Human Resource Management: Theoretical and Practical Aspects

The profession of a Human Resources Consultant is crucial for any organization because it aims at improving the already developed system and formulating a strategic human resource plan with the help of which a company may achieve better results and open new perspectives. In this report, the evaluation of the basics of Human Resources Management will be given to creating a list of recommendations to Senior Partners and the effects of HR management activities.

Understand how the Strategic Management of Human Resources Contributes to the Achievement of Organisational Objectives

Explain the importance of Strategic Human Resource Management in organizations

Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) is a significant part of an HR management process that aims at developing and implementing HR practices and regulations with the help of which a company can achieve its goals and succeed in fulfilling its functions (Bratton & Gold 2012). A company may be good at creating its goals. Still, if some activities are poorly developed, such an organization can hardly achieve success. SHRM is a chance to identify the importance of every decision and activity, develop programs and steps considering medium- and long-term perspectives in respect to HR management, and reflect on the challenges HR managers may face in a working process (Mullins 2007). Organizations win a lot in case their leaders encourage the SHRM department and hire experts, who can analyze the current state of affairs, evaluate the resources, and discuss the opportunities that can be used by a single organization.

Assess the purpose of strategic human resource management activities in an organization

Rahimic (2007) introduces SHRM activities as possible drivers of changes in an organization when several effective strategies are defined, and the methods of their implementations are discussed. On the example of the case study about Emirates Airlines and its ability to keep cash reserves strong (Harzing & Pinnington 2010), it is possible to comprehend how strategic management can work and why this company is chosen as one of the best representatives of the Gulf region. Emirates Airlines is a famous Dubai-based airline company that provides people with many luxury services for traveling and magnificent in-flight experiences. There are no serious complaints in regards to the services offered by the chosen company except the fact that not all people may allow themselves using such expensive services. HR management strategies help to understand how to cope with the current challenges, what steps are appropriate for particular situations, and how to treat employees.

Evaluate the contribution of strategic human resource management to the achievement of organizational objectives

The goal of Emirates Airlines is to continue participating in international competitions, show how true flight services should look like, and promote the idea of open sky in a global economy (The Emirates group annual report 2015). People deserve the right to travel with comfort and be satisfied with all services. Emirates Airlines provides people such as change and meets its goals to promote sustainable airline services. SHRM contributes to this goal considerably because properly developed activities can be implemented to support the goals and show the best ways to meet them in a short period. Even such long-term goals as to be a leader in a workplace safety field can be met if certain SHRM activities are considered, and employees get an idea of how they should behave and develop skills. The creation of a powerful plan is the first step that can make the company closer to its main goal.

Developing Human Resource Plans for an Organisation

Analyze the business factors that underpin human resource planning in an organization

The representatives of Emirates Airlines know that the UAE is one of the most competitive markets in the Middle East, as well as in the whole world (The Emirates group annual report 2015). Therefore, it is very important to identify the business factors that may underpin HR planning in Emirates Airlines, as well as in any other company. The process of planning for human resources is not complicated, still, managers and employees have to be ready for several steps being taken in a definite order. This strategic approach is usually chosen by companies with people working in groups and connecting the same main objective (Beardwell & Claydon 2007).

Millmore (2007) introduces several external and internal factors that may affect SHRM and categorize them accordingly. The external environment in terms of political, economic, and cultural factors, as well as the type of industry Emirates Airlines, works in, may define the quality of work and services in the following way:

  • Political challenges influence the process of hiring people and even the number of people that can be hired: Emirates Airlines is a politically free company, still, as soon as the UAE fails at developing business relations with a particular country, the work of the company may be put under threat;
  • Economic problems have a global nature today; therefore, Emirates Airlines should consider the necessity to pay salary in regards to the situation that is developed worldwide and set the goals that can be accomplished by a company;
  • Cultural differences do not create a challenge for the company because the company creates appropriate culturally and religiously fair relations; in other words, cultural differences are appreciated in Emirates Airlines as a chance to learn better different customers;
  • The airline industry is competitive from two main aspects: on the one hand, Emirates are challenged by the presence of many airline companies that set lower prices and offer various services, on the other hand, the airline travels may be substituted by train and auto traveling or cruises, and Emirates should prove that its people and services are worth recognition.

Internal factors also matter for Emirates. Attention to organizational needs, skill requirements and even workforce profile should be paid. Emirates’ employees should understand the necessity to adapt to several changes and promote improvements regularly. The impact of technologies, productivity results, and labor market competitions influence the way of how employees understand their duties and if they are ready to accept changes.

Assess the human resource requirements in a given situation

The current development of technologies, the ability to gather information about people in a short period, and even the possibility to make presentations about employees in a variety of means lead to the necessity to set more human resource requirements. The employees of Emirates Airlines have to be ready to correspond with the requirements set by the company. Still, it is also possible for employees to develop new professional skills so that the company can assess them accordingly.

In the situation discussed in the case study about Emirates Airlines and its intentions to cope with the challenges caused by recessions, several human resource requirements can be identified.

Re-organization of the orders requires the evaluation of the pre-delivery payment system. Employees have to combine the possibilities of each department and understand what can be done to improve the situation. In the case study, the Chairman of the company compares the employees and the organization itself with a surfer, who is waiting for a new swell even if there is no wave (Harzing & Pinnington 2010).

Emirates’ employees should understand that failures in a delivery system have to be reflected in their working conditions. As it has been mentioned, many workers have to accept the idea of unpaid leaves to cover the losses and support the strategic investment that takes place (Harzing & Pinnington 2010).

The motivation of employees remains to be one of the main questions for consideration. People have to understand their worth. There is no need to diminish their rights or explain the challenges as the mistakes made by people. Global problems that influence the work of the company should not decrease the level of the dignity of employees. Such a requirement is one of the most important in HR management of the company.

Develop a human resources plan for an organization

Managers and other employees have several prescribed roles that have to be complete properly (Belbin 2012). According to Armstrong (2008), any HR plan is an opportunity to identify the human resources that are required by an organization to achieve the goals and objectives set regarding its visions, missions, and statements. The following HR plan developed in Table 1 is a critical activity that helps to deliver the best services to the customers, underline the best qualities of the employees, and solve the majority of challenges that take place because of the unstable external environment. People should be hired for a summer period from July to August. Total hours are calculated based on the fact that the team should work 43 days for two months.

Type of Work Duration Number of People Total Hours
The project manageris appointed first to gain control over all other activities (Belbin 2012), approve/disprove the solutions made by other workers, promote a successful accomplishment of the work, evaluate the overall performance, and consider the financial decisions. Fixed-term 1 344
Shift Manageris a front-line worker, who has to oversee the activities of other workers, promote the required development of skills and knowledge during an 8-hour shift, and report on the achievements/mistakes to the PM. Fixed terms 2 168/176
Implementation Manageris a worker, who identify the current changes and requirements that have to be considered in a project and report to the PM about the status of an order Fixed terms 1 300
Analysts should analyze the numbers, compare the latest achievements with the past work, and give evidence if new activities promote some shifts in work, delivery processes, and communication between employees. Fixed terms 1 215
Training Leadhelps other workers to understand what kind of work has to be performed, what skills and knowledge should be used, and if it is possible to develop a portion of new skills to achieve success in work and motivates people to work better in regards to the tasks established. Fixed terms 1 130
Table 1

Critically evaluate how a human resources plan can contribute to meeting an organizations objectives

An HR plan is the required initiative of Emirates Airlines with the help of which its leaders learn how to ensure a necessary number of qualified managers and workers, who can perform their jobs properly, meet the timeframes set, and follow the requirements established. The offered list of managers and the description of work that has to be performed turns out to be a significant contribution to meeting organizational objectives and customers’ expectations. On the one hand, people get a clear idea of what kind of work is expected from them, how many hours they should work, and what working conditions (duration) they can get with Emirates Airlines. On the other hand, workers get a chance to understand how crucial their work can be for a company. Within the frames of the plan under analysis, several crucial working aspects are discussed: employee motivation and training, the control of achievements, the analysis of contributions, and even the evaluation of the decision-making process that predetermines the company’s future success.

The offered plan strengthens the already developed HR structure and shows the best way of skills and knowledge utilization (Armstrong 2003). It keeps the required balance between a Project Manager and other managers, who are responsible for the improvements in employees’ work. Finally, the plan underlines the main aspects of the work that has to be changed with the help of new employees and their skills that can be used on fixed terms. In other words, the company should not hire people and take responsibility for the best working conditions for all of them. The plan identifies the timeframes, and the chosen period should demonstrate if the changes are possible or not.

The case study introduces the challenges this company may face from time to time. The leaders of the company underline the fact that their objective is to be ready for any change. Therefore, the suggestions discussed in the HR plan seem to be a reasonable contribution to organizational success.

Understanding Human Resources Policy Requirements in an Organisation

Explain the purpose of human resource management policies in your organization

The main purpose of human resource management policies offered in the report is to forecast the organizational needs regarding the nature of the company and make sure the required number of people can be available in a certain period. The policies help to identify the most successful workplace structure. The failure to discuss performances, total working hours, duration, and the working environment leads to the impossibility to gain control over other activities that can be implemented in the company (Barbeito 2004). HRM policies prove the nature of Emirates Airlines, the expectations of/from employees, and the peculiarities of organizational behavior.

Analyse the impact of regulatory requirements on human resource policies in your organization

Human resource management has to follow several relevant regulations to provide people with employment, health and safe working conditions, and high-quality services. Emirates Airlines has its Code of Ethics that sets the general principles according to which team members have to work. There are three groups of laws that determine the work of people in Emirates Airlines: state, federal, and international. There are two state laws under which HRM operations have to be organized Human Resource Management Law No. 27 (2006) and Law No. 14 (2010) of Amending certain provisions of the Government of Dubai Human Resource Management Law No. 27 (2006) (Government of Dubai n.d.). There is also the Civil Aviation Law that is defined as a federal type of law according to which the company should organize its flights.

There is also the International Aviation Law (Havel & Sanchez 2014) according to which the majority of airline companies have to work. All employees, managers, and leaders of Emirates should follow the required employment standards, avoid discrimination and inequality cases, and protect information about its employees and passengers.

Human Resources Management in an Organisation

Analyse the impact of an organization structure on the management of human resources

An organizational structure is a way of how to introduce all levels of authority in a particular organization (Randhawa 2007). It is very important to under the type of structure chosen by Emirates Airlines to understand how it can define HRM activities. The company chooses to follow a centralized flat organizational structure (Fig. 1) and gains such benefits as the possibility to control all activities from one position, spend not much money to maintain the structure, and have quick access to any kind of information from any department.

Chairmain and Chief Executive
Fig.1.

Many people are working at Emirates Airlines, and the chosen structure of the organization may be rather challenging for some workers, who have several managers. Though the Chairman of the company can get access to any department anytime, there is a threat that certain employees cannot be heard due to the number of working people at the same time. The opinions of employees are not taken into consideration in time. The result of such a structure is the necessity to promote new HRM activities and underline the importance of employee motivation. Besides, managers of departments have to improve their knowledge and experience to know how to promote communication between the leaders of the company and their employees. Employees may evaluate a particular situation better and offer an idea that has to be approved by the leader. Still, the communication between ordinary employees and the leaders of Emirates Airlines is not always possible even with the flat organizational structure.

Analyse the impact of organizational culture on the management of human resources

Organizational culture is a way of how workers should encourage their behavior in a company (Amos, Ristow, Pearse, & Ristow 2008). Though not much attention is usually paid to the identification of the organizational culture, each company has it because it helps to consider the changes between workers and unite them according to their abilities, skills, interests, etc. Besides, there are no clear instructions on how to create an organizational culture. As a rule, employees do not even notice how they become the creators of their personal, organizational culture. It can be changed and improved with time. Emirates Airlines’ culture is all about respect for employees and customers (as it is identified on the official site of the company). Each member of a team has the required portion of a commitment to everything that is happening in the company. As soon as its people have respect for each other, they can understand what aspects of their work can and have to be improved.

The impact of the organizational culture of the company is crucial to the work of the HRM department. It helps to define the leadership style that is more appropriate for the organization, understand how to organize a decision-making process, develop communication, and change the attitudes to teamwork and the relations with customers. This type of culture also defines the level of commitment, and the employees of Emirates Airlines realize how significant their work can be.

Examine how the effectiveness of human resource management is monitored in an organization

One of the possible tasks to the representatives of the HRM department is monitoring (Foot & Hook 2008). However, it happens that the effectiveness of the work at the HRM department has to be monitored as well. Emirates Airlines offers annual reports that cover various spheres of the company’s life. This method of monitoring is not the most effective. Still, it helps to understand the connection between all departments of the company and conclude what kind of work has been done and what activities are recommended to be improved. Training and staff surveys organized in the company help employees to clarify what is expected from them.

The technological progress is highly appreciated by many Arab organizations. Emirates Airlines is not an exception. The company’s analytics use online polls and questionnaires and ask their customers to share their opinions. The idea to involve customers in the evaluation of the company’s work is one of the cheapest and most effective methods of monitoring. Ordinary people are eager to share their opinions, and the company’s managers are eager to get some free pieces of advice on how to improve the quality of their services and what workers have to improve their performance.

Make justified recommendations to improve the effectiveness of human resources management in an organization

Regarding the evaluation of Emirates Airlines, the work of its employees, and the achievements that have been already made, it is possible to say that this organization is one of the most successful examples of how an airline company should work. Still, several recommendations can be given:

  • There are high operational costs in the company to invest in technologies, the creation of new aircraft and improvements in service quality. It is better to control, analyze, and decrease costs and try to promote improvement using communication between the employees of the company and their customers.
  • The UAE airline market is not stable and continues to develop constantly. Emirates Airlines HRM department has to investigate this sphere regularly and consider the latest achievements not to frustrate its consumers.
  • The hiring process has to be improved, and the managers have to pay more attention to the personal intentions of people to work at Emirates Airlines. There is a special training program for employees in the company. Therefore, it is possible to train people and explain what is expected. Still, people should be eager to study and use the material offered to promote the development of the company.

List of Reference

Amos, T, Ristow, A, Pearse, NJ & Ristow, L 2008, Human resource management, Cape Town, South Africa.

Armstrong, M 2003, A handbook resource management: a contemporary approach, Kogan Page, London, UK.

Armstrong, M 2008, Strategic human resource management: an action guide, Kogan Page, London, UK.

Barbeito, CL 2004, Human resource policies and procedures for nonprofit organisations, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.

Beardwell, J & Claydon, T 2007, Human resource management: a contemporary approach, Pearson Education, Harlow, Essex.

Belbin, RM 2012, Team roles at work, Routledge, NY.

Bratton, J & Gold, J 2012, human resource management: theory and practice, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.

Foot, M & Hook, C 2008, Introducing human resource management, Pearson Education, Harlow, Essex.

Government of Dubai n.d., Human Resource Management Law No. 27 (2006) and Law No. 14 (2010) of Amending certain provisions of the Government of Dubai Human Resource Management Law No. 27 (2006), Web.

Harzing, AW & Pinnington, A 2010, International human resource management, SAGE, Thousand Oaks.

Havel, BF & Sanchez, GS 2014, The principles and practice of international aviation law, Cambridge University Press, New York.

Millmore, M 2007, Strategic human resource management: contemporary issues, Pearson Education, Harlow, Essex.

Mullins, LJ 2007, Management and organizational behaviour, Pearson Education, Harlow, Essex.

Rahimic, Z 2007, ‘The importance and role of strategic activities of human resource management in companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina’, The Journal of Global Strategic Management, vol. 3, pp. 94-104.

Randhawa, G 2007, Human resource management, Alantic Publishers & Dist, New Delhi.

The Emirates group annual report 2014-2015 2015, Web.