Part-time employment has been increasing very fast for the last two decades, particularly in the service sector, for instance, in the hospitality industry. Many researchers have argued that there are many benefits associated with part-time employment for both organizations and workers. However, hospitality industry has experienced comparatively high level of staff turnover that has resulted to increased costs for businesses. The most significant factor contributing to this turnover rate is the level of organizational commitment among employees of these organizations. This paper uses data from the study of Jing Jiang Tower Hotel -a five star hotel in Shanghai to study the level of commitment among part-time and full-time employees in the hospitality industry. The study established that part-time employees were relatively less satisfied than full-time employees and had lower level of commitment. The case study used numerous methods of data collection and analysis including questionnaires, interviews, and three-dimensional Organizational Commitment Scale.
There are numerous definitions related to work commitment. This is because many studies have established relationship between work commitment to attitude and behaviors in the places of work (Stredwick, 2005, p. 3). According to Meyer and Allen (1997) the basis for studying work commitment is related to workers behavior and performance efficiency (Meyer & Allen, 1997, p. 6). Bateman and Strasser (1984) assert that work commitment is multi-dimensional in nature encompassing workers loyalty, their willingness to put more effort on behalf of the organization, sticking to values of the organization and desire to remain in the organization. They also identified commitment related attitudes and behaviors (Meyer & Allen, 1997, p. 6).
Work commitment is nowadays considered as one of the most important and contentious element in human resource management (Riley 2000, p. 5). According to Stredwick (2005) the subject of work commitment is mostly linked to work values, work motivation and work involvement. The problem of work commitment in relation to full-time and part-time working has not been fully explored and therefore requires detailed studying and analysis. This study aims at bridging this gap by adding some more significant information to the subject.
The general and basic information on the problem of work commitment as a part of job involvement and work effectiveness is given in the study by Miller et al. (2002). The authors provide the aspects of general management theory and key principles to hospitality organizations (Miller et al., 2002, p.4). The thorough analysis of the problem requires the studying of contemporary theories on the question. Huczynski and Buchanan (2007, pp. 3-5) offer a comprehensive analysis of modern theories on central human resources activities. The work by Bratton and Gold (2007, p.13) gives views on a new discussion on workplace wellness and ethics in human resources management.
The study of work commitment between full-time and part-time employees covers a wide range of additional aspects. To define the problem more specifically, Schermerhorn, Hunt and Osborn (2003) among the range of issues also focus on the questions of ethics, leadership and work commitment of part-time and full-time employees in the employment relations. They assert that part-time work is becoming more popular despite of its controversial work arrangements (Schermerhorn, Hunt & Osborn 2003, p. 167).
Statement of the problem
Casual employment has been increasing very fast for the last two decades particularly in the service sector (Schermerhorn, Hunt & Osborn 2003, p. 167). Many researchers have argued that there are many benefits associated with part-time employment for both organizations and workers. However, hospitality industry in most countries has experienced comparatively high level of staff turnover that has resulted to increased costs for businesses. The most significant factor contributing to this turnover rate is the level of organizational commitment among employees of these organizations. Organizational commitment being wider topic, the study will focus on job satisfaction and turn over rate among the full-time and part-time employees. The study will use a number of data collection and analysis methods to achieve its objectives. These techniques used include use of questionnaires, interviews, and three-dimensional Organizational Commitment Scale.
The aim and objective of the study
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between organizational commitment, job involvement, work values and group commitment of employees at Jing Jiang Tower Hotel. The objectives of this study are to:
- Describe the work values of employees at Jing Jiang Tower Hotel
- Describe the job involvement of employees at Jing Jiang Tower Hotel
- Analyze and compare the work commitment level between full- time and part- time workers.
- Describe the organizational commitment of employees at Jing Jiang Tower Hotel
- Identify variables that affect work values, job involvement and organizational commitment among employees at Jing Jiang Tower Hotel
- Identify the mediating effects of job involvement on organizational commitment and work values among employees at Jing Jiang Tower Hotel
- H1: Occupational commitment and job involvement have a positive relationship
- H2: Occupational commitment is directly related to organizational commitment
- H3: Age is directly related to work values
- H4: Age and organizational commitment are positively correlated
- H5: Education status and organizational commitment are positively correlated
According to Bratton and Gold (2007) organizational commitment is relative to the worker’s attachment or participation in the organization in which he/she is employed. Organizational commitment is very significant since it determines whether an employee is likely to leave his/her job or improve performance (Bratton & Gold, 2007, p. 13). There have been numerous studies related to the concept of organizational commitment. Mowday et al. (1979) emphasized on the concept referred to as attitudinal commitment and behavioral commitment. Another concept was introduced by Meyer and Allen (1991). This is the most recognized concept of organizational commitment. In this approach, organizational commitment has three multi-dimensional components namely effective commitment, continuance commitment and normative commitment (Mowday et al., 1979, p.8).
Effective commitment relates to emotional attachment and is normally linked to favorable working environment and relationship with the other employees. Normative commitment on the other hand relates to the feeling of obligation. This type of commitment is normally associated with employees who feel they owe the organization for being given a job when they needed it most. Lastly, continuance commitment relates to terms of employment such job contracts. In this case leaving the current job may be very costly or troublesome (Meyer & Allen 1991, p.8).
Organizational commitment is a very vital component of measuring organizational effectiveness (Mullins 2001, p. 36). Because of its multi-dimensional construct, organizational commitment has the capability of predicting organizational results such as performance, proceeds, cases of absenteeism, employees’ status, and organizational goals (Bratton & Gold 2007, p. 13).
The performance/ turnover of workers owing to the organizational environment have become a major headache to many heads of organizations and human resource managers in particular (Freund & Carmeli 2003, p.1). This problem is mostly attributed to lack of stability and job security for one of the most important resources in the organization-employees (Freund & Carmeli 2003, p. 2). Most organizations have begun to foster the workers’ feeling of commitment to their work/occupation, organization and its values and ambitions, and strong job ethics (Freund & Carmeli 2003, p.3).
Models of work commitment
The soaring rate of rotation that is typical of the modern organizational environment over the recent years has called for the need to tackle challenges and complications resulting from the turnover rate (Redman & Wilkinson, 2001, p. 20). To address the impasse related with this objective, organizational efforts have progressed in two directions. At the micro-level, organizations regard workers commitment to a specific occupation. Organizational focus at the micro-level is on the modification of the human resource structure to suit the current needs to achieve the operational goals. To create a balance between organizational goals and workers needs, both psychological contract and dynamic viewpoint of trade and stability are required to make sure that the needs of all the parties are taken care of (Redman & Wilkinson 2001, p. 20).
Freund and Carmeli (2003) came up with a model for five general forms of work commitment. According to this model there are five major commitments which reciprocate each other. These are career commitment, affirmative work ethic, occupational commitment, and organizational commitment (both continuance and effective commitment). The above five commitments are further classified into two major groups. The first category focuses on commitments that affect work attitudes with no reference to the organization where employees work. This includes work ethics, career commitment and occupational commitment. The second category is influenced by the organization in which employees work. They include continuance and effective organizational commitment (Miller et al., 2002).
In spite of the great significance attributed to the relationships between positions at work and the results of work, there are a few researches that have explored the link between multiple commitments and work results. Most of these studies deal with solitary variable for instance organizational commitment or satisfaction, and its relation to the organizational results (Bayazit & Mannix 2003, p. 20). One of the initial models based on the idea of multiple commitments and the relationships between them was developed by Morrow (1983). Morrow’s model covered five commitments that influence the organizational outcomes and arranged them in a logical order.
According to Morrow, different forms of commitment covered in the model have reciprocal influence among themselves and this result into a circular structure based on the affirmative work ethic being linked to occupational commitment and continuance commitment. Occupational commitment is related to effective commitment and continuance commitment. As a result, continuance commitment is connected to effective commitment, and both have impact on job involvement to complete the circle (Bayazit & Mannix 2003, p. 21).
Further studies on the above model have established that different forms of commitments have shared commitment among themselves (Morrow 1993, p.5). The most fundamental form of commitment with the minimal ability for influence and change is the affirmative work ethic (Furnham 1990, p. 22). This form of commitment, with which the employee is hired into the organization, will remain part of him in his career life with only small changes and with no connection to different organizations the employee has worked for. Nonetheless, affirmative work ethics have an impact on other forms of commitment such as continuance commitment (Furnham 1990, p. 23). Affirmative work ethics is associated with occupational commitment because individuals have diverse perception of work and higher morals will influence an individual’s persistence in a given job or career (Elizur et al., 1991, p. 25). Additionally, affirmative work ethics influences continuance commitment because a number of relations received by an employee with affirmative work ethics are as a result of the fact that he has a working place (Bayazit & Mannix 2003, p. 22).
According to Morrow’s model, job involvement is influenced by continuance commitment and effective commitment. Job involvement will be influenced by continuance commitment on the assumption that satisfactory relation will persuade the employees to invest more in his job (Furnham 1990, p. 25). Effective commitment will influence job involvement given the conviction in the organizational objectives and identification with the values of the organization will push the employee to invest more in their job and therefore will increase employee participation (Feinstein & Vondrasek 2001, p.19).
Randall and Cote (1991) were the first to investigate Morrow’s model. They also focused on the five forms of commitment but used a different model structure. According to their study the most fundamental, most lasting commitment and the one with the least ability to change is the affirmative work ethic. Therefore, in this model affirmative work ethic is still fundamental but takes a new direction. According Randall and Cote’s model, affirmative work ethic will influence job involvement as along as it is so fundamental and entrenched in the employee that will make him to devote to his job and therefore will facilitate high job involvement (Randall & Cote 1991, p. 194).
Job involvement on the other hand will impact the remaining three commitments (effective, continuance and occupational commitment). Affirmative work ethic is a long-term and comparatively steady characteristic whereas the above three commitments are unstable and can change comparatively faster. Job involvement is a characteristic that highly influenced by affirmative work ethics in such a manner that high commitment to work will increase a person’s job commitment (Hertberg et al., 1959, p.).
Job involvement in Randall and Cote’s model is not computed by straightforwardly influencing yields, but by developing a connection and establishing the correct path among other commitment. That is to say, job involvement plays a significant part in Randall and Cote’s model, but in a different way as Morrow’s model, where job involvement is straightforwardly connected to the organizational results (Bayazit & Mannix 2003, p. 21).
A third system of reciprocal influence between the five different forms of commitment was introduced by Cohen (1999) in his model. Cohen’s model also used affirmative work ethics as the basic variable in his model. Affirmative work ethics in this case is the only variable that can hardly be changed in the model (Furnham 1990, p. 22). Affirmative work ethic is the fundamental commitment which influences other forms of commitment of any employee, but with no straightforward relation to the organizational outcome or commitment. This is because it takes a very long period of time to change this variable. Affirmative work ethics in this model can have impact on work contribution and not other variables. Nonetheless, this where the similarity between these models ends; from here henceforth Cohen introduces a completely different system of context regarding the relations between different forms of commitment (Cohen 1999, p. 286).
According to Cohen’s model, job involvement will influence occupational, effective and continuance commitments similar to Randall and Cote’s model. However, unlike the other two models, occupational commitment also influences continuance commitment and effective commitment in this model (Cohen 2000, p. 388). The two forms of commitments are the most subjected and have the highest ability to change in an employee. This model uses the same five fundamental commitments described by Morrow but merges them in such a manner that they become more suitable for Randall and Cote’s model than Morrow’s model (Cohen 1999, p. 287).
Job satisfaction and work commitment
Schwepker (2001) defines job satisfaction as “the pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job as achieving or facilitating one’s values”. At the same time, he defined job dissatisfaction as “the unpleasant emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job as frustrating or blocking the attainment of one’s values”. Herzberb et al. (1959) came up with famous theory of job satisfaction. The two-factor theory posits that workers have primarily two kinds of needs namely motivation and hygiene. Hygiene factors are those necessities that can be satisfied by particular conditions such as regulation, interpersonal relations, working conditions, remunerations among others. The theory suggests that job dissatisfaction normally arise in cases where hygienic factors do not exist. On the contrary, the supply of hygiene needs does not necessarily translate to full satisfaction. It’s only the level of dissatisfaction that can be minimized (Furnham et al., 2002, p. 1326).
According to the scale used by Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), job satisfaction is regarded as an attitude and there are three elements of workers attitude of job satisfaction. These are categorized as extrinsic, intrinsic, and overall corroboration factors. Intrinsic factors include ability utilization, independence, ethical values, responsibility, security, ingenuity, societal services, societal status, and diversity. On the other hand, extrinsic factors include expansion, organizational policy, compensation, acknowledgment, and supervision of human capital (Schwepker 2001, p. 40).
Most researchers have treated work commitment and job satisfaction as an independent variable. According to these researchers, work commitment and job satisfaction can be viewed in different angles (Jernigan et al., 2002, p.567). Job satisfaction is a form of reaction to a particular job or work related subject; whereas commitment is more of a universal response. For that reason, commitment should be more consistent compared to job satisfaction in an organization (Feinstein & Vondrasek 2001, p. 6). In their study of hotel employees, Feinstein and Vondrasek (2001) established that the level of satisfaction predicts organizational commitment. Another study conducted by Gaertner (1999, p.490) on the determinants of job satisfaction and organizational commitment, established that job satisfaction is the basis of organizational commitment.
According to Maxwell and Steele (2008, p.370) payment strategy and recognition are extrinsic job satisfaction variable; whereas workers interest in terms of autonomy, security, teamwork and trust in terms of moral values, and opportunities to take part in social activities are intrinsic job satisfaction variable. On the other hand, Bateman and Strasser (1984) posit that organizational commitment can sometimes be an independent variable with job satisfaction as the resultant variable (Bateman and Strasser 1984, p. 96). They argued that employees who are highly committed to an organization may experience high level of satisfaction in their work. According to Lau and Chong (2002) highly committed employees would endeavor to meet organization’s goals and interest. This kind of attitude will influence budgetary planning and goals of the managers. Thus, satisfaction is proposed as an outcome instead of an antecedent. In general, the theory suggests that job satisfaction is a precursor of organizational commitment where the aspect of job satisfaction has an imperative impact on the dimension of organizational commitment (Lau & Chong, 2002, p. 184).
Lowry et al. (2002) established that part-time employees encounter varying level of work commitment and job satisfaction in relation to their perception of work context aspects, for instance, training, promotion, scheduling of work, organizational practices and interpersonal relationships. They asserted that satisfaction with employment security have less effect or work commitment than satisfaction with quality of life. Brotherton (2003) established that in the perspective of nurturing commitment and innovation among hotel workers, the most significant thing is the clarity of employment contract, rather than whether or not the contract offers a level of permanency or job security to the workers. He also found out that in a number of situations where the job contract is as specific as possible regarding job requirements, part-timers performed better than full-timers whose psychological contract entailed disseminate expectation, for instance, corporate citizenship (Brotherton 2003).
Organizational commitment is both beneficial to employers and employees (Clarke & Chen 2007). For individual employees, work commitment signifies a positive relationship with the organization and attaches more meaning to life; whereas, for employers, committed workers have the likelihood of enhancing organizational performance, reduce turnover and cases of absenteeism (Chon et al., 1999, p. 12). Organizational commitment has also been associated with efficiency, productivity, creativity and innovativeness among employees (Lashley & Lee-Ross 2003, p. 16).
Allen and Meyer (1990, p. 2) are among the authors who linked work commitment and staff turnover. According the two authors, workers who are highly committed are less likely to quit the organization. They relate turnover intention to effective commitment and to a slighter degree, normative commitment. The link between continuous commitment and staff turnover intention is not consistent across studies (Chon et al., 1999, p. 13). The same case is true regarding measurement of actual turnover taking into consideration effective and normative commitment and not continuance commitment (Schermerhorn, Hunt & Osborn 2003, p. 18).
There are numerous approaches that have been developed to assess organizational commitment (Mullins 2007, p. 2). The most widely accepted approach is the use of Organizational Commitment Scale (OCS) developed by Allen and Meyer (1990). OCS measures the three forms of commitment (Effective, Continuance and Normative commitment). OCS has been widely used in a broad range of samples and situations and has been significantly reviewed by numerous researchers (Allen & Meyer 1996, p.253).
Job satisfaction and work commitment in the hospitality industry
A study conducted by Aksu and Aktas (2005) regarding job satisfaction of managers in a five star hotel established that improved working conditions can enhance job satisfaction. Improved working conditions in this case encompassed work promotions, boosting Morales of employees, financial rewards, fringe benefits and compensation, and realistic working hours. Lam et al. (2003) suggested in their study that training and development can assist in enhancing job satisfaction in the service industry. The study also found out that a manager in the hotel industry plays a significant role in work commitment and satisfaction. The study established that seniors or mentors in the hospitality industry are likely to encourage their juniors or the newcomers, thus influence their job satisfaction and behavioral intent (Lam et al., 2003).
Jernigan et al. (2002) studied the relationship between workers service orientation and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and worker’s intention of quitting his/her job. The study covered restaurant workers and the results were as follows: consumer emphasis of service of employees are negatively correlated with job satisfaction but positively correlated with organizational commitment; support from the organization is positively correlated with job satisfaction; organizational commitment is negatively correlated with workers intention to quit his/her job (Jernigan et al., 2002, p. 171-172).
Karatepe et al. (2006) conducted a study on the effects of personal characteristics such as competiveness, endeavor, and individual efficacy on frontline worker’s performance and job satisfaction. They suggested that unless the executive is not committed to service delivery, they should promote their career instead of job only and attract competitive and individual efficacious staff. In addition, they should promote sound environment to reduce conflicts takes place as a result of unhealthy competition. Another study conducted by Tapeci and Bartlett (2002) among the frontline staff found out that workers satisfaction is based on personal values in addition to organizational factors. As a result, satisfied workers are more likely to satisfy the clients and eventually help the organization to move forward.
Gonzalez and Garazo (2006, p. 27) recommends the hotel leadership to put more focus on frontline staff to rouse job satisfaction and organizational commitment/citizenship. This is because service communicative management services encounter practices promotes organizational commitment and enhances job satisfaction among employees. Lastly, a research conducted by Ghiseli et al. (2001) on food service workers and their managers, found out that remuneration, fringe benefits, working hours, welfare services and family influences job satisfaction in the hotel industry. The study also established that low ranking officers were more likely to quit than the high ranking employees.
Work commitment among full-time and part-time employees
In our contemporary society employment relationship has remarkably changed. Workers’ job status at the present time has developed into two types; standard work status (permanent or full-time) and the non-standard work status (temporary, contractual or part-time). Most organizations have turned to non-standard work status to provide high level of scheduling flexibility, meet the unexpected demand more efficiently, and to cut down cost of wages and salaries. In addition, the number of part-time employees is the highest in the service industry (Conway & Briner 2002, p. 280).
In spite of the growing significance of this category of workers in different sector of the economy, there are comparatively few researches on the part-time employment. Part-time employees are known to differ in numbers from full-time workers, but the degree in which their work attitudes differ is less apparent (Krausz, Sagie & Bidermann 2000, p. 2). Most studies on part-time and full-time employees have concentrated on the difference in attitudes and behaviors of these two categories of workers. However, there are a number of studies that have touched on work status, work commitment and job satisfaction. Other studies have even considered further relationships, for example, work status and organizational environment.
Studies evaluating job satisfaction across full-time and part-time workers exhibit contradicting results. Studies have found that part-time workers are more, less and equally satisfied with their works than full-time workers (Krausz, Sagie & Bidermann, 2000; Sinclair et al., 1999). Correspondingly, there have also been contradicting results from comparisons of commitment levels between the two set of employees. These studies have also found that part-time workers are more, less and equally committed to their work than full-time workers (Martin & Hafer 1995; Sinclair et al., 1999; Krausz, Sagie & Bidermann 2000). Most researchers who have attempted to explain these disparities have mostly applied the theories of partial inclusion and frame of reference (Krausz, Sagie & Bidermann 2000, p. 3).
According to the theory of partial inclusion part-time workers are argued to be partially included since they spend fewer hours in the workplace and are more involved in organizational operations than full-time workers (Conway & Briner 2002, p. 283). In the case of frame theory, part-time workers are believed to have diverse frame of reference from that of full-time employees (Fieldman & Doerpinghaus 1992, p.282) given that the group and aspects of work environment chosen to analyze the two job categories always differ. For instance, some studies have found out that part-time employees put more emphasis on working hour’s flexibility than full-time workers (Fieldman & Doerpinghaus 1992, p. 282-283).
The two theories have also been used paradoxically in many ways to explain the difference between the two types of work status. For example, researchers have used the feeling of inclusivity to explain higher levels of job satisfaction. This is because the theories of partial inclusion and frame of reference can be manipulated to describe any experiential results since they are normally used to post rationalize results (Conway and Briner 2002, p. 282). However, none of these theories have been tried experimentally and since they are scantily described, it is not apparent how they may be put into practice (Fieldman & Doerpinghaus 1992, p.283).
A number of studies have used psychological contract theory as a descriptive framework for the employment relationship and for explaining workers attitudes and behaviors (Sinclair et al., 1999, p. 340). This theory has been used in many ways to describe employment relationship, but the main construct within this theory is organizational results achieved through psychological contract achievement or contravention. Psychological contract realization has been found to be positively correlated to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and performance. It is also found to be negatively correlated to intention to quit the organization (Fieldman & Doerpinghaus 1992, p.284). Therefore, psychological contract is a very reasonable approach in understanding attitudes and behaviors of workers in different types of employment and recently it was established that it is useful in understanding contingent employees (Sinclair et al., 1999, p. 341).
At the organizational level part-time employees have been found to be treated differently from full-time employees in terms of task performed, remuneration, work diversity, independence, and opportunities to grow (Fieldman & Doerpinghaus 1992, p.287). For instance, there are enough evidence that show that part-time employees are unlikely to be given the same promotion and training opportunities in the same organization (Lam et al., 2003, p. 162).
Part-time employees are normally hired when the organization is experiencing busy period and are expected to perform fairly repetitive tasks during this periods. As a result organizations usually perceive their contribution to be dissimilar from those of full timers in terms of, for instance, effort and flexibility. If part timers perceive that they are being treated differently in terms of incentives they get and contributions they offer, this is likely to influence their perception of psychological contract (Fieldman & Doerpinghaus 1992, p.289).
At personal level, part timers have different professional orientation, so they may make a meaningful trade-off of types of compensation with organization to have greater flexibility and extra time to attend to other commitments (Lam et al., 2003, p. 164). Generally, many researchers have predicted that full-timers have soaring expectation than part-timers regarding what they are supposed to get from the organization (Sinclair et al., 1999, p. 345). At interpersonal level, part-time employees in most cases are treated differently or subjected to different assumptions by the leadership and fellow employees. Studies have established that part-time employees are mostly managed under the assumptions of theory X and stereotypes. Different treatment across work status can be seen by part-timers as interactional prejudice, thus can lead to perception of unfairness or violation (Morrison & Robinson 1997, p. 227).
The case study section covers the host organization Jing Jiang Tower Hotel and further goes on into extensive secondary research.
Jing Jiang Tower Hotel, Shanghai
The hotel is strategically located in the commercial district of Shanghai and has 43-story building overlooking this beautiful city. Architectural design of this hotel is salient and very pleasing to the eyes of the passers-by. Since its opening in the early 90s, the hotel has hosted more than 300 heads of state, government officials and world celebrities. The hotel offers world class service and has become the destination for global investors and tourists. The hotel has about 1400 guest rooms and more than four food and drinks outlets. The hotel also has restaurants and lounges, swimming pools, fitness and recreational facilities, and Spa. The Hotel’s personnel are in excess of 800 employees working in different departments (Jin Jiang Tower Hotel 2012).
Jim Jiang Tower Hotel enjoys high prestige among the luxurious hotels in Shanghai, China. It is one of the five star plush hotels in Shanghai set out by gardens and European-style buildings. Jim Jiang Tower Hotel is among the largest hotels in Shanghai and receives both local and international visitors throughout the year. Therefore, retaining its large workforce and ensuring their commitment towards organizational goals is a strategic issue for the hotel (Jin Jiang Tower Hotel 2012).
This chapter details the research methodologies employed in this study. In so doing, the research question is presented and the research objectives and philosophy are discussed. In order to investigate the work commitment (job satisfaction and turnover rate) among full-time versus part-time workers at Jing Jiang Tower Hotel, Shanghai, this study will adopt a theory development and application designs (Saunders et al, 2007). The research methods used “both primary and secondary” are described in detail, and selection and use of these methods are justified. Data collection techniques, as well as sample selection and data analysis are discussed. In addition, pertinent issues and considerations (including limitations) relating to this specific research are presented and discussed. The research methodology is set in this paper will be based on Morrow’s model.
For this part, choosing a philosophy of research design is the choice between the positivist and the social constructionist (Easterby et al., 2008, p.147). The positivist view shows that social worlds exist externally, and its properties are supposed to be measured objectively, rather than being inferred subjectively through feelings, intuition, or reflection. The basic beliefs for positivist view are that the observer is independent, and science is free of value. The researchers should concentrate on facts, look for causality and basic laws, reduce phenomenon to simplest elements, and form hypotheses and test them. Preferred methods for positivism consist of making concepts operational and taking large samples. While on the other hand, social constructionism holds the view that reality is subjective and it is socially constructed and given meaning by people. It is best explored through a clear focus on the ways that people make sense of the world via language (Saunders et al., 2009, p.321).
The basic beliefs for social constructionism are that the observer is part of what is observed and science is driven by human interest (Saunders et al., 2009, p.322). The researchers should concentrate on meaning, look for understanding for what really happened and develop ideas with regard to the data. Preferred methods for social constructionism include using different approaches to establish different views of phenomenon and small samples evaluated in depth or over time (Saunders et al., 2009, p.322). For the case of work commitment among full-time versus part-time workers at Jing Jiang Tower Hotel in Shanghai, the philosophy of social constructionism would be used for carrying out the research. Because it tends to produce qualitative data, and the data are subjective since the gathering process would also be subjective due to the involvement of the researcher. Furthermore, the location is natural as it takes place in a commercial organization rather than in the laboratory.
This study will entail a distinct case study at Jing Jiang Tower Hotel in Shanghai. The study uses numerous methods of data collection (these include the use of questionnaire, interviews and analysis of secondary data), recommended by Saunders et al. (2007) as a way of achieving high internal validity. The study also employs other methods acknowledged by Eisenhardt (1999) and de Vaus (2001) used normally for case studies.
The study entailed data collection from numerous perspectives within the case. 180 questionnaires were administered to both full-time and part-time workers at operational level, and interviews were conducted on eight operational workers, union representatives and senior and middle level managers. Therefore, all efforts to obtain a whole picture of the complexity of the case by analyzing its essential elements was exhausted (de Vaus 2001, p. 220). This kind of approach (multi-level) also ensures richness of the collected data and cross checks data validity.
Even though there are disadvantages associated with single case study as opposed to numerous case studies such as lack of opportunity to replicate the results, single case study is vital in corroborating, expanding or challenging a particular theory (Eisenhardt 1999, p. 38). The single case study of the Hotel shows most of the principal employment characteristics that exists in hospitality industry.
The first contact with the Hotel Employees was made with the top management through a phone conversation where the aim of the research was defined and data collection processes discussed. The researcher availed copies of the proposed questionnaires and interview questions to the departmental heads. They were supplied to the employees who were supposed to complete them before the beginning of the shift and during break times. The first part of the questionnaire mainly dwelled on the details of the employment. The second part commenced on the 17 items of Allen and Meyer’s (1990) OCS (Organizational Commitment Scale) in addition to 8 items from Mowday et al. (1979) OCQ (Organizational Commitment Questionnaire), which were incorporated after the analysis of pre-test data. The third part focused on the demographic information.The interviews were also conducted to enhance richness of data and to add meaning to the questionnaire. Each interview with the management took roughly 20 minutes and those with operational workers about 10 minutes.
The case study was chosen purposely for qualitative regardless of how it is related to particular location or contextual elements. The part played by the researchers was to obtain a higher critical care (de Vaus 2001, p.89). Qualitative research is chosen because it assumes a neutral position in research. This helps to avert elusiveness in terms of philosophical and practical perspective. It is for this reason that the qualitative researchers are frequently pressed to mirror on their part in the research procedures and make things obvious in their research analyses (Bryman 2003, p.218).
Majority of qualitative processes need researchers to methodologically script data and to know and record themes reliably and consistently. It is the qualitative procedures that are used for explaining puzzling quantitative results or for exploration (i.e. hypothesis-generating). However, the most customary division between the employment of quantitative and qualitative research particularly in the social sciences is that quantitative methods are employed to evaluate the main hypotheses. This is so to establish content correctness and to evaluate measures that the researcher believes he/she should evaluate. This is regarded as one of the striking benefits of qualitative research (Bryman 2003, p.218).
The Morrow’s model will form the basis of this study (see appendix 1). According to Morrow (1993), there are five main foci of work commitment, also known as universal forms of work commitment. These are job involvement, occupational commitment, work ethic, continuance commitment to the organization and affective commitment to the organization. Morrow (1993) states that one way to perceive the interrelationships among the five main universal forms of commitment is to position each inside a series of five centric circles, with job involvement outermost followed by affective organizational commitment, continuance organizational commitment, occupational commitment and work ethic innermost.
In Morrow’s model, organizational commitment, occupational commitment and work commitment are exogenous variables. These three are related to group commitment and job involvement. The latter mediates the relationship between the work outcomes and exogenous variables (Cohen 2000, p.398). According to Morrow’s model, group commitment and job involvement arbitrate the relationship between work outcomes and other commitment foci. In the relationship between work outcomes and job involvement, a cognitive state of identification with the job is projected to precede and then generate motivational processes that sway effort, motivation and eventually turnover, absenteeism and performance. This means that some work behaviors correlate more to job involvement than turnover and absenteeism (Cohen 2000, p.400).
The role of group commitment as a mediator is grounded upon a similar justification as job involvement. Just like job involvement, group commitment can also be deemed in Morrow’s model as a concrete, immediate and tangible focus. Cohen (2000) also supports the placement of group commitment with job involvement (p. 399). According to the rationale of this argument, an individual will develop strong personal bond to his/her group than to his/her work since the group is a proximal target in his/her immediate work unit whereas the organization, work or career are perceived as remote targets. This argument is thus relevant with respect to group commitment since the group is closer to the worker than his/her organization, work or career (Cohen 2000, p.399).
In this research study, the researcher considered all parts of the ethical issues. The ethical issues need to be pointed out in the proposal of the research. Research should be designed and undertaken in such a way that it fosters quality and integrity. The research staff must to be informed of the purpose, methods and the use of the research. In addition, research must respect the confidential information as well as the anonymity of the respondents. The harm that may be transferred to the participants must be avoided (Bryman 2003, p.234). In line with this research on work commitment of full-time workers and part-time workers, the data collected had to be confidential and not reported to others. The participants were required to take part in the research voluntarily, and they had the right of not answering questions that they regarded as uncomfortable. The researcher needs to respect the anonymity of the respondents. However, sometimes it may misrepresent the data when conducting data analysis (Bryman 2003, p.234).
Data collection methods
Data can be classified into two and they are secondary data and primary data. Primary data refers to the new data (observation, survey, interview, experiment, etc) that the researcher needs to collect for the research while secondary data refers to the existing data that are available in various sources including books, journals, internet, etc. (Easterby et al., 2008, p.216). For primary data collection, the issue is to focus on sampling. As far as researcher is considered, the sampling technique is significant. For example, the sample size that is determined should not be too small as this will make it difficult to generalize the data. It is to be noted that reliable results can be originated from larger sample size (Bryman 2003, p.309)
Secondary data can be said to be quantifiable. Quantitative data collection methods mean that numerical data are collected and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, which provide wide coverage, reliability and objectivity, but lack other details and specific information. Qualitative data collection methods refer to non-numeric data that are collected through observations, interviews and formal or informal discussions. It deals with specific problem, but lacks objectivity and generalization (Saunders et al., 2009, p.241). Secondary data was got mainly from publications, case studies and from the internet sources.
The primary data sources in the case study comprised of questionnaires and interviews, and texts and documents. The use of in-depth, questionnaire and examples was considered by the researcher to be the best means of capturing both perspectives, allowing each contributor a safe, confidential and ample space in which to express views and opinions. In addition, in-depth interviews would provide a depth and breadth of understanding, satisfying the primary research objectives. However, this method is not without challenges for the researcher: the lack of structure requires a skilful approach by the researcher in order to elicit the required information in an unbiased fashion; in-depth interviews can be time consuming and costly; the interpretation and analysis of respondent contribution can be difficult and time consuming; and non-verbal communication, such as body language must also be interpreted.
A total of 300 employees working at Jing Jiang Tower Hotel were surveyed. 60% of the participants were on a full-time employment while 40% were part-time employees. The questionnaires were issued to the employees at Jing Jiang Tower Hotel in Shanghai. A total of 250 completed questionnaires were returned. This is equivalent to an 83% response rate which is very excellent. The questionnaire targeted mostly the regular operational employees, middle level managers and the senior managers.
The shortened 9-item version of the organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) was used to measure organizational commitment (Porter et al., 1974). The 8-item measure developed by Blau (1985) was used to measure occupational commitment. Work involvement (6 items) and job involvement (10 items were measured using scales developed by Kanungo (1982). The 6-item scale developed by Randall and Cote (1991) was used to measure group commitment. Finally, a 5-point scale (1=strongly disagree, to 5=strongly agree) was used to measure all work commitment construct. All the scales used in this research (excluding the scale for group commitment) were mentioned by Morrow (1993) as the most reliable and valid commitment scales.
Three items that comprise either looking for another job or thinking about resigning were employed to measure turnover intention. Examples are ‘I think a lot about leaving Jing Jiang Tower Hotel’ and ‘I am actively in search for an alternative to the Jing Jiang Tower Hotel’. Participants were required to indicate the agreement on a 5-point scale. The hotel provided the employment status for every employee upon the completion of the questionnaires. A score of 1 was allocated to employees who no longer worked at the hotel and 0 was allocated to those who continued working at the hotel. The hotel also provided records for absent employees. Using these records, absence duration (the total number of days absent from the job in one year) was computed for each employee.
Limitation of data collection methods
There have been a lot of concerns on additional budgetary expenses for collection of the data, regardless of whether the gathered data is really genuine or not and whether there may be an explicit conclusion when interpreting and analyzing the data (Noor 2008, p.1602).In addition, some employees were reluctant to offer some information they deemed confidential and can make them lose their job. This posed a great challenge to the research as the researcher had to take a longer time to find employees who were willing to give out adequate information.
Validity and reliability
Validity of the data represents the data integrity and it connotes that the data is accurate and much consistent. Validity has been explained as a descriptive evaluation of the association between actions and interpretations and empirical evidence deduced from the data (Robson 2002, p.214). The canyon of validity is applicable to all guises of evaluation (which are both qualitative and quantitative) by coalescing scientific inquiry and rational debates to prove or disprove the outcomes and interpretations emanating from the data collected (Carter 2009, p.239).
This study gained reliability of the examples and literature sources because the subject under study is recorded in various peer reviewed academic databases that are accessible to the researcher and other interested verifiers. (Saunders et al. 2007).The literature was from peer reviewed journals and articles, therefore, this study gained considerable reliability.
The study has gained construct validity because of the application of the literature review and use of primary data as the foundation of the multiple sources to cover for the limitations of each source (Saunders et al. 2007).The primary sources of information were the application of the questionnaire to the employees of Jing Jiang Tower Hotel in Shanghai. The data coding was for confidentiality of the details of the respondents and for future traceability, by the researcher incase of error found at advanced stages in the research process. In data coding, letters and numbers were used to denote the various questionnaires by the respondents. The data coding was also important for future traceability of information sources just incase there was need to verify some facts or verify trend in results. The literature-reviewed sources are also traceable by credible web link.
Internal validity is achieved by matching the primary data with literature reviews. However, the internal validity of this study guards against perception errors; against halo effects, for example, that respondents had prior feedback; against memory recall, for example, that respondents could not get the past fact rights and against reflexivity, for example, that the respondents gave convenient feedback to the researcher (Noor 2008, p. 1602-1604).
The outcomes from this study require external validity. Since job satisfaction and turnover rate is a universal phenomenon, the outcomes will be externally valid when they show similar trends to other organizations in the hospitality industry. Therefore, the gaps arising in the external validity fill by various case studies as elaborated in the research process. The main aim of external validity is to predict a trend in work commitment among full-time and part-time employees and familiar literature reviews as well as to outline any major differences in the theories (Noor 2008, p. 1602-1604).
Data analysis and results
The case study took place at Jim Jiang Tower Hotel, Shanghai. The Hotel’s personnel are in excess of 800, employees working in different departments of which 275 are permanently employed while 149 are employed on part-time basis. Key statistics of workforce at Jing Jiang Tower Hotel, Shanghai are summarized in table 1.
Table 1: Key Statistics of workforce at Jing Jiang Tower Hotel, Shanghai
Out of the 250 respondents (operational workers) to the questionnaire, roughly 40% were part-timers. This number is slightly higher than the proportion of the overall part-timers in the Hotel. However, there was somehow under-representation of females in the case study (45.9% as compared to overall proportion of 50%). Over half of the part-timers who responded to the survey stated that they were in temporary employment because they could not get permanent employment, signify preference for full-time employment.
To establish the level of satisfaction among these employees, they were asked whether they were satisfied with their work status, and if satisfied, the degree of satisfaction. Generally, 75% of the respondents confirmed that they were satisfied with their work status and of these, 45% affirmed that they were very satisfied. Cross-tabulation was done to determine satisfaction and degree of satisfaction of respondent’s work status. From the study we established that part-timers were less satisfied with their work than full-timers. 59% of the part-timers stated that they were satisfied with their work and out of this, 60% were either fairly or slightly satisfied. In comparison, about 89% of the full timers stated that they were satisfied with their work and out of this, 36% were either fairly or slightly satisfied.
To probe whether part-time workers have lesser degree of commitment than full-time workers, the data from Organizational Commitment Scale (OCS) was initially tested for reliability and discriminate validity as per Allen and Meyer (1990).To compare the degree of job satisfaction and turnover rate among part-time employees and full-time employees, independent sample t-tests were carried out. The average for composite measures for effective, continuance and normative commitment were first taken across the items in each scale. In accordance with literatures, commitments of part-time employees were found to be lower. The table blow summarizes the findings.
Table 2: Samples t-test
The examination of the data from the questionnaire showed that part-time employees had considerably lower levels of affective commitment than full-time counterparts. However, there was not considerable disparity in the degree of continuance and normative commitment between the two set of employees. These results are supported by the literature review which had predicted the same (Schermerhorn, Hunt & Osborn, 2003; Clarke & Chen 2007). On the other hand, the analysis of the data from the interviews showed even though the hotel management perceived organizational commitment of part-time workers to be lower than full-timers, this was not an intuitive thought from the workers alone. One of the union representative asserted that part-time employees had lower organizational commitment than full-time employees because their employment status.
The questions asked to workers at the operational level related mainly to the items of Organizational Commitment Scale. For effective commitment, the researcher enquired whether they felt attached and pleased of working in the Hotel. Both two set of employees (part-time and full-time employees) pointed out that they were pleased working for the Hotel, but were more attached to each other (group commitment) than to the Hotel (organizational commitment. The response related to continuance commitment indicated that, both the full-timers and part-timers had no intention of leaving their jobs because the Hotel offered a number of benefits such as free meals, flexible working hours and uniforms which is not the case in other local Hotels. However, the response to normative commitment, workers gave varied responses pointing out the reciprocal nature of loyalty and everyone had their own view of loyalty. Some of them felt that it was prudent to stay with a single employer for a while than jumping from one employer to the other.
Testing of hypotheses
This section presents the outcomes of the data analyses that tested the hypotheses. Pearson Product-Moment Correlations (PPMC) was employed to examine the relationships between the variables. Values for socio-economic status (SES) such as education status and occupational position were scored either 1 to 3 or 1 to 4 as appropriate to produce the statistical values. Prior to data analyses, data were examined for possible infringement of assumptions underlying the use of general Linear Model univariate analysis. Given that there has to be a considerable correlation between variables, a correlation table was employed to establish relationships between dependent and independent variables as well as the existence of multicollinearity. The SPSS and LISREL were used to analyze the following statistical hypotheses. A two-tailed test of significance was used, with the degree of significance set at.01.
Results for Research Hypothesis 1
Hypothesis 1 states that age and SES are positively related with job involvement, work values and organizational commitment. Pearson product-moment correlations were carried out between three demographic variables (occupational position, educational status and age) in relation to job involvement, work values and organizational commitment scale and the subscales. Correlations between the three SES and the dependent variables were somewhat low.
There was a positive correlation between age and eight dependent variables. Terminal values had the least positive correlation with age (.09) followed by complete involvement (.10), job involvement (.14), strong involvement (.18), values commitment (.21), retention commitment (.26) and effort commitment (.33). Among the significant values, age exhibited the strongest correlation with organizational commitment. Education status had a considerable positive correlation with self esteem (.12), self-realization (.12), self-growth (.09) and terminal values (.12). However, education status was not considerably associated with either organizational commitment or job involvement, nor was it considerably related to work values. In addition, occupational position had a considerable positive correlation with effort commitment (.10), terminal values (.09) and self-esteem (.11). In general, the assumed positive correlations between age and socioeconomic variables and organizational commitment, job involvement and work values were supported partially.
Results for Research Hypothesis 2
Hypothesis 2 states that work values are significantly correlated with job involvement. The results of the present study show that work values are significantly correlated with job involvement. Participants who reported higher work values had greater job commitment. As such, most of the correlations were highly considerable. Non-standard regression coefficients (acquired by regressing work values with respect to job involvement) showed that work values play a major role with respect to job involvement for both full-time and part-time employees. As a result, the hypothesized positive correlations between work values and job involvement were corroborated by the data.
Results for Research Hypothesis 3
Hypothesis 3 states that positive work values are considerably correlated with organizational commitment. Results from data analysis show that work values (excluding freedom and stability from transport, health and recreation considerations as well as anxiety considerations) are correlated with organizational commitment (excluding retention commitment sub-scale). Both part-time and full-time participants who reported higher work values had greater organizational commitment, with most correlations significant at.01 levels. The non-standard regression coefficients (acquired by regressing work values on organizational commitment) demonstrated that work values played a major role with respect to organizational commitment for both part-time and full-time employees. However, job involvement was more influential than work values with respect to organizational commitment. Therefore, the hypothesized positive correlations between work values and organizational commitment were corroborated by the data.
Results for Research Hypothesis 4
According to hypothesis 4, job involvement is positively correlated to organizational commitment. According to data analysis, job involvement (for both part-time and full-time employees) was positively correlated to organizational commitment. Both full-time and part-time employees who reported higher job involvement had a greater organizational commitment, with all correlations extremely significant. According to non-standard regression coefficients acquired by regressing job involvement on organizational commitment, the former had a positive correlation to the latter. It seems that job involvement was more significant than work values with respect to organizational commitment. The strength of organizational commitment did not vary significantly between the full-time and part-time employees. The GLM univariate analysis did not reveal that organizational commitment had a differential effect on employment status. Therefore, the hypothesized positive correlations between job involvement and organizational commitment were corroborated by the data.
Results for Research Hypothesis 5
Hypothesis 5 states that job involvement mediates the correlations between work values and organizational commitment. Prior researches have theorized that work values could have either a direct or indirect effect on job involvement (Tang 2000; Cohen 1999). However, the outcomes of the present study demonstrated that work values influenced organizational commitment only via job involvement. The five work values aspects (transport, health and recreation considerations; economic and security considerations; freedom and stability from anxiety considerations; social interaction considerations; and self-esteem) were excluded. Two adjusted work values (self-realization and self-growth, of terminal values) were found to be the best fit for data.
The outcomes also demonstrated a positive relationship between terminal values and organizational commitment. Work values influenced organizational commitment indirectly (.69). This indirect effect included a considerable indirect effect on retention commitment (.33), effort commitment (.40) and values commitment (.40) with a unit change in work values resulting in a.33,.40 and.40 change respectively. These results suggest both part-time and full-time employees accept and have a strong belief in the values and goals of the organization. In addition, they are willing to maintain their attachment to the organization.
Therefore, all direct, indirect and total effects were, as hypothesized, were positive and statistically considerable. Outcomes from the present study show a rational fit for the Morrow’s model. Thus, it can be postulated that the Morrow’s model is a suitable representation of the data. An analysis of structural coefficients corroborated hypothesis 5, showing that job involvement could play a significant role in mediation. This study was thus able to assert the mediating role played by job involvement in forecasting organizational commitment. The significance of the inter-correlations between variables in the Morrow’s model was also confirmed. This means that workers who demonstrated greater work values, with greater job-involved attitudes in their present job (either part-time or full-time employment) were expected to exhibit strong organizational commitment. Therefore, the theorized mediating effect of job involvement with respect to work values and organizational commitment was corroborated by the data.
In this chapter, outcomes of the statistical analysis of data acquired from surveys of 300 employees working at Jing Jiang Tower Hotel are presented. Significant relationships between socio-demographic variables and other variables were established. Considerable relationships between education status and self-esteem, self-realization and terminal values were established. Therefore, hypothesis 1(education status vs. key variables) was partially corroborated. Positive relationships between occupational position and effort commitment, self-esteem, and terminal values were also established. Therefore, hypothesis 1, associating occupational position and key variables, was partially corroborated.
Statistical analysis of data from various sources revealed that work values have considerably positive correlation with job involvement, hence supporting hypothesis 2. Work values are also positively correlated to organizational commitment, as stated earlier by hypothesis 3. Job involvement is also positively correlated to organizational commitment, an assertion that is in harmony with hypothesis 4. An evaluation of the effect of job involvement and work values on organizational commitment revealed that job involvement (as discerned by hotel employees) accounts for a considerable quantity of variance in organizational commitment. In addition, job involvement is a better predicator of organizational commitment than work values. This finding was supported by the correlations proposed in the model. The data also corroborated this finding. To be precise, work values was positively correlated to organizational commitment, whereas job involvement produced a mediating effect. These findings corroborate hypothesis 5.
Discussion and Conclusions
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between job involvement, work values and organizational commitment among employees working at Jing Jiang Tower Hotel. The study had the following objectives:
- to describe the work values of Jing Jiang Tower Hotel employees;
- to describe the job involvement of Jing Jiang Tower Hotel employees;
- to describe the organizational commitment of Jing Jiang Tower Hotel employees;
- to identify variables that influence job involvement, work values and organizational commitment for Jing Jiang Tower Hotel employees;
- to identify the mediating effect of job involvement on work values and organizational commitment for Jing Jiang Tower Hotel employees.
Discussion of the findings
The main findings are presented in this section. The correlations between socio-demographic variables and work values, job involvement and organizational commitment are discussed. Relationships between the major variables, work values, job involvement and organizational commitment are then examined.
Correlations between socio-demographic variables and work values, job involvement and organizational commitment
It was theorized that there would be a positive correlation between age and work values. Outcomes of the present study partially corroborated this hypothesis. The findings of prior studies have shown that as an employee grows older, he/she lends more credence to internal values of his/her workplace (Pu 1988). Maturation and socialization process are the main factors that create disparity between work values of younger and older employees. As predicted, the findings of this study showed that older employees lend more credence on terminal values than did their younger counterparts. It was also theorized that there would be a positive correlation between age and job involvement for Jing Jiang Tower Hotel employees. The findings of this study supported this hypothesis. Previous studies have shown that older workers value job involvement more than younger workers (Chuang 2001). To be specific, older employees are more likely to stay at the hotel since resigning would result in a greater professional and personal cost to them. This study was thus in harmony with previous researches that advancing age was correlated with greater job involvement.
It was theorized that there would be a positive correlation between education status and work values. Prior studies support the idea that employees with exceptional educational qualifications have higher self-growth, self-confirmation and internal values (Chung 2001; Pu 1988). This hypothesis was partially supported by the results. The present study established that highly educated employees lend more weight on self-realization, self-growth and terminal values compared to employees with basic academic qualifications. In addition, it was hypothesized that there would be a positive correlation between education status and job involvement. However, the outcomes of this research did not reveal noteworthy disparities in job involvement across education status. Consequently, this hypothesis was not supported. Previous studies have shown that education status is negatively correlated to job involvement (Tsai et al., 2003) as employees with exceptional education qualifications have greater expectations which cannot be met by the organization. The present study is consistent with previous study by Chen (1998) which did not establish any correlation between education status and job involvement.
It was theorized that there would be a positive correlation between education status and organizational commitment. However, the results of this study did not support this hypothesis. Previous studies have demonstrated a negative relationship between these two variables (Tsai et al., 2003; Mathieu & Zajac 1990). This unique relationship may be explained by the fact that organizations find it extremely hard to offer adequate incentives for highly qualified employees.
It was theorized that there would be a positive correlation between occupational position and work values. This hypothesis was partially supported by the outcomes of this study. Previous study has demonstrated a positive correlation between various occupational positions and work values (Tang 2000). The present study established that senior employees emphasized more on self-esteem and terminal values than junior employees. It was theorized that there would be a positive correlation between occupational position and job involvement. Nonetheless, this hypothesis was not supported by the results of this study. Prior studies have, nonetheless, reported contradictory correlations between these variables. According to Lodahl and Kejner (1965), there is no relationship between occupational position and job involvement. However, Morrow et al. (1998) contradict this finding by asserting that occupational position is positively related to job involvement as “higher level positions provide…challenging task and …the opportunity for greater involvement (p.102).
It was theorized that there would be a positive correlation between occupational position and organizational commitment. This hypothesis was partially supported by the results of this study. Prior study has demonstrated that occupational position is positively correlated to organizational commitment (Morrow et al., 1988). The outcomes of this study revealed considerable disparities with respect to occupational position level. Senior employees (on full-time employment) at the hotel exhibited higher scores on organizational commitment than junior employees (on part-time employment). This finding seems to imply that the senior employees (employed full-time) exhibited more organizational commitment than their junior counterparts not because of the retention commitment or values commitment.
The correlation between work values, job involvement and organizational commitment
The present research investigated the correlation between work values and organizational commitment. The relationships between these two variables were considerable but generally weak. Prior studies have investigated the correlations between work values and organizational commitment. Putti et al. (1989) asserted that intrinsic work values are more closely associated with organizational commitment compared to either overall work values or extrinsic. In addition, the finding that terminal values are more closely correlated with organizational commitment compared to instrumental values appears in harmony with the findings of Putti et al. (1989). The participants who reported greater terminal values were more likely to exhibit strong organizational commitment.
As predicted earlier, the results of this study revealed a positive correlation between job involvement and organizational commitment, which is consistent with previous studies (Morrow 1993). According to this finding, employees who reported greater job involvement were likely to exhibit strong organizational commitment. Researchers have proposed that comprehensible organizational goals endow highly job-involved employees more prospects to fulfill their requirements and build strong organizational commitment.
Implications for theory and practice
The implications of the findings of this study are discussed below.
Implications for theory
The key finding of this study was that the correlations between job involvement, work values and organizational commitment put forward in the study framework were corroborated by the data obtained from employees working at Jing Jiang Tower Hotel. The finding that job involvement played a key role as the mediating factor between work values and organizational commitment merits further investigation. The present study employed Morrow’s model to create a connection between work values and job-related feelings (such as organizational commitment, job involvement). Morrow’s model has had a significant influence on the manner in which researchers comprehend employee behavior within organizations. A number of positive relationships were established between job involvement, work values and organizational commitment among employees working at Jing Jiang Tower Hotel. This shows that some of their values, their job involvement and their organizational commitment differ with each other to a certain level. In Randall and Cote’s models, the Protestant Work Ethic (PWE) influence job involvement. This in turn has a strong effect on organizational commitment. Whereas, PWE implies that employees with a higher work ethic are likely to exhibit disapproval for self-indulgence, measurement of work values in the present study corroborated the importance of values of personal life experience. Workers with an exceptional work ethics are apt to have guilty feelings when they think they are not working as much as they ought to (Cohen 1999). Conversely, employees exhibiting elevated terminal values look for and work in organizations that suit their individuality and will be closely attached to them. These insights create novel approaches that can be used investigate work commitment further.
Whereas it is difficult to attribute causal direction on the basis of a cross-sectional research, it is possible to predict that employees with greater work values will exhibit a greater level of job involvement and organizational commitment. This will eventually lead to lower degrees of intention to retire from the organization and elevated levels of job performance and satisfaction. Hotel administrators can use this finding to monitor the degree of work commitment among workers as well as forecast staff turnover.
Implications for practice
In spite of the fact that numerous studies have been done in an attempt to elucidate the dimensions of work commitment, the present study has investigated the practical impact of dimensions of work commitment at workplace. The outcomes offer precious information for hotel administrators with regard to comprehending the nature of the correlations between job involvement, work values and organizational commitment as well as how they can influence employee retention. The present research corroborates prior studies that connect job involvement with work values and organizational commitment. It is crucial for employees to understand their personal work values in their organizations. The findings of the present research disclose that job involvement has a higher influence on organizational commitment compared to work values. Consequently, hotel administrators must discern the importance of job involvement, work values and organizational commitment to be able to nurture those aspects in their organizations. Hotel administrators must also appreciate, encourage and influence the thoughts of their workers and consequently create positive work values that can augment job involvement as well as organizational commitment. Hotel administrators must also evaluate their employees and devise novel ways to retain them as well as ensure that they are contented and happy.
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Appendix 1: Morrow’s model
Appendix 2: Questionnaire
This is an academic research study and your participation is voluntary. Information provided will be confidentially and individual data will be reported.
Are you a par- time or a full-time employee?
Are you satisfied with your work?
- Not satisfied
- Less Satisfied
- Very satisfied.
Do you prefer working as a part-time or a full time employee?
What kind of relationship do you have with your superiors?
How do you rate your work conditions?
- Bad 
- Not sure 
- Good 
- Excellent 
The following 17 statements describe your degree of attachment and loyalty to the organization you are now employed with. Please respond by indicating the degree to which each of the statements applies to you using the following scale:
There is no right or wrong answer. Write the number that best indicates to what extent each of the statement is true or not true in the parenthesis provided at the end of each statement:
- I would be very happy to spend the rest of my career in this organization [ ]
- I enjoy discussing my work with people outside it [ ]
- I really feel as if this Hotel’s problems are my own [ ]
- I think I could easily become as attached to another Hotel as I am to this one [ ]
- I do not feel like “a member of the family” at this Hotel [ ]
- I do not feel “emotionally attached” to this Hotel [ ]
- This Hotel has a great deal of personal meaning for me [ ]
- I do not feel a strong sense of belonging to this Hotel [ ]
- I am not afraid of what might happen if I quit my job at this Hotel without having
- Another one lined up [ ]
It would be very hard for me to leave my job at this Hotel right now even if I wanted to [ ]
Too much of life would be disrupted if I decided to leave my job at this Hotel right now [ ]
It would not be too costly for me to leave my job at this Hotel in the near future [ ]
Right now, staying with my job at this Hotel is a matter of necessity as much as desire [ ]
I believe I have too few options to consider should I decide to leave my job at this Hotel [ ]
One of the few negative consequences of leaving my job at this Hotel, would be the scarcity of available alternative elsewhere [ ]
One of the major reasons I continue to work for this Hotel is that leaving would require considerable personal sacrifice; another place may not match the overall benefits I have here [ ]
If I had not already put so much of myself into this organization, I would consider Working elsewhere [ ]
What is your Sex?
What is your Job Title?
Do you supervise others?
How long have you worked for the Hotel?
_______________ Years ____________ Months
How long have you worked for your Immediate Supervisor?
_______________ Years ____________ Months
What is your Age Group?
- Under 26
- 26 to 35
- 36 to 45
- 46 to 55
- 56 to 65
- 66 or older
What is your highest level of Education?
- Did not complete High School
- Some master’s credits, no degree
- High school degree/equivalent
- Master’s degree
- Some college, no degree
- Some post-master’s credits, no degree
- Associate’s/2-year degree
- Doctorate degree or professional degree
- Bachelor’s degree
What is your Race?
- Asian/Pacific Islander
- Native American