Management and Personal Management Competencies

Introduction

The process of management consists of controlling and directing people in the organization to harmonize and coordinate the people towards the direction of attaining the goals and objectives that the organization has set. For people to be able to attain these organizational objectives, the management uses the resources available for example natural, financial, human resources, as well as technological resources at the disposal of the organization.

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In the built environment, the understanding of people and the management of the organization are important owing to the nature of the work in this kind of working environment. The outcome of the built environment is a form of service that is offered to the clients and the quality of the service offered depends on the ability of both the people and the organization to harmoniously work towards the attainment of the goals set by the organization.

Relationship between individuals and the organization

The individuals within an organization are very important assets to the organization. This is because the individuals perform the activities in the organization. The relationship between the organization and the employee is normally shaped by the existing culture of the organization. The individual has responsibilities and duties to fulfill on behalf of the organization. The management of the organization also owes the individuals the right treatment and good remuneration for the services rendered. The relationship is therefore two-way. Both of these parties need each other for survival.

Management theories

Several theories of management have been put forward and used over the years been to guide and direct the management process, Stewart, Dorothy M. (1994). In the outline below, some of the management theories have been highlighted and a description is given on how they can be used to assist the organization meets some of the key challenges of the 21st century.

1. The two-factor theory

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In management, two factors influence performance among people in the organization. These factors are equally important in the building industry, Gennard, John and Graham J, (1998). Satisfiers are the factors that positively motivate people and hence improve performance for instance, if the people in the building industry advance in ranks, are appreciated by the work itself, and are appreciated and recognized, in the organization they will be motivated.

The job dissatisfies are extrinsic factors that do not cause positive motivation and are hence dissatisfied, Armstrong, M (1998). In the building industry during the 21st century dissatisfies like salaries, company policy and administration problems should be avoided so that the people are motivated to work harmoniously and be productive.

2. Theory X, Theory Y

This management theory has two factors namely X and Y. Theory X has its assumptions based on the early school on human relations. From theory X, people in organizations inherently dislike work. Goleman, D. (1996). According to this theory, people are lazy and they must be supervised closely all the time. It insists that these people can only be motivated by money. On the other hand, theory Y has a different take on the same thought, that the mental and physical effort that people put in is very natural just like rest and play.

Those employees or the people in the organization are perfectly able to practice self-control and self-direction when they are in the organization and precisely at work, Pepper, Allan D. (1989). The employees are hence better motivated by opportunities to take up responsibility and the behavior at work than money, coercion, and threats from the management. In the 21st century, the management must learn the kind of people that they have and also understand the motivator for these people. This will help the organization to overcome the challenge of low employee motivation and understand its people better hence treat them respectively.

3. The scientific management theory

The theory looks at management as the function of planning the people rather than a function of the people. From this theory, management is supposed to select potential people as well as train them and latter cultivate cooperation and harmony between the people and the management rather than create a division of tasks and individualism between the two entities, Ridgeway, Christopher and Brian W., (1997).

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This management theory in the concept of the 21st century is useful in facing the challenge of discrimination, bias, and enmity between the management and the people in the organization, Pugh, D. (1975). The theory approaches the organization as an entity that is not divided between the employees and the workers but rather attempts to boost cooperation and harmony between the two.

4. The hierarchy of needs theory

This theory by Abraham Maslow has put a person’s needs in order of a hierarchy from the most basic needs to the need for self-actualization which is the highest order. From this management theory, a need ceases to be a motivator once it has been attained. From this, employees have needs that are arranged in a hierarchy, Mintzberg, H. (1989). The needs that are lower on the hierarchy for instance conditions of work, and employee safety, must first be satisfied before the needs that are higher on the hierarchy like self-actualization and self-esteem.

In this century, problems will be avoided and challenges faced by the organization that treats the people in the organization in order of needs, Peters, Tom (1992). The most basic needs like a good salary, allowances, and promotions should first be met before the rest of the needs this will cultivate harmony and cooperation in the organization, McKevitt, David and Alan Lawton (1994).

Principles of organizational management

The principles of management are very important to the management of any organization since they serve as guidelines for a successful management process. Waterhouse, Mike, and Geoff, C., (1995). The fourteen principles emphasize the guidelines that managers need to observe and follow in their actions within the organization and the decision-making process. These include;

Centralization –This normally has the power and authority of decision-making concentrated in the hands of the top management. The opposite of a centralized organization is a decentralized organization. The corporation should try to balance the two.

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  • Chain of command –This simply implies that in the organization, there is supposed to be a systematic organization of the superiors. They must be ranked in a chain from the top most superior to bottom. The differences in terms of responsibility between these ranks should be clear.
  • Discipline –Discipline is a prerequisite in any organization. For the organization to function and operate smoothly, all the professionals must be obedient, respect the authority and also have good conduct regard to other people in the organization. The people in the organization must observe the deadlines for tasks given must hit the expected targets and must be punctual in arriving at their places of work.
  • Equity in the organization – In the organization, all people should be treated as equals. For instance, all the subordinates who are at the same level must receive a relatively similar remuneration. The entire workforce should be treated well. The management should be just and fair to all.
  • Esprit de Corps – This refers to the spirit of teamwork. The principles of management advocate that the organization taps the benefits of team working. In a team, people have different ideas, opinions, and views which may enrich the quality of the decisions being made. Managers are expected to develop and sustain employees’ morale through teamwork.
  • Initiative – Initiative is the ability of the individual to take responsibility without being followed up by the supervisor. This is one of the areas where the organization can build its strengths. This is because initiative acts as a source of innovation in the organization and also develops and creates and better ideas among the people.
  • Order –There should be organized at the place of work to ensure safety as well as efficiency. All the materials and equipment must be well organized and at the appropriate places to avoid accidents.
  • Presence of unity of command – All the subordinates in the organization should take their orders from one person and in addition be answerable to just one supervisor. This reduces the likelihood of occurrence of conflict and confusion among the various professionals.
  • Remuneration –The professionals in the organization must be given sufficient pay for their work. This not only motivates them but also influences worker productivity, Torrington, Derek and Laura H., (1998). The methods that are used in paying them should always be reasonable, fair, and rewarding to the effort put in by the people.
  • Responsibility and Authority –People should take up the consequences of their responsibilities. Superiors in organizations have every right to give direction and order to their respective subordinates.
  • The Accurate subordination of personal interests- Personal issues should be put aside in the organization and first peruse the organizational goals.
  • The division of work- When people in the organization specialize in particular areas, they create specific professional and personal development within the workforce and this increases productivity. Specialization is known to enhance the efficiency of labor. This is very applicable to both the managerial and technical professions.
  • Unity of command –All the employees must cooperate in receiving orders from one superior and also be answerable to one superior.
  • Unity of direction –This principle states that all the people who work in a common line of work should understand and also have common objectives at all times. Taylor, Stephen (1998). All the activities that are much related should be grouped. A common plan should be made for all the activities and the supervision should be charged to one manager.

Personal competencies in management

The major motivator in my profession is the fact that I have the organizational commitment and I also love my job. There is nothing else I would rather do in my career ambitions apart from my professional job. I am grateful to be in the profession that I had always dreamt of since my childhood. This gives me job satisfaction and makes me like what I do. To motivate other people, I normally advise them to like their work, be comfortable in their profession, and always aim to develop their profession so that they move up the job positions and not just stagnate in the same position in the organization.

My major strengths in communication are that I am well-spoken and a very confident person. However, I am emphatic on my points and sometimes repeat myself. I am a renowned leader and very capable of coordinating various activities with inherent charisma.

I have been able to demonstrate strong organizational skills and planning during my course of study and in the course of my two years of working experience. While taking a degree in architecture, I was a team leader in my class. I was able to coordinate the activities if my team members. I have on many occasions organized for my team members to lead in architectural exhibitions. While at work for two years; I have been able to lead people in to completing building plans which were all very successful. I have absolutely no doubt in my leadership potential. The organization I worked in had a democratic management style.

The people in the organization were not dictated upon by the management and were involved or consulted in one way or another in the major decisions of the organization or even in the management of change. The workers were motivated by this kind of organizational culture and took pride in being part of the organization. This was because they felt part of the organization and more importantly felt wanted and appreciated. In the organizational teams, I mostly act as a team leader.

I do not volunteer but the team members normally recommend me because of my degree of leadership and professionalism. My colleagues say I am a strong leader who is confident and self-driven as well as a person who relates well with the other team members. I perceive myself in this light and the response from my colleagues only what I think about myself. The process of Recruitment and selection is one of the most remarkable activities in management.

This is because I meet potential employees who are qualified and know their respective fields without any doubts. They are promising and display potential, ambition, and the diligence of well-trained people. The worst part of it is that you end up recruiting very few of the potential employees just because the organization can not absorb every one of them.

In change management, I always consult my colleagues so that I do not implement change that they will later not accept. My weakness however is that I tend to overlook some details with the assumption that my colleagues will take the time to read out the framework for the change to be implemented. They sometimes do not get to read the details and this raises questions about the plan.

Conclusion

The management process ensures that the activities of the organization run as anticipated and that the goals and objectives are achieved for both the organization and the employee as well. The relationship between the organization and the individual is two ways where both parties depend on each other. The management theories that can assist the organization to overcome the challenges of the 21st century have been explained at length in this paper.

References

Armstrong, M (1996): A Handbook of Personnel Management Practice (Sixth Edition), London, Kogan Page.

Armstrong, M (1998): Employee Reward, London, Institute of Personnel and Development

Gennard, John and Graham J, (1998): Employee Relations, London, Institute of Personnel and Development.

Goleman, D. (1996): Emotional Intelligence: Why it can Matter More than IQ, London, Bloomsbury

McKevitt, David and Alan Lawton (1994): Public Sector Management: Theory, Critique and Practice, London, Sage Publications/Open University.

Mintzberg, H. (1989): Mintzberg on Management, The Free Press, New York.

Pepper, Allan D. (1989): Managing the Training and Development Function, Aldershot, Gower.

Peters, Tom (1992): Liberation Management, London, Pan Books.

Pugh, D. (1975): Organization Theory, Harmondsworth, Penguin.

Ridgeway, Christopher and Brian W., (1997): Empowering Change: The Role of People Management, London, Institute of Personnel and Development.

Stewart, Dorothy M. (1994): Handbook of Management Skills (Second Edition), Aldershot, Gower.

Taylor, Stephen (1998): Employee Resourcing, London, Institute of Personnel and Development.

Torrington, Derek and Laura H., (1998): Human Resource Management (Fourth Edition), London, Prentice-Hall.

Waterhouse, Mike and Geoff C., (1995): Management and Business Skills in the Built Environment, E & FN Spon.

Watson, Tony J. (1994): In Search of Management: Culture, Chaos and Control in Managerial Work, London, International Thomson Business Press.

Willcocks, Leslie and Jenny Harrow (1992): Rediscovering Public Services Management, London, McGraw-Hill

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