Components of an are (Information System)
There are five major components of an IS include people, network, database, software, and hardware. The five-component model or framework helps to identify the five distinct components and functional processes. The hardware is a strategic component of the IS that comprises output and input devices, media tools or devices, operating systems, and processors (Beynon-Davies, 2020, p.46). The software is a crucial component that plays a significant role in IS’s operations; it consists of multiple procedures and programs of computerized nature.
The database is a strategic component that supports an IS’s functionality and comprises data programmed or organized in a standard structure. The network is an integral component of the IS since it supports the interconnectivity of the other parts. The network includes network devices, communication media, and hubs (Legner et al., 2017). People represent a strategic component of the IS, which is involved in the management and integration of other parts in the IS (Pomffyova, 2018). The people component comprises specialized teams of systems specialists, network administrators, and device operators.
The Porter’s Five-Forces Model
The Porter’s Five-Forces Model is a theoretical framework in business developed by a renowned Harvard scholar, Michael E. Porter. The model analyzes the competitive position and strength of an organization (Qu et al., 2019). Therefore, the theory is grounded on the operation of five strategic forces that influence the competitive attractiveness and intensity within a given market (Qu et al., 2019). The five forces comprise: the threat of new entrants and substitution, competitive rivalry, buyer power, and supplier power. Supplier power relates to an evaluation (assessment) of suppliers’ capacity (easiness) in increasing or driving up prices.
Buyer power emphasizes evaluating buyers’ capacity in decreasing the prices. Competitive rivalry is a binding force influenced by the capability and number of competitors available in the market (Reichert, 2018). The threat of substitution refers to the availability of close-substitute products in a given market, which, in turn, increases consumers’ likelihood of preferring rival products due to price changes (Reichert, 2018). The threat of new entry is a phenomenon whereby profitable markets attract new entrants and trigger erosion in profits manifests.
Management Information System (MIS)
A collaboration IS an IT-oriented set of equipment or tools that create an information workflow to target or specific groups (teams) and the respective members. A collaboration IS helps support the sharing of talents and ideas among the team members; thus, supporting effective and efficient completion of tasks (Legner et al., 2017). Collaborative web-based mind-mapping is a type of collaborative tool under structured collaboration. Beynon-Davies, 2020) defines a database management system (DBMS) as a unique software used to store and retrieve data from the users while facilitating suitable security strategies or measures (Beynon-Davies, 2020). An example of a database management system is Microsoft Access.
A content management system (CMS) is a unique software that enables users to modify, manage, and create content on a given website without the need for involving specialized technical expertise (knowledge. The CMS capacitates an individual to establish a website without preparing the codes from the start or scratch. As outlined by Pomffyova (2018), a suitable example of a CMS includes WordPress, Joomla, Drupal, and Magneto. Drawing reference from artificial intelligence (AI), an expert system would best be defined as a computer system that matches or emulates the capability for human experts’ decision-making function. The mechanism behind expert systems is the capacity to formulate solutions to complex issues through reasoning and assessing enormous bodies of knowledge (Pomffyova, 2018). The tableau’s knowledge-base is a classic example of a knowledge management model.
A Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system relates to a particular software used by business organizations to integrate all the technologies, tools, techniques, and strategies in an enterprise to acquire and retain consumers (Qu et al., 2019). The examples of CRM systems include Salesforce and HubSpot.
An enterprise resource planning (ERP system) is an integrated and complete system that supports all fundamental aspects within a distribution or a production-based enterprise. It performs its tasks through aligning human resources, financial management, manufacturing, and supply chain management (Beynon-Davies, 2020). An example of the ERP system is the Microsoft-Dynamics ERP. A Social-Media information system (SMIS) is related to an innovative form of IS that supports content-sharing among the set users’ target network; an example of an SMIS is Web 2.0 (Qu et al., 2019). A business intelligence or decision support system (DSS) is a computer-oriented information system that facilitates organizational or business decision-making functions through choosing or sorting from various probable alternatives (Qu et al., 2019). A primary example of a DSS is the communication-based DSS such as Microsoft Groove. An enterprise IS relates to a unique system that enhances an organization’s business processes’ functions by integrating various methods. In operation, an EIS may integrate the CRM and supply-chain-management systems for the enhancement of automation processes in an enterprise: examples of EIS include CRM and ERP.
Technical and Human Safeguards
The automated log-off procedure from a given IS’s operation after the lapse of a specific time duration or interval is a strategic technical safeguard that offers protection against cyber-security threats. The IS ceases its operations or functioning after the log-off session, thus discouraging its use (Legner et al., 2017). Provision of education concerning information security and offering practical training to the employees serve as proper human safeguard strategies that promote authorized access to the IS, thus enhancing cybersecurity.
SDLC and Scrum
The SDLC or Systems-Development-Life-Cycle is an iterative process that involves multiple steps and has a systematic structure. The SDLC serves as an appropriate framework for system developers to deliver high-quality systems for use by businesses and organizations (Reichert, 2018). Scrum defines a framework or structure that facilitates cooperation in teams by describing roles, tools, and schedules of meetings that promote teamwork activities (Beynon-Davies, 2020). One of the similarities between the SDLC and the scrum is the systematic structure and multi-step patterns. The critical difference is that the SDLC focuses on systems while the scrum supports project management and teamwork.
Management information systems (MIS) have been associated with significant advantages within the workplace. They are instrumental in strategic planning, transaction processing, operational control, and management control. MIS can be used to generate and convey data to pertinent personnel, this, in turn, facilitates the problem identification and decision-making procedures. MIS is a well-coordinated IS and database that offers management with the information required to plan and implement procedures in the organization.
Beynon-Davies, P. (2020). Business information systems (3rd ed.). Red Globe Press.
Legner, C., Eymann, T., Hess, T., Matt, C., Böhmann, T., Drews, P.,… & Ahlemann, F. (2017). Digitalization: opportunity and challenge for the business and information-systems engineering-community. Business & Information Systems Engineering, 59(4), 301–308. Web.
Pomffyova, M. (2018). Management of information systems. IntechOpen.
Qu, Y., Ming, X., Ni, Y., Li, X., Liu, Z., Zhang, X., & Xie, L. (2019). An integrated framework of enterprise information systems in intelligent manufacturing system via business process reengineering. Proceedings of the Institution-of-Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering-Manufacture, 233(11), 2210–2224. Web.
Reichert, M. (2018). Enabling flexible and robust business process automation for the agile enterprise. In the Essence of Software Engineering, pp. 203-220. Springer.