The Theory of Organization as the Science of Organizations

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Executive Summary

Organization theory is simply a cluster of objectives stemming from a definable field of study which can be termed organizations science. The study of organizations is a pragmatic science since its resulting expertise is ideal for problem-solving or managerial skills employed in the ongoing enterprises or institutions. Conventional business thinking developed throughout the first half of the 20th century. It symbolizes the merger of scientific management, practical hypothesis, and managerial theory.

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Research findings designate scientific administration theory right from the beginning of the twentieth century, with the underlying philosophy of production. In the first place, human resources, left a legacy of declining production and quality, dissatisfaction with work, loss of pride in workmanship, and a near-complete loss of organizational delight. Weber’s bureaucratic theory put more emphasis on the need for structures of power.

It champions the imperatives of the division of labor and specialization. Conventional management philosophy was rigid and mechanistic. The inadequacies of conventional organization philosophy briskly became apparent. Its prime deficiencies were that it endeavored to explicate a person’s inspirations to strictly function with objectives for reward benefit. Ackermann (2000)

Organizational Theory

Scientific systems are holistically configured systems that consist of groups of persons that work together to meet the laid down stipulations. Systems philosophy is the study of systems for the benefit of identifying common themes to solve problems. Optimizing value and efficiency, and get-together the needs of stakeholders. Roughly organization philosophy can be perceived as the knowledge acquired through the study of three main sub-modules: personal conduits, group processes as well as system processes. This research is centered on achieving enormous functionality of summarizing the main philosophical classification theory.

Gareth R. Jones (1997). The three expansive perceptions that are explored include Personal processes, this encompasses motivation philosophy, personality philosophy as well as responsibility philosophy, group processes incorporating working in groups/communication, leadership, power, and influence; as well as systems processes, as it associates with systems configurations and systems culture. Organizations have the responsibilities to assist their team members in meeting new roles by giving time for transition, or contribution training and shore up. Nevertheless, the objectives of systems-values are to respond to the needs of the community, administers, inaccessible from assured staff leads to the powerlessness to reach goals. Friedman, M., (1970).

Character Processes

Motivational hypothesis

What catapults people to do the things they do? What drives two separate personalities in a given backdrop to choose diverse options? Motivation could be the response in part. Enthusiasm drives performance, this is the force that triggers and a person’s decision to commit or not commit to certain acts or behaviors. The components that amount to motivation are intricate and unique for each individual, and normally dynamic through time.

Research findings have suggested that inspiration is the intersections of reviews necessitate as well as projections for the probability or personality of consequences. When individuals enter into a contract with an organization some calculations will be made regarding the individual’s energy enthusiasm, and consequently efforts. Pickens, T. Boone, (1986).

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When individuals enter into a contract with an organization some computations are made in response to the person’s efforts, Energies and Enthusiasm invested. Organizations. The energies, efforts, and enthusiasm are exhibited through either resource alone (salary), as well as through items such as prestige and importance. This exchange constructs limits of physical and psychological accord between the organization and the person.

The psychological contract can be defined as the shared and unshared expectations flanked by persons and the organization centered on initial accord and the individual’s aspiration’s computations. The individual inspirations become evident especially when the two parties view psychological accord. Gareth R. Jones (1997).

Motivational theory is imperative in the sense that it enlightens the managerial structure on the fact that for any system to convert people’s traits in an organization one has to comprehend the conditions of the psychological concordat. This could also imply an increase in the salary of manpower and amplified managerial and answerability. Gareth R. Jones (1997).

Responsibility Theory

The responsibilities we carry shape the way we conceptualize ourselves and help to illustrate the traits anticipated and those that we don’t anticipate. Responsibilities also help in the communication responsibilities and set expectations for suitable rejoinders from others. Changing to or meeting responsibility requirements could however create anomalies. Responsibility uncertainty has been viewed as one of the anomalies. Role uncertainty transpires when either the focal person or others around him/her are unclear about the nature or prospects of a role. Uncertain responsibilities could easily hamper the endeavoring of employees to successfully achieve and maintain new roles and objectives. Hodgkinson G P (2000),

Role variance may arise when two functions traverse creating tension or complexity satisfying one or both roles. Systems require information that its workforce administers responsibilities and that anomalies and conflicts can emerge since role conflicts create tensions that could alter the capacity of the individual to reach their goals. The certainty with systems is vital in helping panel affiliates in meeting new responsibilities by giving time for a changeover, giving training and support. Hodgkinson G P (2000)

Personality Theory

Behavior is a distinctive and tolerating attribute, personality, and expressive trait of an individual. Behavior could either support or encumber realizing objectives of work goals reliant on fit. For instance, the best familiar personality could be Type A vs. Type B. Type A personalities are aggressive, intolerant, seekers of effectiveness, and always seem to be in a hasten. Type B traits are laid back and possess more tolerance and poignant immovability but tend to be less aggressive.

In a working backdrop Type, A’s seem to be more industrious in the short term and practice more demanding work. Besides, they also have a superior propensity towards health risks and are less likely than Type B’s to be in top decision-making arrangements. Ackermann F B V (2000), Three theorists are inclined to the opinion that personal processes are very imperative to the achievements of any organization.

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Regarding the human resource model, individuals are the most imperative and indeed the cardinal deliberations for optimizing the success of an organization. Every employee is a potential oasis of creativity, talent, and aspirations and the achievements of any structured system depend on the utilization of human resources. The implicit here is that the aspirations of the employee are fundamental since talent and creativity flow when the person is triggered to do so by internalization of organizational goals. Support of the human resource to attain optimum potential remains the biggest challenge of most organizations. Ackermann F B V (2000).

Group Processes


Leadership is an imperative theme in any given organization.

Power and Influence

One needs to scrutinize gutter press is not articles by other media channels to conceptualize the line of attack of power and manipulation. A common scenario is where Hollywood stars do promulgate everything right from prostate quizzes to weight curtailment pills.

These persons as well as others exercise enormous authority and manipulation. Within the ranks and files of any organization power and manipulation is the great impetus that poses a monumental effect on persons and groupings. Even though one may contemplate power and influence in terms of how it is abused, it could also be employed to do something positive within an organization to drive production and meet-to-meet goals. To that end, we will think about its role within involvements and proposition for transformation. Eden C. J. S & Sims, D (2000)

Persuasive achievements or strength by persons that improves other person’s doings if not traits. Supremacy is the force following manipulations to make it effective. Three deep-seated cardinals underlie power. This is to say, for power to be exercised, there has to be an identifiable and credible source; power would have no bearing on individuals without evidence to show that this can be employed. Power reserves are those substances, physical or not, that can be activated to have control on persons.

Power emanates from five broad sources namely, reserve, situation, knowledge, personal and negative power. Supply power draws from the manipulation of wealth and resources; for instance, the boy that owns the basketball happens to say if there will be a game. Situational power is acquired by accomplishing certain functions. Managerial officers exercise executive powers because it emanates from his appointment errands.. Eden C. J. S & Sims, D (2000)

Professional power is the power that emanates from information and experience. Individual power is the instinctive personality identified with a certain person, this is usually magnetism. In conclusion, negative power is the knack of doing absolutely nothing and consequently opposing other individuals from achieving what they want. At the same time power could be viewed as a sense of balance flanked by two parties. Mutually, an individual wielding power as well as an individual in whom the power is being exerted wields autonomy; the latter commands at least divergent pressures.

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Lastly, authority is comparative; influence could be exerted especially when those to whom one tries to exercise power acknowledge the source of it. For instance, a riddle professor in the school of arts would be in a tempting channel assessment made by a Medicare legal review framework.. Eden C. J. S & Sims, D (2000)

As soon as the reserves for power are recognized, the authority must be passed on through identifiable models. Every model highlighted predisposes persons to particular types of rejoinders. Based on a person’s rejoinder, new traits could not or could be persistent over time. Power models incorporate the application of force and coercion, rules and procedures, exchange as well as the environment.

If the objectives of authority and power are the exponential increment and the quality of services delivered by varying employee traits, then the central dimension of the results is the success of the personage rejoinder. Based on the foundations of authority, definite personal rejoinders are more achievable for systems stratagems sense of the way they assimilate with the sustainability of the response over time.. Eden C. J. S & Sims, D (2000)

Conformity is the concurrence to be a behavior because of force, then I have to respond. The implicit is the lack of self-initiated traits since the person has to rather than wants to. By and large, conformity will be the result of methods of force, rules, and procedure and sometimes integrate methods, and must be sustained with continual supervision. Different from observance as well as internalization have some degree of acceptance of the new behavior, however the sustainability of the traits that are not equivalent. Classification is a trait approved out of a desire to please or admiration for the person exercising the power.

The administrator wielding this kind of authority has great magnetism though must constantly be present for the traits to prolong. The structures become self-regulating on the authority figure, making the employee action not sustainable independently. Internalization is rather the most desirable rejoinder since it is independent of the reserves of influence and self-sufficiency. Gareth R. Jones (1997).

Working in Quorums

In the 30s and 40s clusters of experiments were conducted at Western Electric’s Hawthorn plant. The primary round experiments implicated the status of female employees that erected telephone paraphernalia placed in a variety of environments to measure their effect on output.

To their bewilderment, the panel conducting the findings established that the impact of the ecology on productivity was negligible. In all simulated backdrop varies the levels of efficiency augmented, and once back in their imaginative background the construction intensity of the workforce. The team established that the fundamental effect of exponential productivity was the relationship that the major causes for increased productivity were the relationship established between the workforces and between the employees and the executive. Gareth R. Jones (1997).

Another experiment was carried out on male employees that encompass the wiring and blazing of telephone paraphernalia at the same plant. Ecological variations were not implemented as in the first experiment, except that the arrangement of men under analysis. The research panel established what was viewed as the Hawthorne Effect, irrespective of the Quota set by the company, the employees neither under nor overproduced.

Additionally, work production was equivalent to all members of the panel. The research panel, therefore, deduced that the workers created informal clusters flanked by themselves and the executives, something that strongly standardized production in the sense of sustaining a group of identities where no human entity excelled beyond others. One of the greatest tests when working in groups is simply the aspect of the greatest strength, diversity. The study of quorum affirms the fact that multiplicity in particular ratios could yield imperative achievements. Gareth R. Jones (1997).

Organizational Processes


Change is inevitable, it is continuous, it is ubiquitous. Our subsistence is impacted by the changing society. Change is an imperative aspect of survival. In almost every other structured system change is evidently the contentious subject. Human factors have been the contributing aspect concerning the failures of change. Change has always been deteriorating since leaders can’t handle it appropriately and because people defy it. In most scenarios, people have been opposing change since they don’t comprehend and they are don’t also take part in the change process. Gareth R. Jones (1997).

The awareness and expertise in change administration are essential not just for top managers and change agents, but also for all employees. The higher consciousness of change cardinals within an organization, the higher the possibility for the change effort to be triumphant. In the course of, comprehending an improved why, who, when and the modalities to change, employees might be more sympathetic to revolutionize programs. And we need every employee to make the change take place. The main goal of the project is to bring an exposition on the comprehension of the way organizations and change work. The new approach will make their life easier as there is no escape from change. Gareth R. Jones (1997).

Organizational Structure and Design

If systems were to be perceived from the top downwards the underlying conception could be the structure and design. Information flow and sources of influence is the most imperative aspect in the study of organizations. The management approach in this model is rather pragmatic with formalized associations. In most scenario’s systems perform optimally especially there is similarity, prearrangement as well as fewer environmental forces. Communication surge in a centralized approach within units, although no one unit manipulates all communication or has power, making power decentralized. In scenarios where innovation and the capacity for rejoinder to the ecological. Gareth R. Jones (1997).

Managers in any given organization face a confrontation that requires equality rationalization with demands for multiplicity. Fairness warrants ease patronage and supervision, ease of incorporating work of abundant subgroups or squads as well as financial systems since it is much easier to pay for and maintain one system rather than many.

Consequently, the backdrop in which the systems are centered and channeled constantly varies making it unpredictable. Structures need to manage responses to these discrepancies broaden your horizons their processes as well as thoughts. Pickens, T. Boone, (1986).

Systems have a propensity to search for exorbitant equality, following the traditional treaded warfare against the law of entropy that every other thing moves towards greater disorder. This, therefore, calls for a need for organizations to recognize the multiplicity demands for miscellany categorizes their imperatives, and choose which to follow, utilizing the price tag of multiplicity with the accomplishment of objectives cautiously. Gareth R. Jones (1997).

Open Systems Theory (OST) has integrated these inconsistent demands. Regarding the Open Systems Theory, configurations exist inside ever-changing backdrops, which in term transform the existing organizations. These systems are the external organism with external availability, changes of needs and demand, and internal attributes, assimilated to the structural transitional panels and persons. Pickens, T. Boone, (1986).

The systems evolve according to the pressure exerted by these sources and in this respect, it develops by successful adaptations within the files and ranks of the ever-changing and open system.

Administrator’s confronts emanate from reasonable sources of authority by precedenting those that guide successful adaptations by any system. Pickens, T. Boone, (1986).

Organizational Culture

Organizational culture is a cognitive construction that comprises attitude, principles, behavioral norms, and expectations shared by the organization’s constituent. Organizational traditions also offer a status quo and maintain stability in processes, communication, and role. Culture is imposed in various ways including rites, secret codes, and language. Surroundings, which memorialize employees demonstrating excellent service. Exemplifying organizational values evidence traditions that commemorate employees demonstrating excellence. The occurrence, of culture, demands equality. Stephen M Wolfe (2000)

Organization hypothesis

Systems are not only tangible, but they also exhibit social and scientific characteristics; they are multi-dimensional, with immeasurable features. Drawn from physical and engineering models, systems theory considers organizations as systems with boundaries that make exchanges with the backdrop and must adapt to ecological variations to survive. Institutions are unfastening structures that integrate directly with the surroundings. Pickens, T. Boone, (1986).

They consist of inputs; for instance, taking in raw materials, finance, and recruits from the outside world.


They offer output services and pay wages and dividends. Scientific advances and human resources transform inputs and outputs. The arrangement model has become fashionable with the progress of in sequence scientific advancements. Pickens, T. Boone, (1986).

Computers, as well as telecommunication, are progressively more imperative, integrating organizations in the equivalent line of attack that the panicky coordination controls and synchronizes the human body. Organizations are varying in line with new technical possibilities, yet organizations cannot be viewed simply as communications networks; the human dimensions cannot be forgotten. Stephen M Wolfe (2000)

Organization presumptions have attracted critical consideration. Thompson as well as McHugh have quarreled that there is a predisposition for a narrow administration plus psychology’ perception, which has little to do with real-life endeavors. In an attempt to produce a science of organizations, the main focus has been on identifying generalizations about performance in work situations and applying them to all groups not considering their nature. Fastidiously, theorists have given negligible concentration to the differences flanked by coordination that are subject to market forces and those which are not. Pickens, T. Boone, (1986).

Thompson as well as McHugh contends that it is not meant to treat organizations as diverse as scout troops and intercontinental corporations within the same investigative scaffold. The result has always been a gigantic but vague and over-theoretical organization of journalism that hinges on diminutive pragmatic worth. Stephen M Wolfe (2000)

Organization composition

Compositions are units that are constituents of elements or parts; thus people, capital, objectives, market fashion, dimensions of competency, recompense classification, a departmental endorsement that would collision each other by correlation they assemble. Pickens, T. Boone, (1986).

A structural affiliation has various parts acting upon each other, and as a result, generates fastidious types of performance. Fritz points out that directorial configurations are rarely designed intentionally. Diminutive constructions cultivate into larger ones and personage units become the focus of decision-making influence. Fritz asserts departments and subdivisions become entrenched as power systems.

Any structural transform is expected to meet opposition from this power coordination. Fritz also disputes that organizations are configured either to advance or to fluctuate. Advancement is a positive move from one state to another that acts as an institution for further proceedings. Elementary to structural encroachment is the perception of declaration when a conclusion is accomplished and a scrupulous anomaly is resolute. Based on Fritz 2000), management in a system that is configured to advance coordinate individual’s acts into an organizational embroidery of the effective line of attack.

Collectively if persons from these utopian systems concert common efforts with a common objective, the result is synergy, allowing the achievement of enormous feats. The substitute is a structural oscillation. Fritz augments that Oscillating attributes are those which move one place to another, then moves back towards their original position. So many institutes set out on some change program, full of passion and vigor. However, six months down the line, the gusto disappears and the curriculum peters out departure very little distorted. Stephen M Wolfe (2000)

Labovitz and Rosansky (2000) are inclined to the notion that the top managerial positions can acquire alignment to ensure advancement. Vigilantly, crafting and articulating the essence of their business and determine the prime thing.

Illustrating a few decisive tactical objectives as well as the significance and disbursing them throughout their organizations.

Tying performance measures and metrics to those goals. Relating those events to a system of rewards and recognition.

Individual assessment the presentation of their people to ensure the goals is met.

Philosophy of the City of Mountain View

Solidarity en route for a Universal Vision

The City of Mountain View attaches monumental imperatives on coordinated efforts by remote, provincial, national, and other modifiable entities based on the values as well as the Mountain View area. The Mountain View City enhances that personal, uncoordinated efforts are less likely to acquire the objectives short-listed in the Mountain View vision. The City recognizes that personal, clumsy efforts are probably able to acquire objectives outlined in the Mountain View Vision. In this respect, the employees collaborate to work on a mutually agreeable platform in a bid to entrenching the Mountain View Vision. The Mountain View Vision works as a guide for future land use and haulage scheduling and synchronization amid charitable contributing influence. Stephen M Wolfe (2000)

Perambulator –leaning, Mixed-use centers, and corridors

The Mountain View has agreed to undertake a local plan to implement new or expanded mixed-use centers and corridors as delineated on the Vision Map; when practical given the timing of EIS decisions and the timing of jurisdictional suggestion dates. Pickens, T. Boone, (1986).

Felony Deterrence for Children

To combat crime, the Mountain View city has delegated School Resource Officer (SRO) both in private and public institutions, to offer academic programs in the same institutions. The School Resource Officer integrates with kids on campus, which serves as a central point for security details as well as in and around the campus. The School Resource Officers offer support as well as guidance through the running of prospective anomalies. Constructive intimacy with officers makes some kids think twice about law contravention. Stephen M Wolfe (2000)

Children that engage in drug abuse activities and the cohorts of sorts are administered upon by the youth-outreach program known as Dreams & Futures under the auspices of the MVPD that presents the DARE program yearly to all the 3rd 5th and 7th-grade students. Their mission is purely to deter pupils from engaging in drugs and alcohol and to provide the skills to resist peer pressure. Stephen M Wolfe (2000)

Misdemeanor Avoidance Information

The beat cops play a crucial responsibility in presenting personal security to seminars on distinctiveness burglary; the department offers a wealth of crime deterrence in rank. The bureau speaker’s features talks on topics like auto theft prevention, personal safety for seniors, and theft prevention for business. Information in such a situation is disseminated through brochures that are accessible electronically and also in PDF formats. Mountain view employs an open-door policy in the sense that wide-ranging opportunities like online enhances the email services and calls through which questions are tabled on the community. Stephen M Wolfe (2000)

Crime Prevention Tips

Since most criminals target vulnerable targets the policing community alerts the community not to offer themselves vulnerable not even their assets. In this respect, they insist on the idea of habit variation to guarantee security. Through website promulgations, crime prevention tips are featured. Pickens, T. Boone, (1986).

  • Vehicles should be locked and vital items should be taken out of sight.
  • During night hours cars should be parked in well-lit regions and also walking should be with partners.
  • Cars should not be left running even for a minute.
  • If not at home windows should be locked
  • Social security numbers should not be carried in wallets
  • Doors should not be opened to strangers
  • While out on vacation neighbors should be notified.

Mission statement and Organization Ethics

The City of Mountain subsists to salvage lives and assets, safeguard the backdrop and curtail the risk of fire and natural catastrophe by translating service requests into action and investing in education, preparation, and deterrence. Pickens, T. Boone, (1986).


Uphold of the utmost moral principles. Operate in the company of authenticity, candor, and ingenuousness. Earn the conviction as well as the admiration of others


Offer authentic service to the citizens. Be approachable and inventive, by making things happen. Illustrate pride and loyalty to the establishment.


Distribute services with courteousness and compassion. Treat others with dignity and respect. Be concerned about personal welfare.

Monetary Accountability

Administer wealth efficiently. Control expenditures within the budget constraints. Being centered on results.

Positive Work Environment

Take pleasure in work. An opportunity to smile and keep a sense of humor.


Collective responsibilities in solving anomalies. Seeking other opinions and striving for unity.

Equivalent Service Opening Policy

The City Council incorporated a resolution replacing the city’s Affirmative Action Proposal with the Equal Employment Opportunity Legal Framework. This policy states

It is a legal framework of the City of Mountain View to pay for identical employment opportunities for all persons without prejudice because of race, color, belief, sex, sexual course, political membership, state derivation, extraction, age, matrimonial position, or substantial or psychological impairment, except where individual sexuality may be a bona fide criteria that warrant reliable to the normal operation of public employment.

This legal framework is a commitment to equal opportunity in all employment practices; staffing, taxing, recruitment, advertisement, transfer, compensation, benefits, and all other matters of employment. The city commences a workshop to create awareness about the equal employment opportunities accessible based on meritocracy in a bid to motivating all persons to seek employment. Bigotry against enhancing preferences to particular persons or class of fellows on account of clustering. Jenkins, M (2000)

Implementation Plan

The City Council grants delegations to the City Manager to publically promulgate the City implementation plan for the legal framework.

To entrench Equal Employment Opportunity Policy the City has a comprehensive and well-documented policy framework. Wide recruitment to attract all qualified persons by incorporating sexes, the minorities, and the non-minorities. These encompass the maximization of a broad range of publications necessary and other forms of recruitment media. Eden C. J. S & Sims, D (2000)

The review and revision of the City personnel rules, policies, and procedures, relevant, to ensure they are in tandem with the Federal legal framework. Manipulate internal as well as external communication of the Equal Employment Opportunity Policy to employees and all City officers. This incorporates guarantying the leaders of the departments, who are informed about the City’s Equal Employment Opportunity Framework, carrying out training as vital, aiding them in solving anomalies as well as acknowledging equal employment opportunities for all persons on the grounds of merit. Hodgkinson, G P, Thomas (1997),

Continue to monitor all employment practices incorporating transfers, appointments, promotions, terminations, and presentation reprisal as well as other personnel actions, routines, and assessments to enhance compliance with the City’s Equivalent Service Opportunity Framework. Making sure that all position’s demands are job-oriented, that they are realistic and reflect the essential functions of the position, and do establish superficial blockades to employment.

Serve as a liaison flanked by departments, enforcement agencies, organizations as well as community organizations as necessary to open communication channels as well as enlisting their help in finding qualified individuals from all sectors of the community. Make certain a working backdrop that is free from prejudice and duress as demanded by the City’s Harassment Policy and Reporting procedure by scheduling and conducting training for all the human resources about sexual, harassment, and prejudice topics.

The value inclined toward cultural diversity in terms of the Equivalent service Opportunity framework has been championed by the management team building sessions as appropriate. Construction any exploration, findings, and recommendations concerning complaints of prejudice or preferential treatment as outlined in the (EEOP) and the necessary report preparations for the submission of State and federal agencies on matters entailing to equal employment. Hodgkinson, G P, Thomas (1997).

Enhance employee development by assigning employees to jobs that might bring about monumental personal and professional growth, as appropriate, advise and counsel employees on the knowledge and skills relevant for upward mobility, if requested. Guarantying that spoken panel raters maintain to receive an orientation on equal employment opportunity practices and the Americans with Disabilities Act. Deeks, J., & Enderwick, P (1994).


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