Project Resource Management for Agile Environments


Resource management is an integral part of businesses that must be considered when establishing a new company, implementing a new strategy, or maintaining the current success. This business aspect tackles the issues of staffing, equipment and is responsible for finding the right balance between the supply and demand of organizational assets. This paper will examine concepts relevant to the field, resource management process, methodologies for agile environments, and Biblical implications as described in the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK).

PMBOK Knowledge Areas

It is essential to address the concepts relevant to the topic of resource management to adequately examine its planning dynamics. Resource management can be defined as a business practice of managing human, physical, and intangible assets within an organization to reach a strategic goal and maintain the effectiveness of the company (Macke & Genari, 2019). Resource management knowledge can be divided into several Knowledge Areas: planning, estimation, acquirement, execution, management, and control. As per the first aspect, planning is characterized by the overarching process of achieving a particular organizational goal by determining the need for resources, getting, managing, and utilizing them (Project Management Institute [PMI], 2017).

To initiate this process, a quality management plan and a scope baseline indicating the need for resources should be developed (Macke & Genari, 2019). The planning should also consider factors of the internal environment like geographical location, existing organizational culture, and current workforce, as well as external factors such as marketplace conditions, policies, and governmental regulations.

The second Knowledge Area is the estimation of the resources needed for the project. This step provides specific instructions for the quantity of equipment, assets, and supplies necessary for the particular plan. It is important to note that estimation is not performed once but is repeated when needed throughout the process of the implementation since the plan’s goals can change (PMI, 2017). Guided by the resource management plan and project documents formulated on the previous step, the managers develop the resource breakdown, basic estimates, and updated assumptions log for the project.

The third aspect of the Knowledge Area is acquiring resources that were estimated. Developing resources ensures that the needed employees, equipment, supplies, and materials are present in the organization to proceed with the plan (PMI, 2017). The importance of the following activity is highlighted by the fact that it is responsible for allocating responsibility (Macke & Genari, 2019). As a result of this function, business departments are assigned specific tasks, the plan of renewing resources is developed, as well as project teams are created.

The fourth Knowledge Area tackles team development and is primarily related to human resource management in particular. This process ensured that the interpersonal communication between functional teams is efficient to benefit both the company and workers (PMI, 2017). Managers can achieve people’s enhanced performance by conducting interpersonal skills training, implementing and improving communication technology, assessing individual performance, and developing a reward and incentives plan (Macke & Genari, 2019). This approach will guarantee that each employee collaborates with others and contributes to the organization’s growth.

The fifth aspect of the process deals with team management to enable the change to be done efficiently. The managers responsible for this aspect supervise the operation, intervene if necessary, provide feedback, and enact changes (Macke & Genari, 2019). This step is essential since it provides businesspeople with the ability to spot the overlooked issues and fix them. Lastly, the controlling procedure is the final step of the Knowledge Area of resource management. The controlling measures ensure that the resources are available for use when needed, the balance of assets is established, and the planned change is optimized continuously (Macke & Genari, 2019). Controlling presupposes analyzing a lot of data and making actionable decisions to facilitate growth.

PMBOK Process Groups

There are generally five steps in project management processes: initiating, planning, execution, monitoring, controlling, and closing. The three aspects of the process relate to the Knowledge Area of resource management. Firstly, the planning and estimation phases of the resource management area reside in the planning Project Process Group (PMI, 2017). Both steps contribute to the overall creation of a resource management project plan that serves as the foundational guide for future developments (Eyibio & Daniel, 2020). This document is projected to be adapted for the emerging changes and challenges; however, it is essential to formulate it on the starting step of planning.

Secondly, tasks of acquiring resources, developing, and managing a team related to the execution Project Process Group. In this step, the managers make sure that the strategy is executed and functions as planned, which also requires a high level of stakeholder engagement (Eyibio & Daniel, 2020). The group also includes overseeing project activities in action and intervening when a change in the plan is needed.

Thirdly, the controlling resources phase of the Knowledge Area is connected to the monitoring Project Process Group. This step is responsible for knowledge sharing and management for better performance (Eyibio & Daniel, 2020). For instance, during the implementation, acquirement of resources, and composing them into well-functioning teams, one can uncover an underlying set of challenges and a need in optimization that the business needs to facilitate (PMI, 217). The project plan is also being corrected and updated at this stage following the observed issues and emerging needs.

Considerations for Agile Adaptive Methodologies

Resource management also has to develop an approach for adaptive, quickly changing environments. Unlike markets that remain stable for a long time, business fields such as IT change rapidly due to the growing level of innovation and constantly emerging trends. Heilmann et al. (2020) claim that organizations have to concentrate on enhancing their employees’ collaboration and self-organization to perform well in agile environments. Therefore, resource strategy has to adapt to this dynamic context by enhancing the communication and independence of employees.

To facilitate ease of communication, the interpersonal concept of emotional intelligence should be understood. It is defined as a skill of recognizing and adequately responding to people’s emotions, which helps workers to self-manage themselves and form meaningful connections with others (PMI, 2017). Virtual management is another aspect of resource management that has been on the rise recently in light of the COVID-19 pandemic (Heilmann et al., 2020). It deals with strategizing and controlling human assets through technology instead of face-to-face communication (Heilmann et al., 2020). Lastly, the concept of self-organizing teams entails a process where workers recognize themselves as responsible members of a group and manage the team dynamics with no need for intervention.

The investment in employee development will benefit the company since, in agile situations, teams have to change and adapt to novel factors effectively, and collaboration is the key to that. According to Heilmann et al. (2020), it is essential “to adapt and respond quickly to alternations and to implement actions to control market uncertainty and risk” (p. 16). More specifically, training on flexibility, knowledge sharing, and communication should be conducted to optimize employee performance in agile contexts and ensure that decentralized departments can autonomously respond to change.

Biblical Integration

One of the essential aspects of resource management is controlling human assets, especially motivating and enhancing their effective collaboration. Bible is an excellent source of inspiration for teamwork leadership and guidance. God tries to manage his creations, people, through his teaching described in both the Old and New Testaments (Roberts, 2016). Therefore, it comes as no surprise that the Bible tackles issues of collaboration.

For instance, God encourages self-reflection and emotional intelligence. Corinthians 1 states, “All speak the same thing, and that there be no divisions among you; but that ye be perfectly joined together in the same mind and the same judgment” (Roberts, 2016, p. 265). In this passage, the Lord urges people to be cohesive in their ideas and values to support the common aim of praising their God.

Similar to how the Bible teaches people to be united by similar ideas, the business world requires employees to have a comprehensive and thorough understanding of their goal for sufficient teamwork. According to Roberts (2016), employees must consider an organizational plan beneficial for both themselves and the company to apply their best efforts. Therefore, it is essential to address the inconsistencies in group judgment and develop a shared agreement to achieve it. This can be done by creating a strong organizational structure, establishing a rewarding incentive system, or forming trusting relationships with management.


In conclusion, it can be said that resource management is a complex field of study with a wide range of applications in the business world. There is an abundance of relevant concepts that can be implemented into the business to achieve profitability and effectiveness. The resource management process includes steps of planning, estimation, acquirement, team development, management, and control. Methods for adapting to agile environments require resource managers to develop self-regulating teams. Lastly, the analysis of a Corinthians 1 Bible verse showed that a need for collaborative groups could be translated into business practices by enabling workers’ unity.


Eyibio, O., & Daniel, C. (2020). The effective resource budgeting as a tool for project management. Asian Journal of Business and Management, 8(2), 2321-2381. Web.

Heilmann, P., Forsten-Astikainen, R., & Kultalahti, S. (2020). Agile HRM practices of SMEs. Journal of Small Business Management, 58(5), 1-16. Web.

Macke, J., & Genari, D. (2019). Systematic literature review on sustainable human resource management. Journal of Cleaner Production, 208(1), 806-815. Web.

Project Management Institute. (2017). A guide to the project management body of knowledge: PMBOK guide. Author.

Roberts, G. (2016). Christian scripture and human resource management. Palgrave Macmillan.

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