Human resource management (HRM) is a field that has been studied widely by many professionals in business practice. The HRM practice is guided by various functional areas that must be taken seriously by firms that want to emerge successfully. Human resource (HR) managers should always focus on the best models that have the potential to support the emerging needs of the targeted employees. With proper support, provision of resources, empowerment, and mentorship, the targeted employees can find it easier to support the business model of their respective companies (Ekwoaba & Ikeije, 2015). It is therefore appropriate for the HR department to undertake these roles continuously. However, it is not a rule that a company will always have the right employees who can deliver the intended goals. The HR department should, therefore, implement a powerful strategy to recruit, hire, and retain workers who have the right skills to support the goals of the intended company. This paper gives a detailed analysis of recruitment and selection as some of the major functions of HRM. The analysis goes further to give a detailed description of recruitment and selection in India.
Recruitment and Selection Models
Adewale and Anthonia (2013) define “strategic human resource management” as a powerful approach that is used by companies to establish how the targeted goals can be realized promptly through human capital. To achieve this goal, the most appropriate human resource (HR) practices and policies should be put in place to ensure the existing human capital delivers the intended goals. A strategic approach or model will be needed in an organization to support short-term and long-term objectives. Throughout the process, it is appropriate for the HR department to manage every person in the organization. The HR manager should go a step further to formulate sustainable relationships in the organization. The employees should eventually be empowered to pursue the goals of the company.
To ensure this goal is realized, the HR team should have a powerful strategy for recruiting, selecting, and hiring the right people who have the potential to improve the level of performance (Sultana, 2014). Before initiating the recruitment process, the HR department should formulate a powerful strategy and plan. By so doing, the company will find it easier to complete the hiring and selection process successfully. With proper planning and understanding of the unique gaps in the organization, the HR managers will be able to attract individuals with desirable skills. The strategy will ensure the company realizes the targeted goals.
The first step that should be taken seriously by HRM leaders is recruitment. This process should be conducted professionally to ensure the targeted objectives are realized. Ekwoaba and Ikeije (2015) define recruitment as the searching for potential candidates who possess the right skills, dexterities, and job experiences that resonate with the goals of the targeted organization (Sultana, 2014). The manager should focus on specific gaps and positions that should be filled by the new employees. With this understanding, the process will be conducted promptly and ensure more people are informed about the new job opportunities and openings.
The main objective of the entire recruitment process is finding a large pool of individuals who possess the required skills. This means that the company will be able to get the right people who have what it takes to drive performance in the company. Sultana (2014) argues that the ability to hire competent individuals is the first foundation of competitive advantage in a business organization. With an effective recruitment approach, the targeted company will find it easier to minimize disruptions and promote performance. Companies that use a fruitless strategy during the recruitment process will attract the wrong individuals and find it impossible to achieve the targeted goals. Some of the gaps that might arise include poor customer service delivery, reduced productivity, and business disruptions.
The recruitment process is followed by selection (Ekwoaba & Ikeije, 2015). After the right candidates with the right skills and dexterities are identified, it is appropriate to come up with a powerful selection process. This process is characterized by several initiatives that have the potential to deliver positive results. A company can use various strategies during the selection process such as “testing, interviewing, or reference checking” (Nalla & Varalaxmi, 2014, p. 72). The ultimate goal of this process is to ensure proficient individuals are hired. The competencies of the applicants can be matched with the goals of the organizations. Sultana (2014) encourages companies to ensure their selection processes are fair and legal.
It will be appropriate for an organization to avoid certain malpractices such as discrimination. This means that targeted people should not be selected based on their gender, religious, ethnic, or cultural backgrounds (Nalla & Varalaxmi, 2014). The concept of diversity is usually associated with various successful companies. It is also appropriate for companies to focus on several legal frameworks during the hiring and recruitment process. For example, there are laws discouraging companies from discriminating against disabled or elderly people. Such laws should also be used whenever remunerating these employees.
The issue of strategy should be taken seriously by firms throughout the recruitment and selection process. The recruitment strategy should be designed, implemented, and designed systematically. This strategy is necessary to ensure the human capital supply meets the targeted organizational demands (Adewale & Anthonia, 2013). A proper strategy will ensure the pool of skilled applicants is expanded. The quality of the strategy will ensure the organizational goals are realized.
Theoretical Models for Recruitment and Selection
The strategy should be guided by several theoretical frameworks. Several theories have been identified to support a wide range of human resource (HR) processes. Throughout the hiring and selection processes, organizations can use various strategies to ensure the right individuals are brought on board. The human capital theory (HCT) asserts that people possess a wide range of competencies, abilities, and personalities that can be tapped to dictate the human capital in an organization. Individuals who possess specific skills, abilities, ideas, and knowledge will be targeted to create organizational value (Ekwoaba & Ikeije, 2015). Professionals and HR experts using this model will focus on the best approaches to identify, hire, and retain employees who have the potential to drive organizational performance.
Social capital is a concept that describes how interactions within an organization are created. According to the human capital theory, organizational leaders can promote interactions and collaborations in an attempt to maximize performance. Organizational capital is the institutional ability and knowledge developed to deliver tangible results. That being the case, this theory is critical throughout the hiring, recruitment, and retention process (Nalla & Varalaxmi, 2014). It is founded on the premise that organizations are capable of investing in the right people who have the potential to support their respective business models.
The resource-based view (RBV) is another model or theory that focuses on the concept of sustainable competitiveness in an organization (Nalla & Varalaxmi, 2014). According to this model, companies that go a step further to develop their human resource assets will find it easier to tackle the challenge of competition. The existing rivals in the industry will find it hard to compete with the company and subsequently improve the level of performance. According to the RBV model, firms should go a step further to evaluate their workforces. By so doing, the companies will attract and retain individuals who possess the required competencies. The skills are then matched with the emerging needs or goals of the organization (Ekwoaba & Ikeije, 2015). This practice will subsequently result in a situation whereby a competitive advantage becomes the driving force in the firm.
The caliber of workers, the established relationships, and leadership practices implemented in an organization will dictate the level of performance. When HR managers identify the best approaches to strengthen their human capital resources, it will become easier to deal with the existing rivalry and eventually promote performance (Adewale & Anthonia, 2013). The use of the RBV model can transform the situation and eventually make the targeted company successful.
After hiring the right individuals, companies can go ahead to implement powerful initiatives that can promote equality and fairness. The equity approach model is one of the theories that can be used by companies to empower their employees. The theory guides companies to embrace the best policies that can result in equal opportunity (Adewale & Anthonia, 2013). Such opportunities should be considered from recruitment to retention practices. The three unique policies that have the potential to promote fairness include equal chance, access, and share. This means that workplace policies and activities should be nondiscriminatory. Fair procedures, access to adequate resources, promotions, and empowerment should be implemented in companies that want to succeed.
The nature of the recruitment and selection process is critical because it dictates the performance of the company. The most important thing is making sure the strategy is informed by the needed human capital in the firm (Sultana, 2014). This understanding is what will empower the HR manager to identify skilled candidates who have the potential to deliver the targeted goals and objectives.
Adewale and Anthonia (2013) believe strongly that recruitment and selection cannot be complete without considering the concept of retention. After selecting and employing the right individuals, companies must consider the best approaches to ensure the changing needs of the workers are met. By so doing, it will be possible to form positive leader-member social exchanges (Ekwoaba & Ikeije, 2015). The approach will empower the employees to focus on the targeted organizational goals. This discussion, therefore, shows clearly that recruitment and selection are powerful functions of the HRM that must be informed by the trends in the industry such as workplace diversity, aging population, and changing consumer needs (Bhoganadam & Rao, 2014). With a proper selection approach, more firms will attract, hire, and retain competent workers who have the potential to drive performance.
Recruitment and Selection Model in India
Singh (2013) believes strongly that India is one of the emerging economies in the world today. Towards the end of the 19th century, the government came up with powerful policies in an attempt to promote economic performance and growth. The relaxed business environment in the country has attracted many multinational corporations. India has also topped the list as one of the best destinations for outsourcing (Singh, 2013). This analysis shows clearly that the wave of globalization has influenced most of the organizational practices and cultural behaviors associated with the country. However, some unique aspects have continued to define the nature of recruitment and selection in many Indian corporations.
In India, recruitment is treated as the first HR process whenever planning to hire new employees (Singh, 2013). During this stage, many Indian employers begin by identifying the gaps in their companies. This information is used to settle on the right skills and competencies that should be targeted by the HR department. During the recruitment process, companies focus on some of the existing laws and regulations to ensure the needs of more people in the country are met. Bhoganadam and Rao (2014) indicate that many Indian organizations focus on traditional recruitment methods. For instance, companies use employee referrals, advertisements, newspapers, walk-ins, and transfers (Singh, 2013). However, the recent past has been characterized by new strategies whereby many Indian companies are focusing on social media networks. Online recruitment strategies are used by many companies in the technology and computer industries.
Past studies have gone further to indicate that several factors dictate the nature of recruitment in the country. For instance, issues such as working hours, cultural values, gender differences, brand image, and location play a critical role in the recruitment process (Singh, 2013). These measures are considered to ensure the right people are informed about the new opportunities in different companies.
The second stage is the selection and is used to get the most suitable candidate. In India, the selection process is usually lengthy or tedious (Bhoganadam & Rao, 2014). However, the selection process will differ from company A to B. This happens to be the case because the companies and employers consider a wide range of issues. Some of the issues considered during the process include employment background, medical tests, employee’s weaknesses and strengths, and referrals (Bhoganadam & Rao, 2014). Individuals who meet the outlined criteria will then be informed by the respective companies.
Although India has welcomed the ideas of globalization, the undeniable fact is that various cultural attributes are unique to this country. These issues have continued to dictate several activities embraced by different organizations. For instance, the recruitment and selection process focuses on various issues and strategies to deliver the intended goals. That being the case, multinational firms planning to do business in India should be aware of the cultural attributes associated with this nation (Bhoganadam & Rao, 2014). This approach will make it easier for companies to focus on the best practices and hire the right individuals who have the potential to drive business performance.
Adewale, O., & Anthonia, A. (2013). Impact of organizational culture on human resource practices: A study of selected Nigerian private universities. Journal of Competitiveness, 5(1), 115-133. Web.
Bhoganadam, S., & Rao, D. (2014). A study on recruitment and selection process of Sai Global Yarntex (India) Private Limited. IJMRR, 4(10), 996-1006. Web.
Ekwoaba, J., & Ikeije, U. (2015). The impact of recruitment and selection criteria on organizational performance. Global Journal of Human Resource Management, 3(2), 22-33. Web.
Nalla, B., & Varalaxmi, P. (2014). Human resource management practices in organized retailing: A study of select retailers. International Journal of Business and Administration Research Review, 1(2), 63-74. Web.
Singh, R. (2013). Human resource management in the Indian banking sector. Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Resources, 1(1), 21-28. Web.
Sultana, A. (2014). Human resource management in organized retail industry in India. Global Journal of Finance and Management, 6(6), 491-496. Web.