertake quality audits to examine whether the project team is adhering to the stipulated project guidelines. The project audit will enable the Project Manager to determine the areas of improvement.
In addition to the above quality management aspects, the Project Manager will undertake a number of quality control measures. Some of the measures that will be undertaken entail prevention and inspection of errors in the implementation process. The quality control process further will further involve identification of random and special causes that might lead to discrepancies in the project outcome. The project manager will ensure that quality controls are continuously undertaken the during the project lifetime.
Project Time Management
Adhering to the specified project timeframe limits the chance of additional resources requirement in implementing the project. Thus, the likelihood of the project experiencing adverse effects because of negative economic changes is minimized. Thus, it is imperative for the Project Manager to ensure that the project time is optimally utilized. This aspect highlights the importance of effective time management. Implementation of the new HRIS at DP World is expected to be completed in three months [12 weeks]. To adhere to this period, the Project Manager will adopt different project time management processes and techniques. The time management processes to be considered include “activity definition, activity sequencing, schedule development, and schedule control” (“Project Management Institute” 86).
Activity sequencing will be undertaken by defining the interactivity dependencies. The activity sequencing process will enable the project team members to understand how the project activities support each other. Activity sequencing process will also be undertaken using the Gantt or the bar chart. This aspect will enable the project manager to estimate the duration required to successfully the project tasks.
During the schedule development process, the Project Manager estimated the project’s commencement and completion dates. The estimation process of the activity duration was attained using the expert judgment technique. The “Project Management Institute” affirms that estimating duration is complex because of different factors that affect the project implementation process such as the level of resources and the productivity of the project team members (65). The estimation process of the activity duration will enable the Project Manager to evaluate the likelihood of some project activities being undertaken concurrently.
This goal will be achieved by adopting the duration compression technique. The crashing technique will be integrated to achieve the highest level of duration compression. To achieve the desired outcome, the Project Manager will ensure that the compression technique does not increase the resource requirement. Subsequently, the likelihood of completing project activities within the intended time duration is improved. The bar chart below illustrates the estimated project schedule. The bar chart illustrates the key activities that will be undertaken in the process of implementing the IT training project and the respective time scale.
Another tool input that the Project Manager will take into consideration in managing project time entails determining the project milestones. Milestones refer to the specific events needed to be undertaken to assure attainment of project requirements. The intended milestones to be considered in implementing the new HRIS project include
- Attaining a high level of project participation amongst the project team members throughout the project phases
- Completing the designed project tasks within the set time and budgetary allocation
- Promoting the level of efficiency amongst the organization’s HR managers by ensuring that they are inclined towards using the new HRIS in undertaking different human resource management roles and responsibilities
- Minimizing errors amongst the HR managers in executing different HR roles and responsibilities such as employee appraisal
Project cost management
Most projects require a substantial amount of finances to be implemented successfully. The “Project Management Institute” affirms that projects should be completed within the set budget to minimize the likelihood of additional financial requirements (82). Moreover, poor cost management might lead to misallocation of resources hence affecting the outcome. Thus, it is important for project managers to integrate effective project cost management techniques and processes. Some of the fundamental cost management processes include resource planning, cost estimation, cost budgeting, and cost control (“Project Management Body of Knowledge” 83).
The resource planning process will involve identifying the diverse physical resources such as materials, equipment, and people required to complete the project successfully. In the process of implementing the new HRIS at DP World’s terminal in Dubai, the Project Manager will undertake resource planning by relying on the expert judgment technique. The expert judgment will be achieved by seeking the input of experts sourced from different departments such as the HR and IT departments. Furthermore, DP World will also consider outsourcing the input of consultants outsourced from reputable consultancy firms such as PriceWaterhouseCoopers and Deloitte Touche.
Cost management will be achieved by determining the cost estimates hence making approximation on resource requirements. Additionally, cost estimation will also be attained by adopting different techniques such as analogous estimation. Under this concept, the Project Manager will rely on cost estimates of similar projects undertaken by other organizations. The decision to adopt this technique will be informed by the need to gather sufficient knowledge on the resource requirements, especially during the initial project implementation phase.
Secondly, cost estimation will also be achieved by adopting the bottom-up estimation. The bottom-up estimation technique will involve “estimating the cost of individual activities or work packages and summarizing or rolling up the individual estimates to get a project total” (“Project Management Body of Knowledge” 87). To improve the outcome of the cost estimation process, the Project Manager will ensure that cost estimation is undertaken for all the necessary required in the project. Some of the cost elements that the Project Manager considered include the cost of labor, supplies, and materials. During the estimation process, the Project Manager will also ensure that the possible causes of variation in resource requirements are taken into account. This goal will be achieved by recognizing the existence of market forces such as inflation that lead to an increment in the cost of a project.
Cost management in the implementation of the new HRIS project at the firm will further be undertaken by the concept of cost budgeting. According to “Project Management Body of Knowledge”, cost budgeting refers to the process of allocating cost estimates to the different work packages or project activities (89). In undertaking cost budgeting, the Project Manager in collaboration with the organization’s top management team will engage in comprehensive cost estimation using the bottom-up technique. The collaborative approach in the cost budgeting process will enable the Project Manager to establish a cost baseline, which entails a time-phased budget. The time-phased budget formed the basis upon which the Project Manager undertook project monitoring (“Project Management Body of Knowledge” 90). The budget below illustrates the estimated cost of the project.
|Cost element||Cost [amount in $]|
|Cost of preparing the project charter||10,000|
|Acquiring the new HRIS software||200,000|
|Training the human capital||15,000|
|Cost of consultancy from external firms||50,000|
|Cost of market research||20,000|
|Cost of integrating the new HRIS to the organization||100,000|
|Total budgetary estimate||395,000|
Table 2: Estimated project budget
Several aspects will be taken into account in controlling the cost of the project. The cost control aspect will increase the likelihood of the effective determination of the cost baseline of the project. The Project Manager will undertake cost control by evaluating the cost performance to determine the possible variations from the budget. The manager will monitor the project budget to minimize the occurrence of errors and fraudulent activities such as unauthorized changes to the project cost baseline.
Cost control will further be undertaken by establishing a cost change system that specifies the factors and basis upon which the stipulated cost baseline may be adjusted. One of the fundamental aspects that the Project Manager will consider in developing the cost control system entail specifying the cost level that warrants approval of the cost baseline. Furthermore, the Project Manager will adopt computerized tools, for example, spreadsheets, in tracking variation between the planned and the actual costs.
Dubai World Air is focused on improving its efficiency in managing human capital by implementing the new HRIS. The organization’s management team recognizes that the quality of the HRIS software will influence the extent to which the intended project goal is achieved. To achieve this goal, the Project Manager will integrate the concept of procurement management. The “Project Management Body of Knowledge” affirms that project procurement management enables an organization to acquire the necessary products or service outside firm (147). The Project Manager will undertake several project procurement processes, which include procurement planning, solicitation planning, source selection, and contract administration.
In its procurement planning, the procurement planning, the Project Manager in collaboration with the DP World top management team will undertake a comprehensive assessment of the project by identifying the necessary computer hardware, software, and other accessories that will be required in making the new HRIS operational. To procure the new HRM technology successfully, the organization’s management will ensure that the features of the HRIS are explicitly defined.
This aspect will ensure that the HRIS acquired meets the organization’s intended purpose. Moreover, the procurement planning process will further entail identification of potential suppliers of human resource management systems. The project procurement management will further be achieved by assessing the prevailing market conditions. The assessment will seek to identify the different HRIS available in the market and the terms and conditions offered by the suppliers.
In addition to the above aspects, the procurement management process will involve examining the constraints that might affect acquisition of the new HRIS. One of the elements that the project manager will consider in evaluating the constraints entails the availability of funds. Consequently, procurement of the HRIS will be undertaken based on the predetermined project cost baseline.
Analysis of findings
DP World’s decision to invest in the new human resource management system illustrates its commitment to improving its operational efficiency. The new HRIS will enable the firm to be efficient in undertaking the day-to-day activities associated with HRM. The Project Manager guiding the implementation of the new HRIS has adopted different project management tools and techniques hence improving the likelihood of attaining the intended project outcome. First, integration of project human resource management has enabled the Project Manager to develop an effective project team. This goal has been achieved by ensuring that the project team members were drawn from different departments at DP World such as the Information Technology, Finance, Human Resource, Project Management and Procurement departments.
The criterion used in selecting the project team members such their level of competence, interest in the project and personal characteristics enabled the project team to be comprised of the right participants. In addition to the above aspects, the choice of an in-house project team is critical in improving the level of employee development. The employees included in the project team have an opportunity to gain additional skills and knowledge on project management.
Implementation of the project further took into account the need for ensuring that the quality of the project outcome was satisfactory to the target audience. By focusing on the fundamental project quality management processes, viz. quality planning, quality assurance, and quality control, DP World will be in a position to adhere to the desired project quality. Moreover, integration of the benchmarking technique will significantly improve the project implementation process.
For example, by comparing the planned project with the actual HRIS project undertaken by other organizations, the project owners, and the project team will gain insight on how to implement the project. Subsequently, the likelihood of improving the project outcome will be improved considerably. Investing in project quality assurance and control processes will further improve DP World effectiveness in executing the project.
DP World effectiveness in managing projects is also depicted by its approach towards managing project risk. The collaborative approach between the Project Manager and the organization’s management team in identifying risks that might affect the project will improve the Project Manager’s approach to managing risk. Through this approach, the different risk categories that might affect attainment of the desired outcome will be identified successfully.
The risks identified will be managed by taking into account the concepts of risk management planning, risk response, and risk analysis. Subsequently, the probability of minimizing deviation from the desired outcome will be reduced considerably. DP World efficiency in managing project risk is further illustrated by its utilization of the Delphi and the brainstorming techniques. Application of the two techniques will enable the Project Manager to identify the project risks.
To minimize the cost of the project and to ensure that the project is completed within the stipulated timeframe, the Project Manager has adopted the concept of time management. The use of schedule development enabled the project manager to identify project activities that can be undertaken concurrently. This goal has been attained by incorporating the crashing technique. The adoption of other project management concepts such as cost and procurement management has considerably improved implementation of the project. For example, procurement management will enable DP World to source the necessary HRIS components such as the accessories, software, and hardware from the credible suppliers.
In addition to the effective application of the above project management practices, tools, and techniques, the project manager should ensure that project is completed effectively. Consequently, it is essential for the organization’s Project Manager to consider integrating the concept of project closure. Project Managers can take into account two main aspects of the project closure process. The two strategies entail undertaking contract closure and administrative closure. Contract closure involves completing the assigned project tasks according to the stipulated project requirement. Conversely, administrative closure is comprised of different activities such as gathering, generating and disseminating information to the organization’s top management team.
During the project closure process, the Project Manager should take into account several issues. One of the issues that the Project Manager should take into consideration entails training other employees on how to use the technology. The motive for undertaking the employee training is to equip the employees with the relevant skills on how utilize the new HRIS. Subsequently, the likelihood of promoting a high level of usage in undertaking HR roles and responsibilities will be improved.
Thus, the firm will attain efficiency in managing the human resource. After completion of the training process, the Project Manager should undertake a comprehensive post-project review to assess the effectiveness of the HRIS. The post-project review will aim at ensuring that the project contributes to the intended project objective. Other aspects that should be considered during the closure process entail developing a comprehensive project report, handing over the project report to the organization’s management team, and disbanding the project team.
The above analysis illustrates the tools, techniques, and strategies to be adopted by the Project Manager at DP World in undertaking a project aimed at implementing a new HRIS. The project is aimed at improving the organization’s efficiency regarding human resource management. Subsequently, DP World will be in a position to improve its efficiency in dealing with the challenges associated with managing a large workforce. The success of the new HRIS will depend on the effectiveness with which the Project Manager guides the project participants through the different project phases. DP World will be in a position to implement the project successfully by complying with the different project management techniques such as human resource management, quality management, time management, procurement management, cost management, and risk management.
However, to improve its success in implementing future projects, DP World’s management team should consider undertaking continuous improvement in its project management processes. Some of the issues that the organization should take into account entail consideration of quality standards, nurturing a high-level project participation and compliance to project quality standards and time. These aspects will enable DP World management team to undertake and complete projects successfully and achieve a high rate of success.
Adams, Tammy, Janet Means, and Michael Spivey. The project meeting facilitators: facilitation skills to make the most of project meetings, Hoboken: John Wiley, 2007. Print.
Beel, Joran. Computer science; new generations, New York: Cengage, 2009. Print.
Cobb, Anthony. Leading project teams: the basics of project management and team Leadership, Hoboken: Sage, 2006. Print.
Project Management Body of Knowledge: A guide to the project management body of knowledge. Oak Street, Electronic Imaging Services Inc., 2008. Print.
Project Management Institute: A guide to the project management body of knowledge. Oak Street: Electronic Imaging Services Inc, 2008. Print.
The Official Board: DP World. 2015. Web.