The International Recruitment for Local Companies Within the UAE

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Introduction

This paper examines the topic of international recruitment for local companies within the U.A.E through a review of related literature on the topic as well as an examination of various respondents from companies such as Etisalat and the U.A.E TDIC (Tourism Development & Investment Company). It is expected that through an examination of the topic and both companies, the researcher will be able to adequately examine the use of international recruitment within the U.A.E.

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This study is divided into 4 distinct sections:

The first section is a literature review that details current points of view on the various factors involved in international recruitment. The second section is the methodology which explains how the study was carried out, the case that is being examined as well as the theories utilized to guide the researcher. The third section depicts the results of the study and explains the findings of the researcher. Lastly, the conclusion section details the final view of the researcher regarding the topic that was examined.

Literature review

Culture

Diverse environments such as the social-cultural environment influence organizations’ operations. One of the ways through which society directly influences organizations is through employee recruitment. In a bid to attain high-level competitiveness about human capital, organizations incorporate the concept of diversity. This move leads to the development of a human resource base that is very diverse. According to Bono, Heijden, and Jones (2011), the term diversity explains the differences that prevail amongst employees. The differences may be based on their attitudes, values, and/or beliefs. A combination of these differences constitutes the organizational culture (Bono, Heijden & Jones, 2011). Organizational culture comes out as one of the main issues that firms have to incorporate in their management practices. In the contemporary business environment, firms’ management teams face numerous cultural dimensions that have to be addressed. This aspect means that culture cannot be separated from organizations. Alvesson (2002, p.1) affirms that culture is well integrated even in organizations that do not portray explicit support for cultural issues such as their employees’ values, ideas, and feelings. Likewise, the lack of unique corporate culture cannot result in a diminution of its importance.

The level of awareness and interest regarding culture varies across organizations and managers. Additionally, managers also face a major challenge in their effort to entrench effective organizational culture. According to Alvesson (2002, p.1), firms win or lose based on the culture they have nurtured. Previous studies conducted on the subject reveal that the role of conventional sources of firms’ competitiveness such as regulated markets, processes, economies of scale, and product technology cannot supersede the role of organizational capabilities and culture in the modern business environment. Considering the complex nature of the contemporary business environment, knowledge has become an important component in organizations’ effort to develop a sustainable competitive advantage. Alvesson (2002, p.2) asserts that there is a strong correlation between organizational culture and knowledge. Therefore, knowledge management is an important aspect that firms have to incorporate in developing their organizational culture.

Cultural dimensions

Researchers have hypothesized different dimensions and levels of organizational culture over the years. Corporate culture falls into three main areas, which include surface level, espoused values, and basic assumptions. Nurturing the surface level of corporate culture enables firms to develop a physical environment that is attractive to people irrespective of their cultural differences such as race and ethnic backgrounds. The espoused values relate to organizational leaders’ commitment towards formulating strategies and goals that address the needs of the entire firm. On the other hand, basic assumptions entail developing a belief that every employee can contribute towards organizational growth. The degree to which an organization has integrated this basic assumption is vital in developing organizational culture (Abu-Jarad, Yusof & Nikbin, 2010, p. 10). In their internationalization process, it is paramount for firms’ management teams to develop a comprehensive understanding of the prevailing cultural dimensions in the host country. This assertion holds because the nurtured cultural dimensions will have an influence on the effectiveness with which human resource strategies are implemented.

International recruitment

There is a direct relationship between the success of firms in the international market and the effectiveness with which they undertake international recruitment and selection (Scullion, 2006). Findings of previous studies conducted on the subject reveal that international recruitment plays a critical role in enhancing the competitiveness of international firms. Conventionally, every organization endeavors to hire and deploy employees in positions that contribute towards improvement in its domestic and international performance, which can only be realized through an effective recruitment process. Sparrow (2010) defines recruitment as the process of seeking and obtaining potential job applicants who possess sufficient employability qualities. The recruitment process provides companies with an opportunity to select candidates most suited for the job. Employee recruitment and selection are distinct practices that a firm’s management teams should ensure are undertaken effectively.

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International recruitment approaches are similar to domestic recruitment in a number of ways. Domestic HR managers may use a number of staffing orientations, which entail ethnocentric, geocentric, regiocentric, and polycentric dimensions. On the other hand, international human resource managers have three main recruitment approaches they can adopt, which include ethnographic, polycentric, and geocentric approaches. Pravin (2008) asserts that the ethnocentric approach entails recruiting job applicants from the parent country of the international firm to work in a foreign country. Four main steps underscore the ethnocentric recruitment approach and they include self-selection, developing a pool of candidates, assessing the candidates’ technical skills, and mutual decision-making. The polycentric approach restricts international firms to recruit from the host country. This approach aims at helping organizations reduce their international cost of operation. On the other hand, the geocentric approach entails recruiting employees to hold positions in the firm’s international operations internally.

International firms can also recruit externally from the international and domestic labor markets. According to Scullion (2006), the Internet, international graduate programs, cross-national advertising, and headhunting are some of the main external recruitment methods that are increasingly becoming famous in international human resource management. Headhunting entails the use of recruitment agencies to search for job candidates to fill managerial positions. The headhunting method can also be used to search for specialized employees. On the other hand, cross-national advertising entails seeking employees from the international labor market by undertaking cross-border campaigning. Various methods of cross-border advertising such as press advertising and placing posters on strategic positions such as airport lounges and international magazines (Sparrow, 2010).

After the recruitment, a number of elements are taken into account in selecting the employees. In most cases, employee selection for both domestic and international firms is undertaken based on their skills, personality, cultural adaptability, attitudes, personality, and their level of motivation. In addition to these elements, international human resource management also integrates other aspects such as the employees’ family flexibility, interpersonal skills, country-specific experience, technical and professional expertise coupled with one’s global experience. By incorporating these elements, international human resource managers can select the most suited job candidate.

Training and development

The purpose of employee training is similar in all organizations irrespective of their region and country of operation. Most organizations rank improving employees’ technical abilities as the core objective of their training programs. Despite the similarity of employee training and development in domestic and international human resource management, training and development in the international market are very essential. This aspect arises from the fact that international firms face unique situations such as organizational structures and jobs. Through employee training and development, international firms can standardize their human resource management practices with their business operations.

Support in employees personal life

Both domestic and international HR managers should formulate policies that are supportive of their workforces. According to Clutterbuck (2003), the success of an organization is largely dependent on the extent to which it is committed to supporting its employees. In a bid to ensure that their organizations remain competitive, it is paramount for HR managers to be conscious of the changing business environment. Consequently, they should formulate policies that assist their employees to adapt to changes in the working environment. One of the issues that domestic and international HR managers should address relates to work-life balance. Over the past few years, the concept of work-life balance has become a major concern for human resource managers. Employees are increasingly demanding their employers to formulate HR policies that can allow them to address other personal issues. As a result, HR managers are increasingly considering integrating various HR policies and provisions such as job sharing, flexible working hours, compressed working hours, and the possibility of working from home. The objective of these policies is to enable employees to balance their social life and career, and thus employees would be in a position to enjoy a more satisfying career (Duxbury & Higgins, 2005, p. 113).

Supporting employees through policies such as work-life balance can enable HR managers of both domestic and international firms to save on some critical costs. For example, one of the policies that are widely being used by HR managers entails allowing employees to work from home. This element is playing a decisive role in enhancing employees’ efforts to achieve financial freedom. For example, an employee can save the money he or she would have used in commuting and use it on something else. Employees can channel the money saved to other economic avenues such as investing in shares or supporting their family, which improves their wellbeing. Conventionally, employees that are fairing well in life will perform optimally because as aforementioned, work-life cannot be divorced from the other facets of life. In an effort to support the implementation of these HR policies and provisions, organizations are increasingly implementing emerging information communication technologies such as video conferencing among others (Richenda, 2006, p. 67).

The incorporation of flexible working hours provides employees with an opportunity to enjoy flexibility in executing their tasks. Therefore, employees have an opportunity to engage in other personal issues because they do not have to be at a particular workstation in order to complete a particular assignment. The incorporation of flexible working hours enhances the employees’ level of motivation. This assertion emanates from the fact that the employees develop a perception that they are in control of their work. Such HR policies also contribute towards employee development. For example, the incorporation of flexible working hours demands employees to be effective in time management (Richenda, 2006, p 67).

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Compensation

According to Kandula (2007), an effective compensation system forms the backbone of human resource management. A firm can develop a high competitive advantage by implementing effective employee compensation policies. The compensation policy adopted influences firms’ ability to attract, retain, and motivate their workforce. This aspect in turn influences the firm’s performance efficiency. Employees regard compensation as an important measure of their market value. Additionally, compensation policy is important to managers because they have to balance the employees’ remuneration needs with the shareholder’s and other stakeholders’ requirements (Shields, 2003).

Firms’ management teams face a major challenge of ensuring that they formulate a compensation policy that is acceptable to both employees and the firms’ shareholders and stakeholders. In the process of formulating employee compensation, HR managers should take into account a number of issues. First, they should evaluate the prevailing labor market conditions. This move should entail analyzing the employees’ demographics such as their skills and the demand and supply characteristic of the labor market. Additionally, firms’ management teams should analyze the compensation policy adopted by their competitors in a bid to counter competition through gaining a competitive advantage.

Kandula (2007) emphasizes that it is vital for HR managers to evaluate the prevailing organizational culture in their effort to formulate compensation policies. Some of the issues, which should be taken into account, including the firm’s organizational structure, profitability, size of the organization, strategies, and policies implemented coupled with salary compression. Job characteristic is another variable that HR managers should incorporate when formulating compensation policies. For example, some jobs require high intellectual capability compared to others. Compensation for such jobs should be relatively high when compared to those that do not require high intellectual capacity. Other job characteristics that should be considered include skills requirement, physical requirement, working conditions, the effort required to execute the job, and decision-making needs.

Compliance with regulation

In the course of executing their duties, international and domestic HR managers are required to adhere to the laid down rules and regulations. Numerous rules and regulations, which are clearly outlined by both governmental and non-governmental organizations, should be observed. Firstly, HR managers should ensure that they desist from any form of discrimination. International and domestic firms assume the responsibility of providing all potential job candidates with an opportunity to work in the firm. Therefore, HR managers should not discriminate against potential job candidates on the basis of gender, race, ethnicity, disability, sexual orientation, or religion. Additionally, HR managers should be committed to ensuring that their organizations adhere to the requirement of equality and equity. This aspect means that all incumbent employees should be treated with a high degree of equality, for example by ensuring that employees receive fair remunerations and compensations.

In addition, HR managers of domestic and international firms should comply with the laid down rules and regulations regarding the safety of employees in the course of executing their duties. As a result, firms should ensure that the working environment does not harm the employees in any way (Kandula, 2007). HR managers should also ensure that they comply with the contract established between employees and their organizations.

Company values

Domestic and international HR managers should ensure that their organizations adhere to company values. One of the most important values that firms should nurture is continuous improvement. Considering the competitive nature of the contemporary business environment, it is paramount for HR managers to ensure that they formulate a policy, which requires subordinate managers to review their HR strategies continuously. The success of every organization is determined by the effectiveness with which it serves its customers (Cohen, 2006). International and domestic HR managers should ensure that they nurture customer focus values amongst the employees. HR managers should nurture an environment whereby employees work hard towards understanding consumer needs and expectations and endeavoring to meet the needs thereof (O’Reilly & Pfeffer, 2000, p.54).

Developing their employees is another company value that HR managers should integrate into their strategic management practices. HR managers should steer their organizations away from being driven by profit only and rather include developing employees’ skills, knowledge, and experience. Being concerned about the employees’ welfare will play an important role in nurturing a strong organizational culture where the entire employee will be concerned with attaining organizational goals and missions (O’Reilly & Pfeffer, 2000, p.54).

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Methodology

Introduction to Methodology

This section aims to provide information on how the study will be conducted and the rationale behind employing the discussed methodologies and techniques towards augmenting the study’s validity. In addition to describing the research design, the theoretical framework, and the population and sample size that will be used in this study, this section will also elaborate on instrumentation and data collection techniques, validity and reliability, data analysis, and pertinent ethical issues that may emerge in the course of undertaking this study.

Case Analysis

With a customer base of 135 million, the Emirates Telecommunications Corporation based in the U.A.E, better known as Etisalat, has grown to become one of the largest telecommunications companies in the world spanning several continents with an assortment of products and services ranging from mobile networks to internet service provision. The success of the company is in part due to its expansion into various global markets such as those in the Middle East, Africa, and various parts of the Asian continent. As indicated by Quisenberry & Griffith (2010,) frontier markets, especially those with few multinational corporations, are ideal locations for the creation of new business ventures due to the potential of becoming a market pioneer which is an enviable position for any company given that a well-entrenched corporation within a particular market can in effect control a majority of the local market’s consumer base for many years (Quisenberry & Griffith, 2010). What you have to take into consideration is that despite the fact the company makes an annual revenue of $8.4 billion with $2.07 billion in yearly profits, the fact remains that as it expands into new markets this creates an issue involving the training and retention of a diverse talent pool of employees from many different locations. For example, Bley & Saad (2012) notes that when companies expand into new markets it is often the case that they do not do so alone due to a variety of rival corporations also seeking new opportunities within the same markets. As a result, this creates the potential for any expanding company to lose many of its talented expatriate employees to local rivals. Another factor that should be taken into consideration is the fact that expanding into new markets often entails managers and other employees having to deal with a variety of distinctly different business cultures and styles which may significantly differ from what they are normally used to. This would of course hamper operational efficiency due to the initial inability for company managers to effectively guide and instruct local employees due to a “gap” in business culture understanding. All of these factors are indicative of the necessity of developing an effective means of recruitment and training for Etisilat. Another interesting company to take into consideration is the Tourism Development & Investment Company (TDIC) which is considered to be one of the best developers of major tourism destinations in Abu Dhabi and a key contributor to its economic and cultural progress. However, such an organization is also having considerable difficulties when it comes to sufficiently developing its current operations due to the necessity of having to hire and develop more workers from other countries. It is based on this that this report will cover different aspects of international recruitment in two multinational organizations in UAE, whereas the organizations looking towards finding the right experts, qualified and talented candidates to join and helping to develop; as they in the same time fully commit towards Emiratization and to offer equal opportunities for UAE nationals and ex-pats.

Theoretical Framework

Attribution Theory

Attribution theory centers around the derived assumption of a particular individual/group of people regarding a particular process, product, or service based on their experience with it. It is often used as means of investigating consumer opinions regarding a particular product and to determine the level of satisfaction derived from its use (Trafimow et al., 2011). By utilizing this particular theory as the framework for this study, the researcher will be able to correlate the opinions of the interviewees regarding their assumptions over what practices they utilize when it comes to hiring employees and their general perception regarding employee training. This particular theoretical framework helps to address the research objective of determining current talent management practices within companies by creating the framework that will be utilized within the interview (Trafimow et al., 2011). Utilizing attribution theory, the research will design the research questions in such a way that they delve into the opinions of the manager regarding current hiring and talent management practices within the companies examined. The needed information will be extracted through a carefully designed set of questions whose aim is to determine how a particular manager’s experience with the company’s hiring and talent management processes affects the way they view the current state of hiring and talent management within the company and whether significant improvements need to be implemented or not. However, it should be noted that while attribution theory is an excellent means of examining the opinions of interviewees, it is an inadequate framework when it comes to determining the origin of problems in certain cases. Grounded theory, with its emphasis on utilizing a specific framework to guide a researcher during the examination process, can be considered an adequate method of performing the more “in-depth” aspects of the research.

Grounded Theory

The advantage of utilizing ground theory over other theoretical concepts is that it does not start with an immediate assumption regarding a particular case. Instead, it focuses on the development of an assumption while the research is ongoing through the use of the following framework for examination:

  1. What is going on?
  2. What is the main problem within the company for those involved?
  3. What is currently being done to resolve this issue?
  4. Are there possible alternatives to the current solution?

This particular technique is especially useful in instances where researchers need to follow a specific framework for examining a problem (as seen in the framework above) and, as such, is useful in helping to conceptualize the data in such a way that logical conclusions can be developed from the research data (Hunter et al., 2011).

By utilizing the framework of grounded theory to perform an examination of the interviewee responses and the data from the literature review the researcher will be able to adequately examine the processes utilized within the companies being examined related to hiring and talent management and whether such processes are effective based on the data collected (Orth et al., 2012).

Research Design

Sekaran (2006) observed most qualitative studies are either descriptive or experimental. The study will utilize a descriptive correlational approach because the participant will be measured once. Furthermore, it is imperative to note that the study will employ a semi-structured interview technique for the purpose of collecting participant data from the aforementioned areas indicated in the previous paragraph. According to Sekaran, an interview technique is used when the researcher is principally interested in descriptive, explanatory, or exploratory appraisal, as is the case in this study. The justification for choosing an interview approach for this particular study is grounded on the fact that the participant will have the ability to respond to the researcher’s questions more directly and thus provide more information than a simple questionnaire. An analysis of related literature will be used to compare the study findings with research on various strategies utilized in hiring and talent management. Such analysis, according to Sekaran (2006), is important in identifying the actual constructs that determine efficient analysis because “it goes beyond a mere description of variables in a situation to an understanding of the relationships among factors of interest” (Sekaran, 2006).

Data Collection

According to Patton (2002), the purpose of an interview is to obtain subjective data, such as attitudes, which are not observable. The interview will provide an opportunity for the interviewees to share their knowledge about hiring and talent management practices and their attitude about the use of skill training, job satisfaction, and developing job interest in their programs. Since the questions will be open-ended, each interviewee will also have an opportunity to ask questions or take the interview in a different direction in order to share their ideas regarding the topic. Sekaran (2006) notes that research that is performed in a rigorous manner can lead to more effective practices than decisions based mainly on intuition, personal preferences, or common sense. It is based on this that the researcher will utilize the views garnered through the interview that will be conducted along with data from the literature review in order to develop a sufficient platform from which effective and above all accurate conclusions can be created. The open-ended questions that will be utilized within the study will primarily be guided by the case study objectives established by the researcher. The interview style will be intensive interviewing. Intensive interviewing allows the researcher to conduct an in-depth exploration of a particular topic.

Deciding on the Questions to be used in the Interviews

The questions for the interviews were based on an evaluation of the research questions as well as the data and arguments presented in the literature review section. The aim of the researcher was to develop the questions in such a way that they build upon the material utilized in the literature review.

Data Analysis

Thematic analysis will be used to identify themes. Patton (2002) describes this type of analysis as inductive analysis and states that most qualitative analysis is inductive in the early phases when the researcher is trying to identify categories, patterns, and themes. As such, it is expected that by utilizing the process of reading and rereading the data, emerging themes within the collected data sets can be identified. Patton (2002) points out that thematic analysis can help the researcher to demonstrate rigor. Having other individuals review the transcripts will enable different individuals to form themes from the data. When the reviewers have completed their reviews of all the interview data, they will come together as a group, present and discuss their identified categories and themes derived from the data, and identify the main common themes. The researcher will then review these main themes and use this information to assist in establishing the key findings of the study. This method of data analysis is appropriate for a qualitative design. Patton (2002) discusses several competencies involved in thematic analysis. One such competency is pattern recognition which is the ability to see patterns in a wide array of setups. Content analysis involves searching the data for common words or themes. Both of these competencies will be used by the researcher to identify common themes. With such an analysis, the findings will be obtained in an unbiased manner.

Study Concerns

One potential concern that should be taken into consideration is the potential that the responses given by the study participant are inaccurate or outright false. While the researcher is giving the managers the benefit of the doubt, the fact remains that there is still the potential that the information being given has been crafted in such a way that it was made to ensure that other companies will not be able to determine how the internal operations of the company are examined to function. Unfortunately, there is no way for the researcher to verify the information since only one research subject is being interviewed. This methodology exposes the participant to an assortment of risks that need to be taken into consideration during the research process. The main risk the participant will encounter is if any of the answers criticize or indicate dissatisfaction with hiring and talent management leaks. This may have consequences on the attitude and opinion of company officials towards him and can result in victimization. To eliminate this risk, the responses will be kept in an anonymous location. This way, the only way to access the information will be through a procedure that involves the researcher. The project thus observes research ethics in sampling as well as during the data collection process.

Results/Data Analysis

Survey results

The data collection methods applied in the study acted as the main platform for dictating the viability of the findings. The data collection methods were developed in tandem with the nature of research orientation to enhance better harmony and progress. The study applied both the primary and the secondary data to not only assimilate the results but establish well-founded considerations for the achieved results.

Addressing Diversity in Workplace Environments

When it comes to the process of hiring workers for companies within the U.A.E it was noted by 70% of the study respondents that there are three distinct factors that need to be taken into consideration, namely: diversity in the hiring process, talent management when an employee is hired as well as the various challenges company face during the hiring and training period. 30% of the respondents indicated that there are four characteristics that are in demand within a technology-oriented enterprise such as Etisalat, namely: high market responsiveness, fast developments, low cost, and finally high levels of creativity, innovation, and efficiency. Nearly 90% of the respondents stated though that what must be understood is that such characteristics are dependent upon the type of technical teams that are the backbone of the company wherein through the utilization of a variety of management practices a seamless integration of vertical and horizontal means of collaboration need to be implemented to create a stable organizational structure for proper operations and product development. This can be seen from one of the respondents who stated the following:

“Every organization has the zeal to remain afloat in a competitive market. This is because of the high levels of expertise required. As a human resource manager certain are the protocols and practices that are followed to achieve organizational objectives”

The respondents stated that since globalization and multiculturalism have become synonymous aspects of the global market place companies tend to respond to the diverse consumer and cultural demographics to which they sell their products and services to stay relevant. A company that limits itself in terms of diverse employee demographics runs the risk of being unable to understand the quirks and cultural norms in certain ethnic and racial markets resulting in the creation of ill-equipped marketing and sales strategy which very likely will result in adverse consequences for the company in terms of the number of products sold and the degree of market penetration. For example, one of the respondents stated the following:

“I think my company is very lucky to have a uniform compensation or salary and grading structure which applies to all nationalities. Now, again being on an Emirati company working in the UAE we understand that the market structure of a UAE national is very different than the other nationalities, and one way we were able to overcome this is we have a grading system and a salary structure that accommodates for this so that for instance we can have UAE Nationals on a certain job grade being paid higher than a non-national yet still hold the same grading structure. ”

Taking such factors into consideration most modern-day companies attempt a certain degree of racial, gender, and cultural diversity in the employees they hire. This enables the creation of unique product concepts, sales strategies, methods of operation, and marketing mixes based on the views and backgrounds of this diversified workforce. Other benefits derived from workplace diversity come in the form of greater employee retention due to a company culture that supports equality and racial acceptance rather than discrimination and divisiveness. It is also noted that multiethnic and multi-gender companies tended to have higher rates of productivity due to greater employee satisfaction over the company’s policies which results in better overall profits for the company due to increased productivity.

Supporting Employees

The results of the study reveal that 55% of the managers stated that one of the qualities that increase the interest of individuals for workers for particular types of jobs is the inherent flexibilities found within a given position. The concept of flexibility can range from the scheduling and time-off policies that are in place within the company to how a job allows its employees to be creative with what they do instead of following rigid corporate policies. 55% of the managers stated that what you have to understand is that compared to previous generations, the managers who were interviewed stated that present-day workers place a higher level of importance on the concept of the work-life balance wherein each aspect complements the other. It was based on this that they realized that by presenting potential employees with the opportunity to personally adjust their schedules within a reasonable level as well as allow them an appropriate level of freedom in taking time off due to various obligations involving their personal life, this results in a greater level of employee retention as compared to setting a rigid corporate policy. Not only that, 70% of managers who were interviewed state that employees these days are more independent when it comes to accomplishing certain tasks and solving problems. As such, it is recommended by such managers that to attract the current generation of employees it would be necessary to create an internal business culture that fosters creative thinking and a certain level of freedom for employees. Lastly, another aspect that 70% of managers emphasized that is often given to employees hired comes in the form of fully paid advanced training for their particular positions. This can come in the form of management classes, technical courses, and an assortment of other educational opportunities that are fully paid for by the company. By providing this particular benefit companies are not only able to improve the quality of their workers but are able to provide the much-desired opportunities for advancement that a lot of employees seek.

Talent Management

Talent management can be described as the process by which a company develops an employee’s skills throughout their time within the company to take on a variety of job roles, as well as to manage their progress up the corporate ladder through a variety of leadership roles. 30% of the respondents stated that this process creates a reduction in employee “churn rates” which requires the retention of talent within the company to reduce costs associated with training new employees and ensuring that talented individuals do not go to potential rivals within the same industry. Studies such as those by Vaiman, Scullion & Collings (2012) have indicated that improving and retaining talent within any company is crucial for the success of a business due to the way in which talented individuals are drivers for high performance and improved operational processes within a company (Vaiman, Scullion & Collings, 2012). Oldroyd & Morris (2012) point out that it is not the quantity but rather the quality of a company’s workers that drives success no matter the type of business model or the popularity of a product (Oldroyd & Morris, 2012). It is based on this that various business development specialists, such as Oldroyd & Morris (2012), indicate that it is crucial for any company that wishes to expand into different markets that their hiring and talent management processes are in line with long term views in relation to retaining employee rather than short term goals of merely keeping a position filled. Nearly 50% of the respondents stated that allowing a company’s hiring practices and talent management processes to be complacent can lead to serious detrimental effects on operational performance as well as result in increased costs related to having to fill positions over and over again as well as retrain the necessary individuals to fill them. This is evidenced by the following quote from a respondent:

“In our companies case, there is extra attention, extra demand that we need to provide and that HR is being faced with this daily. So here we have a company of specialists, the top of the notch, the best system engineers that you can find in the world, and when you are in a company where these employees are such rare assets, you know in companies like ours across the world keeping them happy and satisfied”

Addressing Training and Development

Based on an examination of the relevant findings from the study it was seen that training and development was a crucial process for an organization to become lean and perform efficiently. From the results of the study alone, it was seen that 98% of the total respondents unanimously agreed that training and development not only enhanced performance but also acted as a change agent in effectively managing change within an organization. This backs up the initial assumptions of this study regarding the correlation between training and improved company performance.

Moving forward, it has to be noted that a close correlation seems to be evident between management, training, and development as well as the subsequent performance of employees within a company. The findings of the study reveal that an organization’s management team formed the key factor in enabling a company to implement the necessary training systems in order to properly accomplish their duties and establish high levels of performance within their respective companies. As indicated earlier, the study sought to reach to obtain much information from employers and employees as they formed a major platform in determining the effectiveness of training and development in an organization.

Though all the respondents as indicated above are very essential, this study gave special reference to the employees as they were directly involved with the execution of tasks both inside and outside an organization. What you have to understand is that it is quite difficult and complex to succinctly establish a correlation between training and its effect on employee development. There are far too many variances to take into consideration due to the inherent complexity of the issue. It was from this consideration that this study concentrated on the observable outcomes of the policies and practices. The result was that managers interviewed within the study were quick to point out that if employees were provided with the proper tools they in effect can do their jobs better and more efficiently. It was also evident from the findings on the impact of training and development that training limited resistance to work performance and boosted confidence among employees. About 70% indicated that some work processes required higher skills which were critical in boosting their abilities to perform effectively.

Such a factor was similarly noted in the study by Kurt Lewin who expounded on the fact that organizational training and development of staff was just another part of organizational change for technology-intensive companies wherein developing staff who could “flow” with changes in the company’s business environment was just as important if not the most important factor when it comes creating a successful operational structure. It was also evident from a cross-section of the respondents that even though it was the role of an organization’s management team to facilitate the establishment of the correct training environment, employees needed to put greater effort to ensure that an entire training process is holistic as they were important in the implementation of an organization’s policies. It was clear that organizational training and development needed to involve performance evaluation since this aided min identifying key areas of weaknesses and how they can be improved

Most respondents were of the view that the lack of effective training was due to the inability of management to evaluate employee performance, a consideration blamed on overwhelming market demand. They agreed that training and development after an evaluation was crucial in revealing key potential that has not been tapped. Besides, it equips an organization with a greater opportunity to organize employee training for greater efficiency in the highly competitive market.

The arguments presented above by showing that the ability of an organization to progress within its given market is inherently dependent on the ability of workers within the organization itself to work as a team resulting in their ability to meet specific company goals and objectives (Branine, 2005). It is worth noting that these variables as they came out in the interviews and questionnaires, required inclusive harmony that not only took considerations of the directly visible outcome of the human resource roles but curved their intrinsic views of the same considerations to them. In this respect, these variables were highly effective in ensuring the necessary cohesion between the observable results and the inner perception of the consumers and the workers. Based on the results of the study it can be seen that for management to derive the best “value” from training and development the most effective way of doing so would be through team-based operations. What you have to understand is that organizations that utilize teams are able to operate at a higher capacity due to the concept of shared responsibilities resulting in a better method of lesson internalization resulting in higher levels of commitment and innovation.

Addressing Company Values

Based on the interviews, nearly 40% of the respondents stated that one factor that should be taken into consideration when it comes to hiring and talent management is the types of management styles that company managers apply when managing and training their respective employees. Those interviewed state that there is a variety of management styles currently in practice today ranging from the militaristic to the laid back and finally the open management style which focuses on developing an environment where the sharing of ideas is promoted. Each type of management style results in different levels of employee reciprocity such as their responsiveness to given situations, their ability to adapt to new problems, and even their ability to improve. The managers stated that companies need to take into consideration what management styles are currently in place and how do they relate to what they want in terms of talent management. Do they want employees that are robotic and respond in a manner that is dictated step by step by the company? Or do they want employees that are creative and imaginative resulting in the development of possible solutions for current internal problems? It is questions such as these that bring up the issue of implementing proper management styles within a company in order to ensure that talent management practices are implemented in such a way that it is in accordance with what it wants its employees to become. In relation to this, one of the respondents stated the following:

“…….trying to meet their expectations is a must and keeping them motivated is also a must and because we have people who have come from really advanced and mature companies they are used to certain styles and certain procedures that today we cannot necessarily provide because we are such a young company and trying to meet this expectation of best standards and best practices in HR can sometimes be slightly difficult but we always try to improve from our situation.”

Nearly 20% of the respondents noted that some management styles unfairly use the situations of employees in order to derive every single ounce of performance out of them while at the same time paying them a mere pittance. They said that they avoid this sort of practice at all costs since it causes operational problems. The final points of interest in this section are instances where serious problems are overlooked in favor of having work continue as usual. This can come in the form of environmentally damaging practices or employee abuse. 35% of the managers who were interviewed brought this up due to the fact overlooking such factors is highly unethical and would reflect badly on the company if discovered. They state that what you have to understand is that all the negative factors indicated within this section are indicative of company management practices that result in adverse effects on a company’s talent pool. The more unethical a company’s internal practices are the more likely it is that performance levels would drop and the rate of employee churn would increase resulting in a considerable degree of talent loss for the company. For example, practices that involve making an employee work harder than they should employ ethically dubious methods of operation, as well as other similar factors, are actually detrimental to talent management practices since they either create a situation where employees are more likely to leave the company or the company would develop employees that are distinctly unethical in their own method of working.

Views on International Recruitment

Based on 80% views of the managers who were asked about workplace diversity and its effects on company performance, “in the case of the U.A.E. where there is a high degree of multiculturalism, it was stated that it was often the case that companies acquire a diversified workforce whether intentional or not, yet what must be understood is that as companies attempt to expand into new markets it becomes necessary to expand the diversity of workforces as well since the U.A.E unlike other countries is so culturally and ethnically diverse that to not do so would severely limit market penetration especially in areas with different ethnicities and cultures”. This particular view does show that workplace diversity is inherently a necessary aspect for companies targeting consumer markets that are ethnically and culturally diverse and as such it reveals that it is more of a necessity rather than an option when it comes to ensuring that a company continues to thrive and succeed especially in the current economic downturn which has resulted in the need for strategies involving diversifying marketing strategies to penetrate new consumer markets. One of the problems noted though by 70% of the managers that were interviewed was that people from different cultures and ethnicities tend to perceive messages in many different ways due to the unique quirks of their method of understanding. Some messages may be interpreted as insulting and vice-versa and as such it is important to implement methods of communication that take this into consideration so as to reduce possible misinterpretations of what is being said. Another factor that was brought up by 60% of the managers was that the final challenge that companies in the U.A.E should take into consideration is the concept of differing employee salaries and how this impacts workers’ attitudes. For example, one of the respondents stated the following:

“Now, again being on an Emirati company working in the UAE we understand that the market structure of a UAE national is very different than the other nationalities”

As stated by the managers having differing salary rates can impact worker attitudes between local nationals and foreign workers. Taking this into consideration companies need to take into consideration implement new salary practices that create a certain degree of equality among workers as stated by the manager to avoid such problems.

Conclusion

What you have to understand is that it is far easier for a company to develop an employee and manage their talent in a specific field than it is to hire externally and incorporate them into the company’s current operational infrastructure. It is based on this that applying effective methods of talent management along with sound job satisfaction practices (i.e. good company practices and work-life balance practices) results in a company developing a distinct competitive advantage over its rivals who rely almost entirely on external sources for employees for upper management and higher tier technical positions. Despite the obvious advantages brought about by talent management, it must be noted that even the best talent management practices in the world need to take into consideration the level of motivation that an employee derives from their position. Employees that lack sufficient motivation with their current position have been shown as being more likely to leave for “greener pastures” as compared to employees that have been sufficiently motivated by their company. To apply proper motivation this can come in the form of reward programs, proper salary policies, and varying degrees of empowerment that in effect encourage employees to work harder and stay longer at their jobs.

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