Apple Company’s Administration and Performance

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The primary point of this study was to investigate the adequacy of a powerful administration in the execution of the organisation. This study utilized the deductive methodology of exploration method; whereby the hypothesis and the theories were planned in the wake of experiencing the important writing. Likewise, the quantitative examination system was utilized to test the hypotheses that were planned. The data were related to the leadership of Steve Jobs in the Apple Company. The findings of this study have revealed that management planning has an impact on the performance of the organization. With proper, effective leadership in place, the organization is bound to have a high return on assets. Also, proper effective leadership is associated with high profits and efficient use of resources. Effective leadership also helps an organization to manage risk and uncertainty and also creating a competitive advantage for the organization.



This chapter covers the background to the study, problem statement, research objectives and hypotheses and the significance of the study.

Background to the study

Leadership plays an important role in the success of any organization irrespective of its line of production. Excellent leadership helps individuals, groups, and the entire organization to adapt to the new changes and appreciate the prevailing conditions. Change is a big challenge for many organisations; therefore, good leadership is required to ensure that people cope with the new work requirements. In modern organizations, leaders are required to be innovative and highly knowledgeable because this would help them survive in a highly competitive business environment (Maxwell, 2007, p. 26). A case study of Apple Company was used to explore the concept of leadership in this study. In the technology industry, Apple Company is leading in terms of service delivery and service quality. The company was founded and run by Steve Jobs, who was considered to be a visionary leader with great leadership skills and managerial prowess. The company is associated with innovation as one of the core values. Steve Jobs’ leadership qualities were attributed to the success of the company, which has dominated the technology industry for several years. As a leader, he devised various strategies aimed at steering the company to the next frontier (McManus, 2006, p. 12).

The main aim of the study was to point out how effective and efficient leadership can lead to the success of an organisation (Schuttler & Burdick, 2010, p. 14). Effective leadership is the backbone of any organisation, and it is a recipe for the success of the organisation. A visionary leader is one who desires for the success and advancement of the organisation. He does this by being both a leader and a manager at the same time. This study identified variables based on the explicit review of the current literature regarding the concept of leadership. Efficient leadership means being all-inclusive and allowing followers to participate in the decision-making process of the organisation. Also, the leader is responsible for organising for training programs to enable the followers to be on par with the constant changes in technology. An effective leader also champions for innovation in the organisation and also rewards the followers for a job well done (Sipe & Frick 2009, p. 112).

Efficient leadership means working hand in hand with the manager of the organisation to sustain efficient coordination in the organisation. The leader should take the initiative to set up sub-committees in the organisations that address the success of the organisation. A leader plays the role of assessing the performance of the followers in the organisation and offers them rewards according to the efforts that they make in the organisation. He motivates and inspires them so that they can work diligently and efficiently. The leader also must set up standards and objectives of the company that needs to be met by all the followers (Watson, 2006, p. 452). The leader also mitigates risks in the organisation by efficiently allocating resources to achieve the desired ends. The productivity of the organisation is enhanced by constantly training the followers of the organisation to enhance innovation in the organisation (Kolenda, 2001, p. 15).

Statement of the problem

So many difficulties have engulfed the technology industry, which makes it so hard to thrive in the business environment. Apple Company is not any distinctive because the organization has encountered a percentage of the most exceedingly terrible disappointments, including the outline wrongdoings and spook strategies (Sipe & Frick, 2009, p. 27). Then again, the requests of the business sector environment constrained the organization to apply all the accessible procedures to make progress. Quite a bit of Apple’s prosperity is credited to the effective leadership strategies of Steve Jobs (Adetule, 2011, p. 37). Steve Jobs never made it through formal education; he was not considered to be an ‘A’ student. Steve Jobs looked for an option in the computer business by teaming up with Wozniak to shape Apple Computers. Steve Jobs needed to work amazingly hard heading off to a degree of arranging his extravagant endeavour. PCs were huge at the time and greatly costly and conventional Americans had no money related potential outcomes to purchase them (Annabelle 2006, p. 17).

Objectives of the study

The general objective of this study was to determine the usefulness of effective leadership in the performance of the organization, using a case study of Apple Company led by Steve Jobs and Tim Cook. In line with the general objective, the study examined the following specific objectives:

  1. To determine if effective leadership affects managing risk and uncertainty;
  2. To explore the effect of effective leadership on higher profits;
  3. To ascertain whether effective leadership influences the efficient use of resources;
  4. To ascertain whether effective leadership influences the return on assets;
  5. To explore the effect of effective leadership on creating a competitive advantage.

Research Hypotheses

To meet the above objectives, the following hypotheses were tested:

  1. Ho1: Effective leadership does not contribute to higher profits;
  2. Ho2: Effective leadership has no impact on managing risk and uncertainty;
  3. Ho3: Effective leadership cannot contribute to the efficient use of resources;
  4. Ho4: Return on assets is not determined through effective leadership;
  5. Ho5: Effective leadership does not create a competitive advantage for the organization.

Justification of the study

Any leadership that is considered to be proficient normally impacts the level of execution of an organisation and business manageability amid competition (Kang & Singh 2006). The study will uncover the most proper leadership styles that support execution, fitness and maintainability of in the current set up of organisations. The study will give a basic assessment of whether the leadership style championed by Steve Jobs and Tim Cook was sufficient for the Apple Company. The study will likewise give suggestions on the best leadership style that cultivates innovation in organisations and key execution keeping in mind the end goal to ensure proficiency and aggressiveness. The findings of this study are of great value to policymakers. It provides the policymakers with a wide exposure to the assessment of the effectiveness of effective leadership in the performance of organizations, thus enabling them to adopt the relevant strategies in line with the situation. The findings of this study also add to the body of knowledge of related studies concerning the usefulness of effective leadership.

Scope of the study

This study flows in conformity with the main objective, which was to determine the usefulness of effective leadership in the performance of the organization. Using secondary data and applying statistical techniques, the study explained the variables to meet the research objectives.

Literature Review


The section assesses past investigations that have explored the interests encompassing leadership styles, theories and applications inside the organisations. Above all, the part basically, assesses how visionary leadership has been tied in different organisations to create and force changes to be in force. As well, it highlights key variables and ideas encompassing the restorative system and the diverse ways that scientists have drawn near the subject. On these lines, it is straightforward the major hypothetical synthesis of the exploration issue and any actual theory that comes out of the same. Data included in this study has originated from dependable sources, principally from past works. In particular, there has been a sharp focus on past studies distributed in books, diaries, and checked in articles and believable sites. Some key databases sought the guidelines of incorporating emerald knowledge, leadership and business diaries.

What leadership entails

There has been a continuous need to interpret the nature of leadership in many subject areas; this has brought close to a spacious range of literature identifying the same concept. After several years of perpetual research, the theories of leadership that have been presented are still not comprehensive, even though the concept of leadership has been greatly explored. This work will concentrate on the related literature that set the different theories of leaders in parliamentary procedure to furnish a clear apprehension of the concept of leadership and how it is used. It is a basic human activity to be a leader; therefore, leading is a universal concept. This is the cause why so many researchers have searched on the same to verbalize their intellect. This comprehensive literature purposes to clearly distinguish the concept of leadership from management. In summation, the literature review purposes to explain the usual traits of successful leadership and also the theories of leadership.

Leadership and management

Leadership is a complex phenomenon that cannot be specified or described certainly. Very many students have researched the concept of leadership in different disciplines, for illustration, leadership in pedagogy, leadership in psychology, leadership in human resources, leadership in business, and so on (Sreejesh & Mohapatra, 2014, p. 35; Gratton & Jones, 2004, p. 47). These scholars have brought about new ideas and perceptions regarding the broad concept of leadership. Many works have been taken away to explore the variation between leadership and management. The conflict between leadership and management is attributed to the organisational culture. Leadership defines and changes the culture of any arrangement; on the other hand, management affairs in line with the refinement of the organization. This thus explains the extensive diversity in terms of the behaviours of the leadership and the managers (Avolio, Walumbwa & Weber, 2009, p. 430).

The relationship between leadership and management has been explored in a capitalist economic organization. The functions of the leader and the manager have been compared and contrasted to illustrate their differences. While the leader is the trailblazer, the director is the administrator; the leader originates the idea that is implemented by the director. The leader takes the risk to explore new ventures while the manager’s role is to maintain the current venture. The leader concentrates on the individuals everywhere, while the manager spotlights on the frameworks. A leader will make the best choice, while the supervisor will choose the best. A leader creates the organisational culture, while the manager operates within the culture. This already demonstrates that leadership is on another level as compared to management. There is no vivid definition of leadership that is universally accepted; this is attributed to the fact that leadership varies from one field to the other (Gratton & Jones, 2004, p. 47).

Leadership traits

Various scholars have explored the trait theory of leadership, whereby they have argued that the personalities of the leaders are directly related to their leadership styles. The leader of an organisation plays the role of inspiring trust from the people. The leader also has the privilege to transform the entire organisation in line with his vision and passion for the organisation. The actions of the leader empower the rest of the people, hence, making it possible to learn new ideas and concepts. The leader is the first person to start any change process in an organisation as the rest follow. The original definition of leadership associated it with the personality while the more recent definition of leadership associated it with the ability of the person to influence. Leadership is a wide concept that is respected across the globe, and that is the reason why the definition of leadership changes from one organisation to the other. There has been a limitation associated with the studies on leadership that have been done since the early 1990s. This limitation has been attributed to the fact that the scholars who study leadership and the individuals who are the leaders have been unable to accurately give a universal definition of leadership (Abbas & Asghar, 2010, p. 42).

Leadership is the act of talking to people to follow a particular trend. It also entails the leadership to offer guidance and influence. Therefore, the actions that come with leadership include: guiding, influencing, overseeing, commanding, directing, and controlling (Avery, 2004, p. 32). The leader has the challenge of innovating creative initiatives which are to be followed by the rest; he has to demonstrate the capability to lead from the top. The skills of the leader will enhance speedy decision making in the organisation. Leadership has a broad depth because it is considered to be universal. Leadership and management are very close, but it should be noted that they are not similar. Every leader should demonstrate strong and articulate management skills (Sreejesh & Mohapatra, 2014, p. 35).

Numerous variables characterize viable leadership. These variables include the culture in the organisation, the behaviour of the members of the organisation, and the personality of the person entrusted to lead the organisation. Many leaders who are considered to be successful have so many positive traits. Successful leaders are flexible, thoughtful to others, commanding, concerned, enigmatic, powerful, and confident. All these traits were possessed by Steve Jobs, who was the founder of Apple.

Visionary leadership

Basic assessment of the leadership style of Steve Jobs demonstrates that the individual controlled Apple to accomplish his visionary leadership. In any case, whether visionary leadership is suitable for the current organisations is still there to be proved wrong. Kantabutra and Avery (2010, p. 40) argued that in the quick changing worldwide business atmosphere, the subject of leadership procedure to the connected by the firm to stay focused stays basic. Studies show that the lion’s share inside the business leadership practice underscores on the centrality of upholding a dream (Kantabutra & Avery, 2010, p. 40). Moreover, most organisations propose the properties of a successful vision, which most directors don’t realize how it seems (Avery, 2004, p. 32).

Daft (2005, p. 28) contended that most organisations have vision proclamations that are not compelling or are not meeting expectations towards accomplishing whatever is contained inside the vision articulations. A lot of the time, directors confound between the visual sense of the organisation with related terms, including statements of purpose, worth and convictions (Daft, 2005, p. 28). With a specific end goal to attain the visual modality of the firm, visionary leadership propelled by the visionary leaders is obliged (Kantabutra & Avery, 2010, p. 42). Visionary leaders make the representatives and also, different partners see the significance of attaining the objectives of the firm and work towards achieving such objectives (Avery, 2004, p. 32).

Giving vision is insufficient to the firm to live up to the customers, workers and different partners. The dreams must be sufficiently solid for everybody in the space of the firm to have confidence in (Rafferty & Griffin, 2004, p. 333). The thought is discriminating for worldwide firms that are topographically scattered for workers down the chain of importance to partake in the same vision (Rafferty & Griffin, 2004, p. 333). As indicated by Kantabutra and Avery (2010, p. 40), effective dreams that make a critical commitment to the customers and the partners’ fulfilment need to have notable attributes that range from clarity to attract quality, which is the capacity to rouse. Conciseness, stability, investigative and future introduction are discriminating qualities needed in the visionary leadership (Kantabutra & Avery, 2010, p. 40). The presentations are nearly trailed by the high performing organisations crosswise over different commercial enterprises. Studies also demonstrate that such traits have basic ramifications for leaders working with high performing organisations crosswise over fluctuated commercial ventures and in differing societies (Kantabutra & Avery, 2010, p. 42).

In the current world framework where globalization has got no restrictions regarding social introductions, organisations need to coordinate visionary leadership characteristics that would authorize them to stay centred in the worldwide business. The visionary leaders that are normal for Steve Jobs in Apple could be one of the leadership styles required by the current organisations. In whatever instance, studies show that such leadership styles need to be connected with different cases of leadership to achieve the desired objectives. In the current business globalized framework, different components influence the performance of firms. All the factors need to be looked into and proper leadership and administration system need to be united. Vision acknowledgement angles are one of the variables that impact the exhibitions of the organisation (Kantabutra & Avery, 2010, p. 42). Given the way that the sign of any organisation is to achieve positive results through others, the capacity of persuading workers stays basic to the leadership of the organisation (Kantabutra & Avery, 2010). Therefore, effective dreams must be extremely alluring and moving (Rafferty & Griffin, 2004, p. 336). Surveys show that leaders that offer dreams that are brief, clear, future arranged, sturdy, unique and rousing are prone to see better execution (Mitchell & Jolley, 2010, p. 31).

Models of leadership in the current organization

Abbas and Asghar (2010, p. 41) argued that the current worldwide business environment obliges leadership, as easily as the equipped leadership that recognizes the progressions, define and carry through the most suitable organization to achieve the outcomes sought. Abbas and Asghar (2010, p. 41) further contended leaders that make the coveted change must be in ownership of learning, aptitudes, ability and capabilities required in mapping out the path towards accomplishing a result that fulfils both the clients and the collaborators. While speaking about different leadership models that are appropriate in the current organisations, it is discriminating to concede that consistent change is inescapable in the current business atmosphere and shapes the leadership models and difficulties the traditional measures of leadership (Abbas & Asghar, 2010, p. 42). On the condition that visionary leadership is linked up, it must be brought together with imaginative methodologies to remain within the progressions (Avolio, Walumbwa & Weber, 2009, p. 430).

The leadership and execution of the firm have been identified to be most related by numerous analysts (Avolio, Walumbwa & Weber, 2009, p. 430; Rowe et al., 2005, p. 204; Abbas & Asghar, 2010, p. 31; Kantabutra & Avery, 2010, p. 39; Keller, 2006, p. 206). The sort of leadership has been analysed by different scholars (Keller, 2006, p. 206) to be discriminating in deciding the authoritative techniques and additionally inspiring execution among the models. While the unfathomable writing perceives the meaning of leadership in deciding the execution of the system, there is no meeting of minds on the powerful leadership (Matha & Boehm, 2008, p. 47). Irrespective of these omissions, it is broadly adequate that leadership stays discriminating in making a huge connection between the authoritative adequacy and the workers’ exhibitions at the lowest levels (Sreejesh & Mohapatra, 2014, p. 63).

Leadership style and performance

Many scholars have pointed out that leadership is a very important concept in any organisation. Leadership has a great impact on organisational behaviour and organisational culture. Abbas and Asghar (2010, p. 16) in their study about transformational leadership argue that efficient leadership positively impacts the organisation by fostering quality management and in turn better results. In the process of the advancement of any organisation, leadership assumes an element part towards forming the eventual fate of the organisation. The excellent leader offers a sense of inspiration and motivation for the workers in the organisation, and also at the same time, helping the workers to meet the organisational goals and targets (Avery, 2004, p. 33). Leadership is an element that is enshrined in the behaviour of an individual; this helps the individual to mentor a group of individuals to accomplish a specific target that is shared by all of them (Sreejesh & Mohapatra, 2014, p. 63).

Leadership consists of strategies that include: motivating, inspiring, and encouraging individuals to spur growth and development (Watson, 2006, p. 455). It is always a philosophy that any leadership style directly reflects on the performance of a particular organisation; there is a direct relationship between leadership and performance. Today’s business environment has evolved and it is highly competitive, this call for pragmatic and visionary leadership that can spur invention and innovation for the sustainability of the organisation (Rafferty & Griffin, 2004, p. 336). Many studies that explore the relationship between leadership and organisational performance have revealed that efficient leadership has a positive impact on the development of the organisation and also in the performance of the organisation. Leadership provides a dynamic platform that equips the organisation to handle new challenges that might come along the organisation’s operations (Mitchell & Jolley, 2010, p. 54).

The performance of the organisation is reflected through attaining maximum profits, producing high-quality products and services, efficient marketing strategies, and excellent financial returns. All of these are determined by the quality of leadership that is in place in the organisation (Polelle, 2008, p. 33). The performance of the organisation is what makes the organisation stand out among other competing organisations in the same line of business or operations. Also, the performance of the organisation reflects the level of productivity of the workers. The level of productivity of the workers in the organisation is determined by how much revenue is generated, how much profit is generated, how large the organisation grows, and how large the organisation expands (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 21).

Many researchers who are exploring the concept of leadership have focused their studies on how effective leadership impacts the performance and the development of organisations. Therefore, it is very important to understand the relationship between the concept of leadership and its impacts on any organisation (Adetule, 2011, p. 52). Blanchard and Cathy (2002, p. 65) in their study argued that effective leadership is the engine that drives and propels any organization. The organization is bound to achieve economies of scale, and therefore, gaining a competitive advantage and stand out among its peers (Aquinas, 2006, p. 32). Transactional leadership in an organisation has the impact of pushing the organizational members to meet the set objectives by availing the required necessary resources. In this case, the job performance of the organisation’s members will determine the number of rewards. Visionary leadership, on the other hand, involves looking at the future of the organisation by strategically setting visions that create a sense of commitment and dedication among the organisation’s members so that they work to achieve the goals (Avery, 2004, p. 7). Visionary leadership has an overall impact of inculcating a sense of togetherness, dedication, trust, and motivation among the members of the organisation. This, in turn, raises the level of performance of the organisation (Avolio, Walumbwa & Weber, 2009, p. 433).

Any organisation aims to perform efficiently so that they become better than the competitors; this can be achieved by creating more emphasis on leadership. It is the role of the leader to create a good working environment that strategically positions and shapes the mentalities of the members of the organisation to make them have the correct mind-set for the execution of their duties (Bass, 2005, p. 17). Bell (2005, p. 63) in his study argued that the leader-centred approach in organisations has made it possible to clearly define the correlation between leadership and the performance of the organisation. Other scholars have opted to explore on how to use the act of leadership effectively to impact the performance of the organisations. This has mainly focused on how the leadership paradigms or behaviours can be changed to conform with the vision of the organisation to help improve the performance (Bell, 2005, p. 33; Clawson, 2011, p. 17; Collins, 2001, p. 56). The combination of leadership styles, organisational culture, employees’ competence, and the level of motivation is very effective in the performance of the organisation (Daft, 2005, p. 42).

The studies done by previous scholars all pointed out to the same conclusion that the style of leadership is highly correlated to the customers’ experience, the employees’ experience, and the financial growth of the organisation (Ferch & Spears, 2011, p. 215). It can be noted that there is a research gap since many studies have not explored the concept of the relationship between leadership and the performance of the organisation. Many scholars have based their research on the relationship between the leader and the subordinates or their immediate supervisors. Other scholars have opted to explore the entire organisation and its surroundings. Consequently, other researchers have argued that the leadership styles that are used by the leader have a direct effect on the subjects and on the entire organisation (Fint, 2012, p. 42; Gallos, 2008, p. 9). Hughes, Ginnett and Curphy (2012, p. 11) argued that not all the previous studies have concluded that there is a positive relationship between leadership and the performance of the organisation.

It can be noted from the related literature that there is still a divergent view regarding the relationship between leadership and performance. Some proponents believe that organisational performance is positively influenced by effective leadership, while there are opponents who argue that the performance of the organisation is not determined by leadership in any way. Different studies have explored different concepts of leadership, which has led to divergent opinions, hence, creating a knowledge gap. This study proposes to bridge that gap by closely re-examining the relationship between leadership and organisational performance by using a reputable leader (Steve Jobs) and a reputable company (Apple Company) as a case study. This is intended to add to the existing body of knowledge in the same field.

Leadership and organizational goals

Effective leadership involves strategically outlining the objectives of the organization by setting up of well-designed organizational goals aimed at steering the organization to the next frontier (Vogt, Gardner & Haeffele, 2012, p. 27). The organizational goals should be stated in terms of results, rather than the process. Effective leadership emphasizes that the organizational goals should concentrate on the result, rather than the formula to achieve it. Secondly, a well-designed goal can be calculated or counted; the goals will outline how the results are calculated and what to anticipate (Watson, 2006, p. 450). Also, a well-defined goal should be precise in regards to the set deadline; it stipulates how much time it should take before the evaluation process begins. The other point is that the goal should be challenging, but very easy for the organisation’s members to attain. Highly set goals provide a sense of motivation for the organization, as opposed to lowly set goals that discourage rather than motivate. Lastly, a well-designed goal should converse to all the relevant stakeholders in the organization. Everybody in the organization should be well versed with the goals to avoid conflicts and confusion (Sipe & Frick, 2009, p. 17; Adetule, 2011, p. 52).

Steps in the setting of organizational goals for effective leadership

The setting of organizational goals is not just a one-time thing; it is a complex process that involves various stages. The first step is to analyse the mission statement of the organization. The distinguished objectives ought to mirror the mission of the organisation. The following step is to evaluate the accessible assets if they are in a position to back the achievement of the objectives. The third step is to decide the goals on a personal level or together with the colleagues. The goals must be specific, quantifiable and appropriate. After that, the goals are written down and conversed to the appropriate stakeholders who are supposed to be versed with them. Writing the goals down emphasizes the relevance and value of the goals of the organization. The final step is to examine the results regarding the performance of the organization. This will provide an opportunity to change or reset the goals that are not performing (Sreejesh & Mohapatra, 2014, p. 35; Matha & Boehm, 2008, p. 47).

Theories of leadership

Scholars have identified many theories that are associated with leadership and motivation that bring about changes in an organisation. Jha (2014, p. 34) argues that out of the many theories, there is one theory that stands out, and that is the transformational-transactional theory. The two elements, for instance, transformation and transaction are considered to be the important elements of leadership. Transactional leadership represents ordinary leadership while transformational leadership represents extraordinary leadership. Transactional leadership involves a give and take situation, whereby the followers bring in their efforts, output, and allegiance and the leader, in turn, rewards them as per their contribution (Gratton & Jones, 2004, p. 47). On the other hand, transformational leadership is whereby the leader inculcates a sense of awareness and consciousness regarding the vision of the organisation and offers a sense of motivation and inspiration to the followers to achieve them (Kang & Singh, 2006, p. 196).

The performance of the followers of a leader is boosted by their emotions, intelligence and morality; these enable them to accomplish goals and exceed their anticipations. Transformational leadership is whereby the leader makes strategic changes regarding the culture of the organisation to equip the followers with the correct mind-set to attain the objectives and the goals (Kantabutra & Avery, 2010, p. 40). The main difference between transactional leaders and transformational leaders is that the transactional leaders rely on the laid down strategies and procedures to manage the organisational culture, while transformational leaders manage the organisational culture in conformity with the new reset strategies and procedures (Keller, 2006, p. 207). Change in any organisation is inescapable, and the leader should launch and bolster this change process.

Transformational leadership

The process by which a leader persuades the supporters draws the line between transformational leadership and value-based leadership. A transformational leader uses his attributes such as his character and his values to inspire and motivate the followers. On the concept of transformational leadership, the leader and the followers work together to elevate each other (Kline, 2010, p. 27). Motivation from the leader will make the followers trust the leader and be loyal and respectful to him. Motivation also helps the followers prioritize by concentrating on the goals of the organisation rather than their personal goals for the sake of the development of the organisation. Transformational leadership is aimed at providing followers with a new mindset so that they change the ways and procedures of operations to achieve the desired results (Kolenda, 2001, p. 16).

Kouzes and Posner (2012, p. 212) argue that transformational leaders have outstanding characters that set them apart. According to the scholars, transformational leaders are charismatic, motivators, intelligent and concerned. Being charismatic helps the leader to have a clear vision and a strategy for the organization and plants the same in the minds of the followers so that they can have the same mission. In the same way, the charismatic leadership enables the followers to have confidence and pride in the organization and the leader and, therefore, choose to serve the interest of the organisation rather than their interest (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 56). The second character of the leader, which is being a motivator, normally comes together with being charismatic. The leader is capable of setting up higher standards in the organisation which act as a source of motivation or inspiration to the followers. The followers, in turn, will identify the leader as a reference for higher standards. The followers normally look up to the leader as he is the source of hope and confidence to them. The leader inspires them that increases their loyalty to the organisation and enables them to understand the organisational goals better (Matha & Boehm, 2008, p. 47).

The leader offers inspiration to the followers by telling them success stories and also by being confident and hopeful about the future of the organisation. He encourages the followers that the future is always bright and that with hard work and dedication, all things can be achieved. Motivation comes from assigning the challenging task to the followers. These challenging tasks are aimed at opening up the followers’ minds and strategically positioning their mind-set to open up for new ways of operations (Maxwell, 2007, p. 27). The third attribute of a transformational leader is to be intelligent. The leader typically exhibits this by deliberately presenting and regulating new thoughts and ideas to the organisation and in the meantime, moving gradually from the old methods for doing things. Knowledge empowers the leader to grant to the adherents with key considering, sensibility, and critical thinking abilities (McManus, 2006, p. 17). The followers will now be equipped with better ways of handling situations and examining the facts that had previously been under looked. The intelligence of the leader fosters invention and innovation, which are very essential for improving the performance of the organisation.

The fourth attribute of the transformational leader is being concerned for the welfare of the followers. The followers need to be empowered through appropriate training and mentoring programs. The leader is in a better position to be the mentor by providing exceptional leadership to the followers. The leader should understand the followers fully so that he can determine what kind of empowerment is relevant to them. The leader should treat the followers with respect and dignity and guide them to follow the correct path to attain both their individual goals and the organisational goals (Miller, 2012, p. 32). Showing concern to the followers will enable them to reach a certain level of maturity and increase their productivity in the organisation.

Transactional leadership

Transactional leadership involves a give and take scenario whereby the leader offers rewards to the followers concerning the value-added to the organisation. The followers are rewarded for their compliance and commitment to the goals and objectives of the organisation. The leader directs and oversees the finish of undertakings in the organisation by the devotees to guarantee that the objectives of the organisation are met (Miller, 2012, p. 41). The transactional leader spells out the correct path to follow to achieve organisational excellence. Also, the leader puts mechanisms in place to eradicate all barriers and hindrances that might limit the followers from achieving these goals (Mitchell & Jolley, 2010, p. 31).

Transactional leaders normally demonstrate both profitable and remedial actions. Profitable actions involve rewarding the organisation’s members, while remedial actions involve defining the code of conduct in the organisation. The leader provides incentives that act as rewards to the followers because the followers expect to be recognised for exemplary performance. The setting and definition of the organisational goals combined with the availability of proper incentives to recognise performance will motivate the followers to perform beyond the expectations (Northouse, 2010, p. 27). Remedial actions involve defining the principles of compliance and how to handle mediocre performance. Besides, it entails the clear definition of what to do as a punishment for a job poorly done (Northouse, 2010, p. 27). Transactional leadership is a type of leadership that requires constant supervision to check for inefficiencies, mistakes, or faults and defining the remedial actions that are relevant to correct the errors. The excellent performers are adequately rewarded in proportion to their contributions (Polelle, 2008, p. 62).

Situational leadership

Situational leadership is also called contingency leadership. In this case, the leader tries out various leadership styles to manage a situation at hand (Rafferty & Griffin, 2004, p. 342). The leadership style that will finally be adopted by the leader is the one that is supported by the followers and also relevant to the situation at hand. The followers should have an appetite for development, and their level of development will determine the direction of the leadership style. Besides, the personal traits of the leader will also influence on the leadership style that is chosen in a contingency leadership. Therefore, in general, situational leadership is dependent on the relations between the leader, his followers, and the situation at hand (Sadler, 2003, p. 25). Some scholars have criticised situational leadership by arguing that it focuses much more on the production of the task at hand while giving less attention to the members of the organisation (Schuttler & Burdick, 2010, p. 26).

Organisational leadership

This kind of leadership is associated with teamwork because it is considered to be a collective team effort. Organisational leadership brings about innovation and introduction of new concepts and ideas of performing tasks (Sipe & Frick, 2009, p. 17). Organisational leadership first starts with the individual’s abilities and traits as a leader. This enables him to garner trust and confidence from the followers who support him in all the ways. Organisational leadership makes it possible to formulate strong organisational culture and increases the level of commitment of the organisation’s members to achieve the organisation’s goals (Sreejesh & Mohapatra, 2014, p. 35).

Leadership for innovation

Training and development are the chief instruments for breaking new grounds, hence, conveying changes to an organisation (Adetule, 2011, p. 52; Aquinas, 2006, p. 32). The capability absorbed through expert preparing not only aids in getting acclimated into the novel innovation additionally adds to the new upgrades (Avery, 2004, p. 7; Bass, 2005, p. 17). Expert preparing must occur within a social organization of governance between the training office, the organisation’s overall and the HR. This will assure that the preparation offered is as per all the partners’ perspectives and pursuits. In this mode, preparing unites all the co-operators and the normal hobby is distinguished and worked upon (Clawson, 2011, p. 17; Collins, 2001, p. 56). The general picture of the organisation and the mentality of the supporters are additionally controlled by the level and nature of preparing and improvement. In our contemporary business atmosphere, most organizations are confronted with firm rivalry for their quality staffs (Matha & Boehm, 2008, p. 47; Avery, 2004, p. 33). The experts in the space of HR underline that organizations which very put resources into preparing advancement and benefit from an upgraded workplace with a discouraging level of staff departure and improved innovation, creation, gains and authoritative execution (Sreejesh & Mohapatra, 2014, p. 63).

In numerous organisations, the leaders dependably apply a top-down mode of leaders, which has worked out to be incapable in the organizations these days. For this position, the administrator outlines the strategies for success, sets points and goals, specifies periods; designate the roles among different capacities without an interview. In such instances, the preparation office just executes obligations administered by the top leaders. For the most part, the preparation and HR improvement ought to be a steady process as opposed to a rash procedure (Watson, 2006, p. 450). Pretty much of business directors dependably contemplate the occupation and comprehend the issue of a change on the specialists and their parts in the general public and how the modification ought to be taken care of to make ideal results (Sipe & Frick, 2009, p. 17). All the more along these lines, a few directors still consider that conference is a significant impediment to prompt appropriation of developments; subsequently, they generally maintain a strategic distance from execution boundaries which are dangerous to new advancements (Sadler, 2003, p. 25).

Abbas and Asghar (2010, p. 41) suggested that administrative methodologies must take the system of a procedure of consistent adapting, in which at the utmost, planning and execution gets to be hard to recognize separated. The authors further proposed that organizations ought to save progress and maintain extraordinary business outlines fit for exploiting its vital scene and business environment past the lifetime arrangement of changes in an arrangement. It is, along these lines, basic for any leader to concentrate on thoughts or projects that supersede the current ones that the organisation is based upon. Leaders, in this manner, have different systems to utilise to promote progress in the organization. These techniques differ from organisation to overseeing body because of the distinctive way of their needs. The best means is to create a tranquil domain in the work environment to fortify inventiveness and innovation (Kantabutra & Avery, 2010, p. 40; Avery, 2004, p. 32).

Numerous researchers consider complacency to be one of the real impediments to the development of organizations (Bell, 2005, p. 33). Numerous directors in the wake of maturing through the positions to the topmost positions disregard preparing. They only work to preparing divisions as a convention in the wake of settling on all the key choice inside unreasonable due dates (Daft, 2005, p. 42; Ferch & Spears, 2011, p. 215). Leadership and administration, along these lines, assume an essential part of keeping up the qualities and theories of a business centre. Development accompanies a broad extent of hazards which are respected to be of vast significance and worth to the present-day business venture (Daft, 2005, p. 42; Bass, 2005, p. 17). In any case, it is worth to note that as of late, firms with wasteful leadership gauges have been on the front line to start inventive exercises. The leaders here feel that everything ought to be performed subsequently just as to advance creative exercises (Bell, 2005, p. 33; Clawson, 2011, p. 17; Collins, 2001, p. 56).

Quality chain investigation guarantees extraordinary business operations and empowers the business base to contend and enhance its portfolio. Game changer investigation highlights different open doors that an organization can work inside its locale. It additionally gives different qualities that the organisation holds, keeping in mind the end goal to argue in the ingenuity (Aquinas, 2006, p. 32; Avolio, Walumbwa & Weber, 2009, p. 433). It is with the information of a successful leader that an organisation truly needs advancement and all the more inventively keeping in mind the end goal to look after itself. Progress is, in this manner, influenced as the loudness of any framework that is sponsored by viable leaders. Leadership is a key component to the perseverance of any representative body. Fair leadership pulls the domain unit in reverse as opposed to driving it ahead. An organization with a regular and effective leadership will be in a more upright, spot to stay out front of the multitude of its rivals as for all aspects of the employment (Gratton & Jones, 2004, p. 47; Kang & Singh, 2006, p. 196; Kline, 2010, p. 27).

In parliamentary law to support a game-changer and maintenance of astounding associates, social orders must guarantee that preparation and improvement of their HR are not taken delicately. Giving careful consideration to expert preparing warrants the unfaltering quality and benefit in organisations (Mitchell & Jolley, 2010, p. 54). Inventiveness brings into the organisation new thoughts that are extraordinarily valuable to the survival and the suitability of the organisation (Gratton & Jones, 2004, p. 47). This can exclusively be achieved independently from anyone else arranging procedures of the individual actors. They perceived the motivation behind key arranging and the creation of systems since individual blunders may bring near the actual effect on the framework overall (Abbas & Asghar, 2010, p. 42). A standout amongst the most essential facets of human asset improvement is helping representatives to end up more successful in the work and to be capable to adjust different employments inside the company. Hitherto, in place for preparing methodologies and arrangements to be viable, they must equate to the organization’s targets and target (Polelle, 2008, p. 33).

In place for the strategies of preparing to finish the assignment effectively, effective outlining and execution of the preparation projects ought to be undertaken, and additionally welcoming the partners for organising, and tolerate them to try what they have realized to produce results (Fint, 2012, p. 42; Gallos, 2008, p. 9). This frequently prompts exercise in futility and organization assets. It is just through expert training that an organization can sustain a strategic distance from time wastage and irritation by supporting the top leaders to grasp preparing practices that prompt advancement and interchange in a business (Vogt, Gardner & Haeffele, 2012, p. 27). These timeworn ideas don’t upgrade the estimations of the organization, in this manner, prompting the outdated nature of the organization. The manifestation of the development includes the unification of the known thoughts and practices with new musings that have never been seen previously in the organisation (Rafferty & Griffin, 2004, p. 333).

Hierarchical techniques ought to accept the manifestation of a steady adapting, in which at the middle of nowhere, arranging and execution gets to be difficult to recognize separated. They ought to create, sort out and maintain brilliant business outlines capable of exploiting its key scene and business environment past the lifetime arrangement of changes in a foundation (Polelle, 2008, p. 33; Kouzes & Posner, 2012, p. 21). Key arranging and the organisation of systems are exceptionally huge since individual blunders may bring about the genuine effect on the framework. Proficient initiation methods are basic in an organisation since it confines who the adherents are in the organisation is coordinated too. An effective leader produces methodologies went for fleshing out the devotees and starting new thoughts to the arrangement. The equitable leadership style makes it important to determine objectives for the staff individuals and in like manner leaves the individuals from the staff to set out and make promotions. Accomplishments are perceived and remunerated appropriately. Key arranging of a business organisation ought to require the type of worth chain and the game-changer investigation (Adetule, 2011, p. 52).

The job environment is genuinely centred on nature and any slight weakness as for leadership or government could conceivably add to the ruins or the partitioning of an establishment. Because of these numerous cutting edge organisations over the world have stipulated exclusive expectations regarding the capabilities of contender to be wrangled for the top leadership positions. A successful leader will exceptionally put resources into the innovative work division keeping in mind the end goal to cultivate development with the intent to stay far much in front of the contenders and push the business towards development (Sipe & Frick, 2009, p. 17; Adetule, 2011, p. 52; Matha & Boehm, 2008, p. 47). The continually changing economy of the universe screams for fresh developments and procedures in distinctive organisations with a specific end goal to maintain game changer. These incorporate preparing and headway of the HR to increase the effectiveness and the general business execution. Organisations are going for broke by contributing vigorously on human asset preparing and improvement (Avolio, Walumbwa & Weber, 2009, p. 430).

Rowe et al. (2005, p. 205) clarify how people and organisations work together to make a workable climate. He secured new ideas identified with leadership utilizing systematized methodologies. The efficient methodologies see the whole organisation as a complex framework with interconnected parts. The elements of an organisation incorporate the leadership, general workers and the collaborators. They portrayed faultless masterminds as pacesetters who work persistently to pull in a reformative economy later on and are equipped to review and comprehend the framework in which they exist and play. Their creative energy is outside the social functions and hierarchical limits hence to go to basic decisions which bring into consideration the regular and societal edge to make a viable arrangement of modernization (Rowe et al., 2005, p. 205).

Institutions, which are perceived as high achievers admire the idea of making and advancement as it is extremely productive in enhancing the norms of execution of the arrangement. Preparing and improvement of the organisation’s workforce are critical topics for any establishment if the character and capacity of the HR are to be saddled and broken. It gets a huge prospect for the individuals from the organisation to think up new thoughts that can motivate the execution and the operations of the organization. Leaders regularly need the best from their supporters; therefore, they make it feasible for developing exercises for them. Numerous studies have underscored the evident relationship between a thoroughly planned and vital preparing and the general achievement of the organisation (Keller, 2006, p. 206; Abbas & Asghar, 2010, p. 31).

It is critical for the organisation’s leader’s foster innovation and advancement in the framework keeping in mind the end goal to enhance the level of yield furthermore to protect the personality and the presence of the framework. At the point when a class of action is shy of new thoughts, then it will be forced to continue giving the past thoughts. Change is a broad highlight in the soul of a business endeavour and the ability to handle such changes is the centre skill of achievement in the organisation (Kantabutra & Avery, 2010, p. 42). This has come about to distrait thought of components for acknowledging game changer through expanded radical manifestations of progress (Kantabutra & Avery, 2010, p. 42; Mitchell & Jolley, 2010, p. 31).

Profoundly experienced adherents make it simple for this leadership style to stay since there is improved organisation and correspondence in the organisation (Polelle, 2008, p. 33). The majority rule style of leadership is most proper when improving cooperation in the establishment. At the period when the champions are required in the choice-making process, this kind of leadership is significant. This sort of leadership style makes it potential for simple critical thinking and target choice-making in the growth. Organisations that look to catch on dynamic and creative organizations are frequently viable in today’s general public. The relationship between the movement in commercial enterprise ideas and accomplishment of a business organisation assumes a real part towards building a fruitful business world. For illustration, it is truly valid to state that the headways in advancements, for example, the growth of black powder or satellite radar change is absolutely what fighting intended to be; then again, the first appearance of the printing press administrations contributes such a large measure to the upheaval of instruction framework because of the accessibility of records to be connected toward attaining to a scholarly objective or aim.

Business leaders and administrators see advancement to be their key plan towards the accomplishment of the business objectives utilizing the set procedures. Numerous studies have projected out that preparation and progression are the essential apparatus for softening new ground bringing switches up a base. These alterations incorporate changes in specialist’s execution and mental ability, maintaining advancements and making new advances (Rowe et al., 2005, p. 204). The most favoured plan and methodology in expert preparing must be comprehensive, steady and ought to fuse making with different components of the organisations. Significant alterations in an organisation are realized by changing the labourers’ conduct and competency. The power of the workers to grasp the change in an organisation is affected by various segments, for model, hierarchical social organization, and execution assessment framework, an organisation’s way of life among others. The preparation section is the one with the strongest position to connect the above elements and direct top leaders through change activities (Miller, 2012, p. 45; Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 21).2.11 Case study: Apple Company

Biography of Steve Jobs

His full names are Steve Paul Jobs; he was born on February 24, 1955. He was born in San Francisco. His father’s name was Abdul Fattah Jandali, who hailed from Syria. His mother was Joanne Carole Schieble, who was half German, half American. There was a conflict between Joanne’s family and Jandali’s family as her parents were opposed to her marrying a Muslim, she, therefore, moved to San Francisco where she gave birth to Steve. She gave up Steve for adoption to another family (Clara and Paul Jobs). The family moved to stay in Mountain View Estate, which was a suburb. The place was associated with many semi-conductor companies; this made Steve have an interest in the field of technology at an early age.

When Steve was 13, he met Stephen Wozniak. Wozniak was an electronic guru who spent a lot of his time in electronic projects. Steve’s organisation with Wozniak helped to catalyse his interest in electronics. He joined the college at the age of 18 and later dropped out to work in a video game manufacturing company. After some time, Steve, Wozniak and Ronald Wayne formed the Apple Computer Company. Wozniak had the skills of making computers while Steve had the skills to market and sell the computers, thus, the two made a great pair. Steve found an investor who invested in the company at $92,000. They then hired a professional CEO (Mike Scott) to run the affairs of the company. Through hard work and visionary leadership, Steve continued to help build Apple Company and eventually became the CEO between 2005 and 2011. He won many awards as the CEO and the company continued to grow and expand greatly. Steve Jobs later resigned as the CEO in 2011 and died after a short illness.

Steve Jobs as a modern leader

Many scholars argue that the leadership skills of Steve Jobs started at an early age when he developed an interest in technology. Steve was so much obsessed with electronics and developed his management skills in line with his interest in technology. Steve had a winner’s mentality from a young age and performed the roles as a CEO with passion and dedication. These skills helped Steve to transform Apple to be a global icon in terms of making computers. The company became huge both in size and value. Apple Company was the first company to create a Mac operating on a Windows platform. The mouse was also a creation of Steve Job; the use of the mouse has become popular globally among computer users. Also, Steve contributed to the field of movies by producing many blockbusters. Steve Jobs had a fighting mentality, which enabled him to endure cancer for a longer period. The fighting attitude was also demonstrated by his desire to not giving up, even when he had failed in the past.

Steve Jobs is still regarded as a genius and an idealistic leader; this was enshrined in his personality. He had several outstanding personal traits that included: being open-minded, being a perfectionist, being passionate, being flexible, being charismatic, and being highly persuasive. A huge company in the class of Apple needs the best leadership that is backed up by a strong organisational culture that created a sense of identity and uniformity in the organisation. Steve Jobs managed to inculcate a distinct organisational culture that made it possible to identify any Apple employee within first sight. The culture of the company was founded in the personal traits that were possessed by Steve Jobs. Many people, including the employees and the customers of Apple all across the world were very inspired and motivated by the success stories that were told by Steve Jobs. It was part of his philosophy to inspire and motivate people to work hard; this pushed the company far above the other companies.

Steve Jobs is identified in the same class as the world’s successful modern leaders. The way Steve discharged his duties was influenced by his personality. He had a group of very loyal employees who did not care even if Steve became rough on them at some times. This was because Steve was an inspiration to many of the employees as well as being a role model. Steve never gave up no matter how hard the situation looked like, and in everything he did;, there was an element of perfectionism in it. Steve is credited for creating an attitude of endurance in Apple Company through introducing the strategies of entrepreneurship, leadership and invention and innovation. Steve had simple ways of doing his work that produced great results and at the end, he took responsibility for either success or failure. Always, Steve could push his employees to go the extra mile and accomplish the unmanageable; he achieved this through constant motivation and inspirational talks.

Steve Jobs did not have enough faith in conducting business through phone calls, but rather he was a strong proponent of face to face conversation because face to face communication is direct, reliable and the feedback is instant. As a leader, Steve Jobs divided his team into small groups of top talents who were assigned challenging tasks but still managed to produce the desired results. All in all, Steve Jobs proved himself as a successful leader in the highly competitive business environment of the modern world. He had all the abilities, character, and identity of a true leader who can command influence and administration. Leadership is a concept that gives much attention to many people all across the world. All the aspects of any organisation depend on good quality leadership. The example of Steve Jobs’ leadership exhibits how any organisation can benefit from having a visionary and transformational leader. The success of Steve Jobs as a leader was constant; unlike other leaders who just succeed on a one-time basis.

In summation, the leadership style of Steve Jobs can be portrayed as versatile, centred, visionary, and creative. He was impractical on the reason that he never upheld for copying what was at that period in the business sector, as he generally accepted that the organization held the capacity present something fresh. Dissimilar to different leaders who assume that a standard thing could be possible in an unexpected way, Jobs had an alternate point of sight since he was sure that his representatives will dazzle the world with new things. Case in point, he supervised the improvement of an iPad, which has changed the itinerary in which organisations operate. Steve is broadly recognized for his discourse whereby he undertook:

“Everything around us that we call life was made up by people that are no smarter than you”. He went on to claim, “you can build your own life that other people can live in, so build a life and don’t live one (Miller 2012, p. 34)”.

Steve was an amazing leader who took the time to comprehend the client needs and make up an item to fulfil them by using the accessible assets in the organisation (Sadler, 2003, p. 32). Then again, Tim Cook is a soul who trusts in a coordinated effort. Tim Cook took over that item, change is guaranteed through consistent testing. In one of the meetings with the Business Insider Magazine, he was cited guaranteeing:

“You look for people who appreciate different points of opinion. People who care enough that they have an idea in the middle of the night want to call and talk to you about it. Because they’re so excited about it, they want to push the idea further and they believe that somebody can help them push the idea another step instead of them doing everything themselves.”

Research Methodology


The methodology is the approach of teaching the approaches to do the examination. It is, along these lines, helpful for leading the exploration and for examining the examination questions. The procedure of philosophy demands that much give a second thought ought to be given to the sorts and nature of methodology to be held fast to in achieving a given arrangement of strategies or a goal. Considering the differing angle connected with authoritative leadership, the study will concentrate on the leadership styles as the centre examination variables. Subsequently, the blend of leadership styles embraced by the two leaders will be analysed.

In regards to the literature that was reviewed, the researcher pointed out five independent variables to explore if they have an organisation with effective leadership. The five independent variables identified were: the relationship between effective leadership and higher profits, the relationship between effective leadership and the management of risk and uncertainty, the relationship between and the efficient use of resources, the relationship between effective leadership and return on assets, and the relationship between effective leadership and the creation of competitive advantage.

Research design

There are three sorts of exploration configuration: exploratory research, descriptive exploration and causal examination. Exploratory research investigates on the way of the issue keeping in mind the end goal to draw derivations. In this situation, the analyst is in a decent position to comprehend the issue under scrutiny. The stream of exploratory exploration includes recognizing the issue and looking to discover the fitting arrangements and new thoughts (Sreejesh & Mohapatra, 2014, p. 46; Jha, 2014, p. 106). Exploratory exploration is generally appropriate in circumstances where the structure of the examination issue is not unequivocal. Then again, the expressive examination is for the most part appropriate in circumstances where the structure of the exploration issue is express. This sort of examination is utilized when the specialist hopes to recognize the different watched truths in an example or a populace (Mitchell & Jolley 2010, p. 114). Moreover, elucidating examination is typically utilized by the specialist when he has an earlier comprehension of the issue under scrutiny. Causal exploration is the sort of examination whereby there is an unmistakable structure of the examination issue. In this situation, the specialist is intrigued to investigate the reason impact relationship. The reasons are recognized, broke down and the degree of the impacts is checked on (Sreejesh & Mohapatra, 2014, p. 46).

The study surveys the commitment of the leadership style received by Apple Incorporation towards its execution, which examines to be exploratory. Jha (2014, p. 106) confirms that the ‘goal of the exploratory examination is to pick up bits of knowledge and thoughts identified with an issue’. The study will be in light of the blended examination approach. Sreejesh and Mohapatra (2014, p. 46) argued that receiving the combined examination configuration comes from a full circle in a successful understanding of the issue under assessment. Both subjective and quantitative examination methodologies will be connected with the arrangement. This declaration implies that the subjective methodology will be connected first and afterwards the quantitative approach later. The quantitative methodology will be utilized as a part of expounding the subjective discoveries. Sreejesh and Mohapatra (2014, p. 48) declare that the ‘preferences of blended approach in which the creator supports the authenticity of subjective strategies are improved through the joining of quantitative systems, which are known as triangulation’.

Research techniques

Two primary systems are prominent in the field of exploration. These methodologies are deductive methodology and inductive methodology (Sreejesh & Mohapatra, 2014, p. 46; Jha, 2014, p. 106). The recognizing element between the two methodologies identifies with the building of the hypotheses. In the deductive methodology, the theories and hypothesis are developed in the wake of investigating on the accessible important writing. In the inductive methodology, the hypothesis is built after the information has been investigated and broke down. This study utilized the deductive methodology; whereby the hypothesis and the theories were figured in the wake of experiencing the pertinent writing.

Data collection

In any examination that is done, there are essential stages that are included concerning the forming of the exploration. These stages include: understanding the exploration issue, the calculated structure of the examination, information gathering, information investigation and translations, and drawing of derivations and making proposals. In this study, quantitative examination technique was utilized to test the theories that were formed. The exploratory study will be taking into account optional exploration, which will be attempted by leading a writing overview. Jha (2014, p. 108) characterizes writing overview as an examination method that includes a survey of distributed insights and investigates. Directing a writing study empowers a scientist to create fitting learning on the subject under scrutiny. With an end goal to add to a far-reaching comprehension of the leadership style embraced by Tim Cook and Steve Jobs, an audit of the past writing in the leadership style received by the two leaders will be attempted.

Gratton and Jones (2004, p. 48) argued that the effectiveness of secondary data may be hindered by a low level of reliability and validity. In the process of reviewing the past literature, the researcher will ensure that data is collected from valid sources. Through the secondary approach, the researcher will be in a position to enhance the validity of the research study. Data will be sourced from internal and external sources. The internal sources will entail data generated from within the company (Mitchell & Jolley 2010, p. 114). Thus, a review of diverse annual reports relating to Apple Incorporation, such as reports on corporate social responsibility and human resource management will be conducted. Conversely, external secondary data will be obtained from outside the organisation. However, data will be sourced from credible agencies such as KPMG, PricewaterhouseCoopers, and Deloitte & Touché. The choice of these agencies is informed by the view that they provide a comprehensive analysis of diverse aspects relating to organisations’ operations.

Secondary data will also be collected by reviewing articles, journals, and case studies hosted by credible databases such as the social sciences research network [SSRN] and the EBSCO databases. An evaluation of such case studies will play a fundamental role in understanding the leadership approaches adopted by Steve Jobs and Tim Cook. Gratton and Jones (2004, p. 48) assert that secondary research can lead to the attainment of the actual data, hence improving the accuracy with which the research questions are answered.


The dependent variable was effective leadership. The five independent variables under investigation were: the connection concerning effective leadership and higher profits, the relationship between effective leadership and the management of risk and uncertainty, the relationship between and the efficient use of resources, the relationship between effective leadership and return on assets, and the relationship between effective leadership and the creation of competitive advantage.

Sources of data

There are two general classifications of information sources; this study utilized secondary information. The secondary information is whereby the analyst utilizes data that is now as a part of presence. Auxiliary information was utilized as a part of the writing audit whereby the past information/data were utilized to present the hypotheses of this exploration. The information was gathered from course books, diaries, significant articles and the web.

The researcher thought that effective application of the above research methodology would improve the degree to which the research contributes to the development of a comprehensive evaluation on how leadership can be applied to enhance organisational performance. Then again, before leading the study, all the systems will be taken after as a base prerequisite of the establishment. The methods including the consent to direct the study by the foundation, approbation by different capable powers especially, the organisations that have been chosen, procurement of assent structures and additionally confirmation shapes for the insurance of the assembled data and the data gave. All the morals endorsement methodology will be embraced before the initiation of the study with a specific end goal to secure the scientist. The legitimacy of the information speaks to the information, honesty and it suggests that the information is precise and much steady. Notwithstanding the above perspectives, including optional examination, will help in minimizing the expense included in directing the study concerning time and exertion. The information gathered from optional sources may be investigated already or crude.

Reliability and validity

Like in most expert practices, confidentiality is the ethical commitment to guarantee that the data gave in the information is kept private. The data must have partaken in the situation that the scientist has given the authorization or when it is important to the point that it could be utilized to spare the life of the outsider. Research ethic is one of the issues that specialists need to give expanded thought amid the study process (Kline, 2010, p. 67). Morals are qualities or good commitments the scientist needs to see amid the exploration process. The ethical commitments are ordinarily connected with the assent of the members and privacy (Kline, 2010, p. 67). Educated assent is the authorization to participate in the study process (Kline, 2010, p. 68). The analyst needs to disclose to the information suppliers the significance of the study and why it is essential to participate in the study. The imperative issue is to guide the behaviour of the information gathering in this study.

Legitimacy has been clarified as an unmistakable assessment of the relationship in the middle of activities and translations and observational proof derived from the information. Dependability of the information is the result of a progression of activities which starts with the best possible clarification of the issues to be determined (Glaister & Falshaw, 1999, p. 114).

Data analysis techniques and presentation

According to Vogt, Gardner and Haeffele (2012, p. 36), the raw data collected from the field might not be of significance to the target audience due to its voluminous nature. Thus, the target audience might not understand the correlation between the various aspects related to the research objective, which underscores the importance of conducting data analysis. The data collected from the secondary sources will be analysed effectively to increase its relevance to the target stakeholders such as organisational leaders. Moreover, data will be analysed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS. By using these tools, the researcher will be in a position to undertake effective data analysis by incorporating diverse statistical analysis concepts such as percentages, standard deviation, variation, and correlation. Furthermore, these data analysis tools will improve the effectiveness with which the findings of the study are presented using graphs, charts, and tables. Subsequently, it will be possible for the target stakeholders to interpret the data effectively and efficiently.

Limitations of the study

There have been a ton of concerns about extra-budgetary costs for the accumulation of the information, paying little respect to whether the assembled information is truly certifiable or not and whether there may be an express conclusion when deciphering and investigating the information. Also, a few representatives were hesitant to offer some data they regarded private and risky.

Findings, Data Analysis and Interpretation


This section covers the analysis of the data, presentation and interpretation. The results were analysed using SPPS, regression and correlation analysis. The empirical study was based on secondary research, which was carried out by undertaking a literature survey. The literature survey is a research procedure that involves a review of published statistics and researches. Conducting a literature survey enabled the researcher to cultivate the relevant understanding of the subject matter. To develop a comprehensive understanding of the leadership style adopted by Tim Cook and Steve Jobs, a review of the past literature on the leadership style adopted by the two leaders was undertaken.

The usefulness of secondary data may be compromised by a low level of reliability and validity. In the process of reviewing the past literature, the researcher ensured that data was collected from valid sources. Through the secondary approach, the researcher was in a position to augment the validity of the research study. The data used was sourced from internal and external sources. An examination of diverse annual reports relating to Apple Incorporation was conducted. Secondary data will also be collected by reviewing articles, journals, and case studies hosted by credible databases such as the social sciences research network [SSRN] and the EBSCO databases. An evaluation of such case studies will play a fundamental role in understanding the leadership approaches adopted by Steve Jobs and Tim Cook. Gratton and Jones (2004, p. 48) assert that secondary research can lead to the attainment of the actual data, hence improving the accuracy with which the research questions are answered.

Descriptive statistics

Summary of descriptive statistics

Descriptive statistics using the measures of central tendencies were computed from the analysis of the variables. The five independent variables of the study were: the relationship between effective leadership and higher profits, the relationship between effective leadership and the management of risk and uncertainty, the relationship between and the efficient use of resources, the relationship between effective leadership and return on assets and the relationship between effective leadership and the creation of competitive advantage.

Summary of results

The results of the descriptive statistics for the analysis of the variables in line with the main objective of the study indicate that the mean for the relationship between effective leadership and higher profits is 113.20 with a standard deviation of 14.30. From this computation, it can be deduced that many employees believe that the effective leadership style of Steve Jobs and Tim Cook had a long term effect of increasing the profits and revenue of the organization; this is indicated by the higher value of the standard deviation. Also, the calculated arithmetic means for the relationship between effective leadership and return on assets, efficient use of resources, and creating competitive advantage are less than the calculated arithmetic mean for the relationship between effective leadership and managing risk and uncertainty. Effective leadership has more effect in managing risks and uncertainty (Mean=127.21, SD=15.31) than creating competitive advantage (Mean=114.351, SD=14.221), efficient use of resources (Mean=103.11, SD=10.81), and return on assets (Mean=102.11, SD=11.31).

Table 4.1 Summary of the results

Mean Standard deviation
Higher profits 113.21 14.31
Return on assets 102.11 11.31
Efficient use of resources 103.11 10.81
Managing risk and uncertainty 127.21 15.31
Creating competitive advantage 114.351 14.221

Inferential statistics

The results of inferential statistics were used to establish the relationship that exists between effective leadership and the performance of the organization; inferential statistics were used to ascertain the connection among the variables. The results are summarized in Table 4.2 below.

Table 4.2 Pearson correlation matrix for the variables

Effective leadership
Pearson correlation Sig (2-tailed)
Higher profits 0.2734 0.0440*
Return on assets 0.5981 0.0000**
Efficient use of resources 0.2682 0.0420*
Managing risk and uncertainty 0.5852 0.0000**
Creating competitive advantage 0.3861 0.0030**


* = p<0.05

** = p<0.01

The results in the table above show that there are major correlations between effective leadership and return on assets (r = 0.5981, p < 0.01), effective leadership and managing risk and uncertainty (r = 0.5852, p < 0.01), effective leadership and creating competitive advantage (r = 0.3861, p < 0.01) and between effective leadership and efficient use of resources (r = 0.2682, p < 0.05). There was also a significant relationship between effective leadership and higher profits (r = 0.2734, p < 0.05).

A regression analysis to analyse how the variables predict the effectiveness of effective leadership and the results are summarized in Table 4.3 below.

Table 4.3 Summary of regression analysis

Multiple R 0.6022
R Square 0.3613
Adjusted R Square 0.3322
Standard Error 12.959
F 5.305
Sig F 0.000**
Variable Beta T Sig T
Higher profits -0.21639 -0.2700 0.03970*
Return on assets -0.26839 -2.4020 0.0110*
Efficient use of resources -0.3190 -3.09419 0.0030*
Managing risk and uncertainty -0.1540 -1.3001 0.0701
Creating competitive advantage -0.1810 -1.1100 0.0230*


* = p<0.05

** = p<0.01

The result found out that the multiple R-value is 0.6022. The R-Square value of 0.361 indicates that 36.1% of the variables explained the dependent variable. The F-statistic (5.305) is statistically significant at 0.01 level; meaning that the economic variables significantly enlighten 36.13% of the variance in addressing the effectiveness of effective leadership. Efficient use of resources is the best predictor of the effectiveness of effective leadership as it has a beta coefficient value of -0. 0.3190, and is statistically significant at the 0.01 level. Also, return on assets, higher profits and creating competitive advantage are statistically significant at 0.05. The negative value of the beta coefficient of creating competitive advantage indicates that effective leadership has a greater effect in bigger organizations, for instance, Apple Company, than in smaller organisations. In the like way, the negative beta value of the higher profits coefficient shows that effective leadership is really important in uplifting the performance of the system.

Conclusions and Recommendations


This chapter presents a summary of the findings and discussion of the results following the objectives of this study. Also, this chapter contains recommendations which can be applied to various organizations to address employees’ resistance.


The main aim of this study was to explore the effect of effective leadership on the performance of the organisation. This study used Apple Company and the leadership of Steve Jobs (the former Apple CEO) as a case study. Many of the data providers who were reached in this study demonstrated a preference for transformational leadership rather than transactional leadership. The data sources indicated that the leadership style of Steve Jobs was more transformational than transactional. The leadership style gave the employees more confidence and trust which enable them to focus more on meeting the organisational goals rather than the personal goals. The data sources attributed their commitment to work with the faith and the confidence that they have on the leader.

Effective leadership is an important factor in any system. The findings of this survey have revealed that effective leadership has an impingement on the operation of the system. With proper and effective leadership in place, the system is bound to receive a high return on assets. In increase, proper effective leadership is linked up with high profits and effective utilization of resources. Effective leadership also helps an organization to manage risk and uncertainty and also creating a competitive advantage for the organization. Effective leadership is associated with the setting of goals and objectives. Goals are very important to the organization because they provide clear direction to steer the organizational progress.


Effective leadership is very productive for the sustainability of any organization. This study highly recommends that the goals and objectives of any country should be aligned with the mission statement. Also, the top management should engage with the rest of the employees in setting up the goals of the organization.

Learning statement

The theoretical philosophies of leadership and leadership approach are related in the corporate world in many ways. Effective leadership has a direct effect on the performance of the organization. The concept of leadership is very important and is required to be incorporated in the school’s curriculum to train the students at a very early age on the fundamentals of leading. Leadership is a concept that should not be taken lightly by today’s society as the younger generation are the leaders of tomorrow. Steve Jobs is a role model and an inspiration to many young people and the youth need to challenge themselves to emulate the philosophies of great leaders like Steve Jobs. Based on the development of this study, I have focused my career to be the chief executive office of my company in the future. This will enable me to exercise my leadership principles and qualities that I have learnt in my various stages of development. For me to achieve this, I need to study more on the philosophies of the renowned successful leaders to equip me with the additional relevant skills that are needed for my pursuit.

The leader of an organisation acts as the function of inspiring trust from the multitude. The leader also takes in the exclusive right to transform the entire organization in line with his vision and warmth for the organization. The actions of the leader empower the rest of the people, hence, making it possible to learn new ideas and concepts. The leader is the first person to initiate any change process in an administration as the rest comes after. The original definition of leadership associated it with the personality while the more recent definition of leadership associated it with the power of the soul to determine. Leadership is a broad concept that is valued across the world, and that is the cause of why the definition of leadership changes from one system to the other. There has been a limitation associated with the written reports on leadership that have been practised since the early 1990s. This restriction has been ascribed to the fact that the students who study leadership and the people who are the leaders have been unable to accurately render a general definition of leadership (Abbas & Asghar, 2010, p. 42).

I plan to start a sandwich company which will be known for the best breakfast sandwiches and lunch sandwiches. My vision is to start just with one outlet, but with time expand to several outlets all over the world until I establish my brand of products. I will name it Weiss Sandwich Company Limited. My unique identity will be to produce sandwiches with natural ingredients and the best quality of bread. I hope to establish a dependable big following by providing tasty and fresh sandwiches produced from local ingredients available. The ingredients will be supplied by the local providers. The ingredients will be prepared on-site to give the customers a fresh natural taste. The reason for using local suppliers is to personalize them, thereby making our sandwich experience more exciting and unique. We also plan to carry out a contest for customers to showcase their talents by making their sandwiches in our outlet so that we can evaluate them and check on what we can add.

I plan to make an initial investment of £15,000. With this, I will set a target of £30,000 as the profits for the first year of production. Through my leadership qualities, I intend to ensure that this profit doubles in the second year and triples in the third year. Through my leadership, the company is projected to grow by at least 6 per cent bi-monthly. Leadership is a key ingredient in any organisation. Many organizations have the goal of providing the best quality services or goods to the final consumers by using the minimum cost of production and in the process earning greater revenue. Effective leadership enables this to occur. This kind of leadership involves proper planning and formulation of relevant strategies for the sake of steering the organisation forward. The goals of the company, therefore, reflect the anticipated results of the organization. With this, my company will be provided with a clear direction towards the attainment of the objectives. It is therefore important for the organizations to envision the anticipated results before devising plans to meet them.

My program is attainable and can be carried out by formulating the relevant strategies that can guide my business ahead. Through transformational leadership, in which I will take on traits like being open-minded, being a perfectionist, being passionate, being elastic, being charismatic, and being highly persuasive, I will manage the affairs of the society. I will also wait for a team of followers to whom I will act as a source of divine guidance and motivation. Breeding and development of the company’s workforce will be very important issues for our fellowship if the value and potential of the human resources are to be harnessed and developed. It produces a great opportunity for the members of the organization to devise new thoughts that can supercharge the execution and the operations of the organization. As a potential leader, I will want the best from their followers; therefore, I will plan for breeding activities for them.

Many written reports have emphasized the apparent correlation between a thoroughly designed and strategic preparation and the overall success of the organization (Keller, 2006, p. 206). The overall picture of the formation and attitude of the followers is also influenced by the grade and quality of breeding and growth. In our contemporary business climate, most companies are confronted with strong competition for their quality staffs (Matha & Boehm, 2008, p. 47). The specialists in the arena of human resources emphasize that companies which highly invest in grooming development and earnings from an enhanced working environment with a depressed level of staff exodus as well as enhanced creativity, innovation, productivity and organizational performance (Sreejesh & Mohapatra, 2014, p. 63).

My business idea and business plan have been corroborated through market research that we bore out. The sandwich market in the US is growing rapidly and it is highly valued. Very many people will have a sandwich for lunch. Our location will be very strategic to capture the attention of the surrounding residents and businesses. We will offer the best sandwich prices than our competitors, which enables us to earn good revenue. The basis of the market research is to make us stand out among the other sandwich outlets. The market research focused on the competitors, whereby we looked at their pricing, products, customer service, and the general business.

The profile of the local area where the business will be set up is as per the government records. The area has a total population of 259,536 people, in which 125,473 are males and the rest (134,063) are females. 48,697 individuals are aged 0 to 15 years. 191,158 individuals are aged 16 to 75 years (Kumar, 2005, p. 12). There are 111,243 households with residents with an average size of 2.33 family members. There are many big business complexes; therefore, many organizations are accommodated. The various organizations that are accommodated in the business complex include shops, restaurants, banks, shopping mall, and many offices. Also, the area has a local university. The transport system in the area is also effective as there are both a bus station and a railway station.

The findings of our market research pointed out to the fact that the area is a prime location for our sandwich outlet because of the following reasons: there is a large population of the residents, our sandwich outlet will be located along a busy street, the location is our local area and we have a better understanding of the residents, and the residents in the location are considered to be high net worth people who have a higher propensity to consume the sandwiches. The other sandwich shops are also located along the busy street; this will enable us to compete on the same level. An analysis of the street was also carried out to monitor the human traffic in the morning hours and the afternoon hours. The morning traffic was monitored between 7:30 and 11:00 in the morning, and the afternoon traffic was monitored between 12:00 and 3:00 pm.

Effective leadership involves setting up of goals of the organization. Also, it entails the outlining in details the strategy to employ to realize the set goals for the organization. Planning involves creating activities that conform to the activities in the organization. These activities normally justify the result that has been created by the means. Effective leadership involves a good planning process that can be divided into two categories, for instance, informal planning and formal planning. Informal planning is abstract planning that is executed without being written down. Normally it focuses on the short term as it is so specific to an area of the organization. Formal planning, on the other hand, is the kind of planning that is written down in advance. It focuses on the long term objectives of the organization as it entails the shared goals of the organization.


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Appendix 1: Projected cash flow

Projected cash flow
Appendix 1: Projected cash flow

Appendix 2: Projected profit and loss

Projected profit and loss
Appendix 2: Projected profit and loss

Appendix 3: Projected balance sheet

Projected balance sheet
Appendix 3: Projected balance sheet

Appendix 4

Projected cash flow
Figure 1.1: Projected cash flow
Projected profit and loss
Figure 1.2: Projected profit and loss

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