Work Motivation, Leadership and Organizational Control

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Introduction

Every organization requires good management. Motivation, leadership and organizational control are key requirements for any successful business. All three elements are necessary for the successful operation of any organization. Employees and labourers need to be encouraged and inspired to work hard and provide the best possible effort. Every organization should be run in the best possible manner. Staff should be allocated to areas that they are best suited.

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Order is important to an organization. (Lawler, 1971) An effective system has several features that enable it to function efficiently. Every organization needs one or several people who will show other members the best way forward. Societies have units that serve various and certain goals. These units are often in the form of organizations. Every organization applies various methods of motivation, leadership and control to ensure optimal performance. (Bandura, 1986)

Discussion

Work motivation can be achieved in several ways. One conventional way is by having the employees in a state of competition with each other. The employees must be educated on how each member’s effort contributes to the overall performance of the organization. The staff must be aware of the mission of the organization and the expectations that it has on them. Motivation makes employees view their job as more important. This increases productivity. Motivation can come in a number of ways. The organization can provide incentives to the employees. These incentives can be in the form of a party, buffet, official company leisure wear, etc.

An organization can give a bonus salary to its employees as a reward for excellent performance. For example, Barclays Bank offers incentives to its staff. Staffs that reach or exceed their targets are rewarded with substantial amounts of cash. (Barclays Bank: Corporate Development, 2010) Employees can be given intrinsic or extrinsic rewards. Rewards must be carefully thought through so that they do not encourage laziness. Issuing incentives in non-productive times is can be seen as retrogressive. Barclays Bank suspends incentives such as lunch treats during slow business times. (Hull, 2010) Money is a major motivational tool. Money is controversial since employees in the private and public sectors have different views of money.

The role of money in motivation is not clearly understood. It is true that money is both an “enabling and motivational factor”. (Bandura, 1986) A manager is required to get things done via his or her staff. Motivation is necessary for the accomplishment of this goal. The application of motivation determines the success of an organization. Motivation is based on human psychology and nature. This can be very controversial and varies from one individual to another. There exist certain characteristics that are common to all staff members in a particular organization. Barclays Bank usually monitors its staff both during and after work hours to determine their character. (Barclays Bank: Strategy, 2010)

These character traits are used to determine how to motivate employees. Motivation is connected to leadership and organizational control. Precedents have shown that motivated employees put in more effort and increase organizations profitability. This is a major reason why motivation is the concern of any staff manager. Such employees are also creative. The application of motivational principles will therefore increase the productivity of an organization.

Barclays Bank is interested in having its employees both creative and highly motivated. (Barclays Bank: Corporate Development, 2010) Such employees will be content with their positions and it will be unlikely that one will lose valuable staff members to rival organizations. The management of Barclays Bank knows that some employees work best when they feel that they are chipping in to something greater than themselves. (Hayduk, 1987)

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There are several types of organizational control. The first is known as strategic control. This involves the assessment of strategy. This includes the creation and implementation of the relevant strategy. Barclays Bank evaluates and implements new strategy on a yearly basis. (Hull, 2010) Management control is the process of evaluating the achievements of the strategic plan. This also includes the achievements of the sub-strategic plans. (Jöreskog & Sörbom, 1992)

This control ensures that the organization does not lag behind in its objectives. Intermediate plans must also be put into perspective. This may include assessments of daily sales. Barclays analyses its progress on a daily and quarterly basis. It is subsequently analysed on a yearly basis. Operational control looks at the fine aspects of organizational performance. (Barclays Bank: Strategy, 2010) It looks at the performance of each employee and how this performance affects the success of the organization. Barclays uses this to determine which employees it should keep on a permanent basis. (McKenna & Beech, 2008) These are the individual and group work definitions.

This control is a prerequisite to successful organizational preparations. The three genres of control are interlinked and cannot operate independently of each other. The same type of evaluation can be applied to all three types of control. (Lawler, 1971)Organizations have unique structures that enable them to function. This makes them experience heightened control problems. Their structure must be deliberately suited to their daily operations. It must be constantly reviewed and adjusted to countenance emerging trends. As said earlier, Barclays does this frequently. Organizations have complex structures that make their administration more tedious.

They are concerned with the performance of all the members. This concern can be manifested in the form of bonuses or penalties to its employees. Barclays issues these on a monthly basis. (McKenna & Beech, 2008) The intention is to ensure compliance with its norms, policy and rules. Organizations control their staff because employees must be monitored to ensure optimal performance. Their supervisors should also be monitored.

This trend continues until it reaches the head of the organization. He/she is also monitored by a board that holds him/her accountable to certain standards. Barclays has various regional and branch managers who have an established pecking order that defines who is subordinate to whom. (Barclays Bank: Strategy, 2010) A hierarchy of control is thus established. This hierarchy determines the methods and types of communication that are used in a certain organization. This is the fundamental constituent of the organizational structure. Control ensures that desirable tendencies are rewarded while undesirable tendencies are discouraged. (Lawler, 1994)

Leadership is an important management feature. It enables organizations to mobilise and motivate their staff to accomplish their goals. The leadership at Barclays Bank offers positive encouragement to its staff. Organizations strive to achieve certain predetermined objectives. These objectives are subdivided and allocated to various departments within the organization. (Barclays Bank: Corporate Development, 2010) Barclays Bank sales department deals with the sale of items such as credit cards. The credit department deals with loans and overdrafts. This enables each department to concentrate on its goals.

This is reflected in the allocation of duties to certain members within the institution. (Barclays Bank: Corporate Development, 2010) This is the basic foundation of organizational leadership. One feature of leadership in organizations is the assumption that people who are higher in the hierarchy are better at solving problems that may arise. Employees usually enjoy a degree of tenure that gives them confidence as they perform their duties. It also protects them from undue influence from other staff or customers. Customers at Barclays Bank are allowed to elevate their problem to manager status if they feel that ordinary staff is not satisfying their queries or problem. (Barclays Bank: Legal and Compliance, 2010)

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Individuals who are higher in an organizations hierarchy enjoy a higher degree of tenure. (Locke, & Latham, 1990) Promotions to higher hierarchy levels are normally based on merit and qualification. Promotion at Barclays Bank is usually based on performance. Leadership is necessary in the application of change to any organization. It ensures effectiveness and a culture of hard work. An organization’s leaders set direction and cause other members to follow their footsteps.

There are various theories and styles concerning leadership. Leadership can be democratic, participatory or authoritative. It can also be a style in which supervision is minimized. Supervision is minimized at Barclays Bank. (Locke & Latham, 1990) The three concepts of organizational control, motivation and leadership work hand in hand and cannot be separated. None of the concepts can effectively function unless their relationship is comprehended and understood. (Porter & Lawler, 1968)

Barclays Bank operates a method of leadership with moderate supervision. (Hull, 2010) Organizational control is not very direct. Each employee is expected to monitor his or her progress in the achievement of set individual goals. Sales staff are given a target that they are expected to achieve. (Barclays Bank: Legal and Compliance, 2010) Weekly meetings are held to review their progress. Each member of staff is expected to ensure that he /she meets the expectations.

Every staff member has an immediate supervisor. This supervisor is answerable to the branch manager. (Hull, 2010) There exist other members of higher hierarchy in between. Employees are motivated with cash and other incentives. Staff parties are held every other month. Staffs are issued with items such as mobile phones and vouchers. Quarterly meetings are held every year. These are vital as they ensure that the organization is moving towards its long and short term goals. (Porter & Lawler, 1968)

Conclusion

Motivation, leadership and organizational control are necessary in every organization. The three concepts depend on each other for effective organizational performance. Motivation ensures that employees do not lose interest in their daily duties. (Barclays Bank: Corporate Development, 2010) Leadership ensures order within an organization. It ensures that employees fulfil their duties effectively and efficiently. Organizational control instils discipline and responsibility into the employees. (Cohen, 1988)

Every organization has its own style of control. Some like Barclays Bank employ a moderately hands-off approach. (Hull, 2010) An organization with an inadequate leadership style will fail to accomplish its goals. Lack of adequate control will make employees lag behind in their duties. This will ultimately lead to poor performance. Motivational incentives must be dished out with due consideration. They must not act as a hindrance to performance. Several theories support various types of leadership. Every organization must however develop its own style to suit its specific position and intentions. The three concepts must equally be applied depending on the particular organization. (Lawler, 1994)

Reference list

Barclays Bank PLC. 2010. Our strategy and guiding principles. Web.

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Barclays Bank PLC. 2010. Corporate Development. Web.

Barclays Bank PLC. 2010. Legal and Compliance: What we do. Web.

Bandura, A., 1986. Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Cohen, J., 1988. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Hayduk, L.A., 1987. Structural equation modeling with LISREL. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.

Hull, Simon. Leaders wanted at Barclays. Human Potential Development. 2010. Web.

Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. 1992. LISREL VIII: Analysis of linear structural relations. Mooresville, IN: Scientific Software.

Lawler, E. E. 1971. Pay and organizational effectiveness: A psychological view. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Lawler, E. E., 1994. Motivation in work organizations. New York: Jossey-Bass.

Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P., 1990. A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

McKenna, Eugene, & Beech, Nic., 2008. Human Resource Management: A Concise Analysis. London: Financial Times Prent. Int.

Porter, L. W., & Lawler, E. E., 1968. Managerial attitudes and performance. Homewood, IL: Irwin-Dorsey Press.

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