The emergence of the concept of Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) can be ascribed to scholarly research in the field of Human Resource Management. Several scholars stress the significance of SHRM, which integrates Human Resource Management with a business strategy to support effective organisational performance (Pynes 2008; Marler & Fisher 2013). These researchers argue that SHRM has a direct association with the long-term performance of an organisation. High-performance organisations (HPOs) have adopted specific Human Resource Management practices that connect them with their organisational strategies. However, despite the increasing popularity of SHRM, there exist very few systematic assessments to validate the claim that this strategic framework is directly associated with organisational performance and uncertainties remain as to its theoretical foundations (Kehoe & Wright 2013). Accordingly, this problem can be specifically analyzed by answering the primary research question: How does the use of Strategic Human Resource Management approaches improve organisational performance in the Software Houses of Qatar?
Background of the Study
According to Marler and Fisher (2013), human resource management is one of the main sources of competitive advantage for organisations that support internal organisational abilities to create, develop, and innovate. To manage the employees of an organisation, the role of the human resource management department is quite crucial. Effective employee management is considered to be central to any organisational success as employees are the key asset of an organisation (Lengnick, Beck & Lengnick 2011). In this regard, Paynes (2008) contends that nowadays an organisation’s human resources is considered a major source of competitive advantage, provided that the practices and policies of managing this resource are integrated into the strategic objectives and goals of the company. Similarly, Quinn and Strategy (2013) stated that strategic human resource management stresses the significance of creating a congruence between organisational strategic goals and human resource policies.
Further, Bratton and Gold (2012) elaborated on the concept of SHRM by indicating that the conventional models of strategic human resource management have given way to more flexible, modern, practical, and civilized forms of development and governance. Therefore, the resources, in the form of employees, are considered to be the most significant part of the organization and, therefore, warrant the highest level of organizational interest and attention (Quinn & Strategy 2013). Likewise, Kehoe and Wright (2013) hold the view that the human resources of an organization, their capabilities, their knowledge, their development, and their skills and competencies, as well as the way they are managed by the Human Resource Management functions, interact to form a complex decisive factor for organizational development and competitiveness. Thus, strategic human resource management is crucial for improved employee effectiveness, which is a major driver of organizational success.
Research Aim and Objectives
The current research aimed to identify key Strategic Human Resource Management approaches that could be utilized by the Software Houses of Qatar to increase their organisational performance. For this purpose, the research focused on Omnix Qatar, while organisational performance was measured using the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) of revenue and organisational size. The research was based on the following objectives:
- To identify the role of Strategic Human Resource Management in increasing employee engagement activities in the Software Houses of Qatar.
- To identify the impact of Strategic Human Resource Management on organisational success in terms of employee effectiveness in the context of the Software Houses of Qatar.
Considering that the SHRM function supports the entire organisation by inducting employees into their roles, thereby creating a skilled human resource that eventually contributes to the success of the organisation (Kehoe & Wright 2013), the current study sought to answer the following questions:
- What is the role of Strategic Human Resource Management in increasing employee engagement activities in the Software Houses of Qatar?
- How does Strategic Human Resource Management improve organisational performance in the context of the Software Houses of Qatar?
Significance and Rationale of the Research
Guest (2011) observes that over time the human resource department has increasingly been recognized as an effective tool for achieving high organisational performance and, therefore, a critical success factor. This observation is further supported by Lengnick, Beck, and Lengnick (2011) who indicate that human capital is one of the many strategic assets of an organisation that gives it a sustainable competitive advantage over its competitors. Another study by Marler and Fisher (2013) identified the best practices of SHRM to be flexible workforces, employee empowerment, team-based job designs, incentive compensation, and the use of quality improvement practices. Similarly, Bratton and Gold (2012) emphasized that the best practices of SHRM is to involve the human resource manager in strategic decisions with other senior executives; the approach provides a better opportunity for aligning strategies, goals, practices, and philosophies with the objectives of the business. SHRM is basically concerned with linking human resources with the organisation’s business plan or corporate strategy.
In other comparable studies, Quinn and Strategy (2013) and Kehoe and Wright (2013) consider the concept of human resource management to be a subsystem of organisational management that delivers responsible, skilled, knowledgeable, and capable staff for each position within the organisation and equips them with the requisite skills to achieve shared organisational goals. Therefore, the use of strategic human resource management approaches is becoming increasingly important, both for the survival of organisations in the current market/industry and as a source of competitive advantage over rivals (Bratton & Gold 2012).
To achieve this, the Human Resource Management unit must display future-orientation behaviors, such as human resource planning, to develop strategic internal competencies and capabilities. The basic role of the human resource department is to identify and formulate personnel-related policies and activities in the organisation. It involves the processes of planning, selecting, and inducting/training, as well as developing the human capital that ultimately contributes to organisational success (Marler & Fisher 2013). Therefore, the current study would be helpful for the management of the Software Houses of Qatar as it presents a detailed evaluation of the impact of strategic human resource approaches on the overall performance of the organisations.
As aforementioned, the research was academic; therefore, it did involve some considerable limitations in its completion. One of the main limitations was budgetary constraints that affected the funding of the whole study. As a student, the researcher faced some financial limitations, which explains the study’s limited scope. Moreover, time constraints constituted another significant limitation that may have affected data collection activities. In quantitative research, an effective sample size plays an important role in providing significant, and useful, results. Therefore, the small sample size used in the current study could be considered a limitation, as it affects the generalizability of the research findings.
Outline of the Research
The study is divided into five chapters, with the first chapter presenting an introductory view of the whole research work, including the research aims, objectives, and specific research questions. The second chapter critically reviews the existing literature within the area of the research topic and presents different views and perspectives of various researchers in the field. The third chapter provides the methodology used in the research; it identifies the data collection method, instruments for collecting data, and sample size. It also explains the technique for data analysis. The fourth chapter of the dissertation delivers the findings and an analysis of the data that was gathered using the identified research method and data collection technique. The last chapter, chapter five, concludes the dissertation with a detailed discussion of the results and presents specific recommendations for the Software Houses of Qatar based on the findings.
Basics of Human Resource Development and Information Technology
In the 1970s, organisational frameworks were fundamentally different forms of business operations that were entirely manual. However, the advent of computer and information technology in the 1980s transformed all these modes of operations into digital business models that have now become an important part of business operations in the modern world. It is important to note that over time, and with the advancement in information technology, the overall modes of operation have become entirely dependent on technology-based accessories. Computers are now considered vital tools for processing related work operations in the fastest, and most efficient, manner (Becker & Huselid 2012).
Individuals working before the 1970s were not even provided with personal computers to perform any office related functions, and neither were their supervisors or managers. Generally, the hiring and supervision of individuals involving any kind of organisational task was based on manual procedures. More specifically, the role of the Human Resource Manager (also known as Personnel Supervisor or PS) was largely limited to hiring/recruitment of staff. A considerable amount of research evidence points to the fact that these managers served as operational managers if they lacked the requisite human resource management skills to work in the Human Resource Management department. Researchers now consider modern Human Resource Management as a function dealing with multiple operational and functional attributes that, over time, have evolved into the current strategic human resource practices (Ehnert 2012).
In recent years, the specific role of employees concerning different work positions have also been studied in great detail in various research studies. According to Gollan (2010), in the early Human Resource Management application, the manager, having the capabilities of Human Resource Management, was frequently considered to be the operational manager concerning any operational or functional application in the firm. To a large extent, researchers tend to agree with the basic proposition that the Human Resource manager’s role encompasses that of the operational manager; however, many do not agree with this perspective. The Human Resource manager’s role essentially entails adopting strict capabilities and constraints of operational management. Therefore, traditionally, they were hired for this particular position on account of their special skills. Based on these criteria, many of them were considered to have less experience compared to other individuals (Browning & Delahaye 2011).
This resonates with the dominant hiring practices of a functional organisation, whereby employees are hired based on individual qualifications and experience in a specific field. In that respective context, Human Resource managers were considered to be less skilled or less efficient for operational tasks. This definition was accepted widely based on the view that Human Resource managers were less skilled and therefore generally hired to oversee certain capabilities. This view depicted them as genuine operational officers or managers. Carroll (2008) holds that the appointment of these individuals in the positions of Human Resource Management was found to be the most suitable and appropriate in all the respects of the overall organisational framework. In several studies, the basis of this concept is regarded as the founding principles of Human Resource Management practice, which is viewed as somewhat less straining than other administrative jobs. Another addition to this concept was the perspective, held by most researchers, that evaluating the capabilities and capacities of Human Resource managers indicated that Human Resource Management exhibited inadequate efficiency and capability to handle tasks that were suitably performed by different administrators.
Human Resource Management
According to a study by Clarke (2011), one of the key concepts that demonstrate the basis of understanding the role of Human Resource managers is that they are primarily considered to hold a strong position for certain duties and tasks that are ordinarily done by other individuals, such as operational managers. Other studies considered that most hierarchical records of the individual working at the organisation are maintained and the supervision of subordinates sustained. This is considered to be more relevant, and appropriate, for demonstrating the level of personnel records to be maintained most efficiently and effectively. In the current corporate environment, concerning the contextual study of Daily and Su (2011), it was explained that Human Resource Management typically delegates restricted administrative responsibilities to the association, including the representation and documentation of research materials, occupational candidates, and yearly performance appraisals. Also, line managers are usually involved in supervising staff at the unit or team level, as explained by researchers.
One of the key aspects of Human Resource Management to consider is that there is a significant underlying connection between employee engagement and organisational development, as exhibited in different organisational designs and frameworks. In this context, employee involvement constitutes the inclusion of various matrices necessary for the measurement of employee performance, documentation of communication activities, employment of multiple tools and techniques for achieving organisational goals and objectives, as well as the enhancement of continuous employee development to align employee motivation with the overall organisational vision (Jabbour & Santos 2008).
Employee engagement is considered to be an influential attribute of strategic planning and development of the organisation, which must be implemented for a successful goal accomplishment. A study by Jackson and Seo (2010) showed that the concept of employee engagement is can be demonstrated as a prime factor linked with organisational stability, and is required for the long-term success and growth of the organisation. It has been observed that the concept of employee engagement is regarded as one of the most important single factors contributing to organisational development and growth as it is the improvement stage for employees. In some studies, it is explained that enhancing the productivity and performance of core organisational areas, including customer satisfaction, employee productivity and performance, product innovation, and employee training and development can lead to better and improved organisational profitability.
Based on this reasoning, the concept is considered to present huge opportunities for an organisation to grow to gain long-term profitability and promote future commitment. It is now widely accepted that employee involvement or engagement does not only constitute a fundamental human resource function, but it also represents a core responsibility of the entire organisation.
Strategic Human Resource Practices and Organisational Performances
Human resource practices are widely acclaimed for demonstrating overall functionalities for the respective growth and development of the organisation, according to contextual studies. Strategic human resource practices can play an important role in the overall improvement of organisational performances and capabilities to achieve set goals and objectives. In this context, these practices are widely understood to mean a precursor to the institutional development of individuals working in that organisation. Khilji and Wang (2006) studied in great detail the various approaches to human resource practices that are specifically and basically employed by almost all organisations for enhancing the overall growth and performance of the organisation.
They hold that an effective HR function in organisations is important to bolster organisational performance. However, the performance measure in most organisations is particularly related to the most suitable proposition of creating a sustainable environment for all the workers (Kramar 2009). One of the major strategic human resource management practices for organisations is regarded as an employee’s complete involvement in the business planning process. As advocated by Bowen and Ostroff (2014), overall, the organisational process involves different attributes of functions and practices, which must be in accordance with applied strategic human resource management practices.
Within a broader context, there is a strong connection between employee involvement and business success. Employee involvement is considered to have a positive impact on organisational performance and long-term stability. This relationship means that the attributes of employee involvement are closely linked to the overall management of organisational success and growth. Evidence from contemporary studies indicate that businesses are confronted with many challenges related to customers, competitors, and a rapidly changing marketplace, which interact to determine their market share in their respective industries. Therefore, adopting transparency in employee and organisational procedures should be established to motivate every employee in the organisation to have an in-depth understanding of the organisational strategies, and how organisational objectives can be achieved, and managed, in the most effective manner (Boxall, Purcell & Wright 2007).
In another respect, the concept of knowledge sharing is indicated as the key practice of strategic human resource management that is directly linked to the efficient work performance of employees. In one related study, it is demonstrated that effective knowledge transfer of information to employees within the organisations is essential for smooth workflows and streamlined work processes (Kramar 2012). The importance of knowledge is thus considered to play an important role in the overall organisational development and growth, translating into long-term improvement and stability of the organisation. Similarly, a number of researches examining information sharing in the context of organisational knowledge management, see, as a prerequisite for organisational development and growth, to capture all respective activities of employees. Therefore, information sharing could be considered a tool or activity that has a substantial impact on the overall management of any organisational activity; hence, it forms the basis for enhanced performance and presentation of all the individuals involved, and internal information-sharing systems provide a context for increased employee engagement and involvement (Lengnick-Hall et al. 2009).
One of the most critical losses that organisations face in their operations is related to information loss due to rising employee turnover rates. Hence, on a broader scale, employee turnover demonstrates an increased loss of employee trust and loyalty, which subsequently affects the long-term stability and firmness of any organisation. Furthermore, formal staff training and mentorship programs provide organisational employees with opportunities for personal and career growth (Richard & Johnson 2011). The concept of employee training is regarded as the basis for the continuous development of staff skills and capabilities to create specific core competencies within the organisation.
Creativity and Human Resource Development
In many respects, any organisation must take special measures in understanding the basis for continuous training and development to meet the changing needs and demands of the market. Furthermore, creativity is an integral component of information sharing in the organisation. However, most often, separate and isolated groups of employees are only attentive to their own assigned tasks and projects. As such, they often lack a clear idea of what other colleagues, peers, and organisational departments are doing, or involved in.
In that sense, the combination of knowledge and information sharing, based on the concept of creativity and innovation, plays an important role in creating the context for idea internalisation and the subsequent collaboration among colleagues working on different projects at the same time (Sheehan et al. 2007). In a broader context, creativity is considered an essential attribute of routine training procedures for employees as it provides an extra boost for overall development and learning. It is regarded as an essential source of engaging the employee in certain work-related activities. It also accounts for the decreased rates of employee turnover, as well as for the enhanced employee mobility and involvement. In other words, employee engagement is an important strategy for keeping employees focused on respective personal goals, as well as on organisational goals and objectives.
Knowledge Sharing and Creativity
According to Stanton et al. (2010), creative knowledge sharing could be achieved by creating an open space for formal sharing or a monthly meeting to allow all teams to get in touch and share with other teams about their projects. This approach may lead to increased employee collaboration and support for the respective task, or work-related activities. The overall demonstration of work-related activities is considered to be confined to discussions centered on the project’s success and solutions to the associated risks. In most of the studies, the strong financial statements are depicted in terms of effective strategic human resource management practices applied within the organisation. Based on studying the varying levels of the financial standing of any company with respect to the changing trends in market conditions, certain organisations must follow human resource management activities in the most effective manner (Teo & Rodwell 2007). This is particularly illustrated regarding major human resource management activities, where the overall success and development of any organisation can only be evaluated in terms of the respective financial standing of the company.
The concept is further linked with the already discussed concept of knowledge sharing and information management, where employees are required to be assured of the present and prospective financial standing and position of the organisation (Wirtenberg et al. 2007). Whether good or bad, this concept is really an effective extrinsic motivator of employees to improve their productivity with respect to identified performance measures if the financial standing is bad or to grow or stabilize the organisation if the respective financial standing is good or satisfactory. It tends to build the trust element in all employees who, subsequently, take full responsibility for their company’s success (Jackson, Randall & Jiang 2014). It further demonstrates the basis for depicting employees as the key linkage between an organisation’s strategic plan and how to achieve the respective organisational goals to become more successful and effective.
Furthermore, according to Zaugg, Blum, and Thom (2010), organisations often undertake some serious measures aimed at providing learning opportunities for employees to benefit from the innovative capacity of a learning organisation. This can best be accomplished by determining the learning needs and requirements of the employees working for the organisation, through developing a curriculum to train staff in areas considered essential to the firm’s strategic vision. Staff training could be held on a regular basis to make employees more engaged in the organisation, improve their skills to perform better at their current positions, and prepare them for increased remits or even supervisory roles (Dimba 2010).
It is widely accepted that supervisors, managers, and executives are involved in the management functions that develop and execute the critical drivers of employee engagement in work-related tasks and activities (Ferrary 2008). In that respect, one of the most important approaches to employee engagement is through coaching, a strategy thought to provide important insights into employee commitment, job satisfaction, and employee motivation. All these employee factors must be aligned and matched with the organisational mission, vision, values, and business strategies. A ‘tight fit’ between the human resource and company strategy is a critical success factor. Furthermore, it is the responsibility of the management to convey the organisation’s mission, strategic implication, and vision to the employees clearly, and in the most effective manner.
According to Boxall and Purcell (2011), managerial efficiency is predicated on demonstrating the need for understanding the firm’s vision, long-term goals, and business strategy for its future growth, which may be construed to play an important and effective role in supporting certain human resource management practices and activities. To further explain this relationship, it is proposed that identifying and determining organisational needs and requirements, as well as developing optimal organisational strategies, are instrumental in establishing a stronger employee engagement program. Therefore, Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM), a concept that integrates and aligns employees’ involvement and engagement to the strategic vision of a firm, facilitates the achievement of outcomes in a broader context.
According to Dimba (2010), activities and practices implemented, based on the ideals of Strategic Human Resource Management, operate in a top-down fashion within the hierarchy of an organisation. This approach certainly includes respective policies and regulations of human resources, which is more specifically recognized by the line managers as a part of their daily work. In a related study, the approaches of Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) were grouped into three main categories, namely; the universalistic approach, the contingency approach, and, most importantly, the configurational approach (Boxall & Purcell 2011).
With regard to the universalistic approach, the importance of training and development is regarded as an essential component that any organisation needs to focus on in its operations. It can be specifically applied to staff recruitment and selection, hiring, and firing activities, where employee motivation and appraisals are considered to provide an informative basis for action in all organisations (Boxall & Purcell 2011). The approach is well understood with respect to the employee engagement and involvement concepts, which specifically plays an important role in the overall growth and long-term stability of organisations by increasing staff efficiency and motivation.
In contrast, the theory of contingency is entirely opposite to the concept of a universalistic approach; it emphasizes the integration of human resource policies into the overall organisational framework and general policies (Truss, Mankin & Kelliher 2012). This approach is understood in terms of synchronizing this general human resource and organisational policies to reduce the factors that precipitate conflicts and hostile encounters. The combination of policies, with respect to human resources and the organisational framework, must be efficient in all respects, as any deficiency may disrupt this framework.
Finally, the concept of configurational approach relates to developing an organisational fit between employees and the management to strengthen the human resource practices (Parry, Stavrou-Costea & Morley 2011). It is emphasized further that the practices should be a strategic fit with the HR policies, as well as with the main organisational strategies.
For any organisational framework to be successful and profitable, it must meet the requirement of being more functional with respect to adopting different strategies and regulations for working and operating different operational activities. According to Festing and Eidems (2011), to design and plan an effective framework, the identification of certain important levels, people, and resources for related activities and tasks is very important. Based on that understanding, it is expected that the company structure should establish employee roles and responsibilities to develop a smooth and uninterrupted information flow among colleagues, most effectively. This organisational chart would specify the duties and tasks of each position holder and the relationships between positions.
Zhao and Du (2012), established that every individual should be provided with a respective job description that outlines certain duties and responsibilities corresponding to his or her position in the organisational chart or organogram. In this respect, the significance of information is regarded as an essential factor that links work-related activities with the responsibilities of employees. On the other hand, it must also be understood that all employees must be aware of the respective proposition and import of the information shared with them most clearly and effectively. Becker and Huselid (2012) further state that effective organisational structures are essential in supporting information flows within the whole organisation. In view of this notion, there is a need to develop a greater understanding and mutual collaboration among colleagues with respect to the successive flow of information and knowledge management at all levels of the organisation.
Carroll (2008) also acknowledges that the coordination and integration of ideas and goals are communicated without difficulty through effective organisational structures and framework development. It provides the basis for working in accordance with the set directions and regulations to develop a broader understanding of how to perform tasks, step by step. In contrast, the major functions that strengthen organisational structures include reporting lines and relationships, task and process completion, business growth and market expansion, as well as identifying, and meeting, company needs and requirements (Zhao & Du 2012).
Most studies emphasize the importance of adopting a strong and consistent organisational framework that complies with the respective operational procedures and management. Further, some studies regard the organisational structure and framework as means of defining certain roles and responsibilities of individuals in the form of hierarchy; the organisational model forms the basis for describing their job functions most effectively. In a broader context, the design of organisational structure, as defined in relation to different attributes, underlines the overall character of any organisation, including its respective beliefs and values (Jackson & Seo 2010). Hence, the overall framework of any organisation is defined in the context of its structure.
It involves all the details related to the organisation’s internal design and development plan, as reflected within its hiring practices and policies. To a certain extent, it is justified to do a prior assessment of the organisational structure or the business model of a company about employment responsibilities and duties before adopting it. Research evidence indicates that it is advisable to understand the organisational structure or model that would form the foundation of all the responsibilities or set of tasks assigned to individuals. In theory, there exist different types of organisational structures that differ, depending on certain fundamental organisational values and beliefs. Organisations can choose to pursue a functional, matrix, or divisional structuring model. Each specific type of organisational structure reflects a different organisational culture and environment and is designed for a distinct management purpose.
Importance of Organisational Values and Beliefs
Kramar (2012) indicates that certain organisational structures are dependent on specific organisational values and beliefs that capture the nature of the business that the organisation is involved in. The organisational structure is mainly divided into different departments and teams that are consistent with the identified obligations of employees and consultants that are usually considered a part of the organisation. In most cases, as Richard and Johnson (2011) explain, organisations tend to follow a combination or a hybrid of organisational structures that are based on different principles and measures in terms of its strategic design and implementation by the organisation. Furthermore, the overall organisational structure is based on the organisational culture or behavior of workers, which may include the management and employees. Additionally, the organisational culture is regarded as an acceptable form of behavior that is aligned with the duties and responsibilities of employees. The accepted behavior, according to Jackson and Seo (2010), must be consistent with the principles of accountability as the key foundation of a strong and effective organisational structure.
Organisational Structure and Work-Related Activities
To some extent, the organisational structure is one way in which the internal organisation of work-related duties and goals of the organisation is reflected in the external environment, which may include suppliers, customers, partners, regulators, and other shareholders. The organisational structure of any company shows an overall arrangement of different work-related activities that lie in line with the internal work processes of the company. However, the organisational structure is entirely different from the organisational chart, which delineates the duties and responsibilities ascribed to each position (Teo & Rodwell 2007). In contrast, the structure of the organisation combines all the attributes of operational and reporting relationships, which are considered to be an essential component of the organisational framework.
The combined relationship reflects the substantial basis of organisational development and growth in relation to employee engagement and involvement (Stanton et al. 2010). In this study, the respective elements of the organisational framework included the different forms of organisational structure, which typically involved many distinct components. The components are regarded as instrumental in building long-term stability of any company, and specifically include the hierarchy of the management, different divisions and departments, and workplace guidelines and regulations, as set in context to organisational goals and objectives. They may also include certain procedures and rules and, most importantly, different task forces.
It is broadly accepted and described in various contextual studies, that the most important purpose of the organisational structure is to shape and implement organisational policies and operational policies that must be in compliance with the set goals and objectives (Lengnick-Hall et al. 2009). This may help foster the overall achievements and accomplishments of employees in terms of fulfilling respective regulations that may further enhance employee trust, loyalty, engagement, and involvement. In addition, an organisational structure provides long-term benefits and success to the organisation by enhancing stability, productivity, and profitability.
To some researchers, organisational structure is a prime driver of organisational success that combines both business and human realities. Therefore, addressing and recognizing its strength is required for the long-term success and growth of the organisation. However, according to some studies, this view is not acceptable, as it embodies an organic approach to the overall design and structure of a company. As explained by Sheehan et al. (2007), often, the overall organisational structure may not productively contribute to enhanced performance and growth of the company. On the contrary, the structure of the organisation may yield the opposite results and outcomes.
This certainly occurs in organisations with organisational structures that are based on the organic approach, which emphasizes the joint specialisation of employees and decentralization. Here, the chances of improvements are particularly rare, as the restructuring indices and modules are difficult to implement or redesign in response to the changing demands and needs of the current business environment. Another study by Richard and Johnson (2011), found that the impact of this scenario may result in an overall change in organisational behavior and culture of a company, as there will be no framework to guide all the workers and employees most efficiently with respect to their behavior in workplace contexts. It may further lead to the lack of understanding and cohesiveness that is required for increased productivity, efficiency, flexibility, and motivation of the employees.
Integration of SHRM and Strategic Leadership for Organisational Success
There is a prevailing notion that all employees working in an organisation have different capacities and capabilities with respect to the prescribed organisational goals and objectives. As stated by Bowen and Ostroff (2014), an index of different leadership and management styles exist among employees based on their skills and abilities. As the various employees working for an organisation tend to have different leadership styles, they all contribute effectively towards the growth and expansion of business functions in the company. This is considered an essential component to be investigated to demonstrate the significance of strategic human resource management (SHRM) in the overall organisational structure and design.
This view is corroborated by Jabbour and Santos (2008), who found that employees tend to present different management styles with respect to their respective capabilities and capacities and that may further form the basis for, not only their own personal growth and success but also their professional growth. Staff training aims to develop these unique capabilities and harness them to achieve organisational goals. Overall, this ultimately indicates that human resources are an essential component of organisational success and development for any firm, especially its long-term stability and growth.
Daily and Su (2011) further explain that due to the presence of different types of managerial styles that organisational employees have, they play a vital role in the organisational decision-making process and facilitate the development of a strategic fit, as well as in the alignment of personal goals with organisational goals and objectives. It is somewhat advantageous to create a strategic fit between the implementation of operational and organisational policies and individual employees’ personal goals for long-term success.
According to Ehnert (2012), leadership traits or characteristics form the basis for representing organisational structures in a way that influences other competitors with respect to a particular interpersonal and administrative development. It is important to consider that an employee having a particular leadership style helps influence others in terms of their personalities, which further leads to the inspiration of other passionate people. Bowen and Ostroff (2014) explained in their study that these employees are considered to play an important role as motivating actors as they tend to believe in themselves. These individuals are regarded as essential contributors to the strengthening of an organisation’s market positioning and competitiveness.
Most contextual studies have found that combining all the attributes of effective leadership traits and individual development make these individuals useful in raising team morale and encouraging other employees to perform better in certain work-related activities and practices. Based on different arguments set out by Daily and Su (2011), leaders inspire their followers to achieve common goals and objectives and expect their subordinates to do it in their own stead. Here, it can be argued that employees having the command and control styles help the organisation in resolving urgent conflict situations where there is no time for dialogue.
In such situations, the people engage with leaders in work-related activities and practices in a way that complements the overall organisational growth and development of the company. According to Gollan (2010), these individuals are also engaged in top-down interactions, which form the basis of developing a strong organisational structure. Top-down interactions may occur through role delegation, supervision, and team projects, among others. Organisational personnel with this particular style have a good understanding of what is happening around them in the organisation but they are seldom involved in the actual decision-making process (Carroll 2008).
Such leaders tend to take others on their word while they also engage in observing and monitoring employee performance to provide them with regular feedback. They are especially skilled at leading teams that are designated to different geographical locations as they can work under pressure and generate quick results. As explained by Gollan (2010), such a leadership style encourages individual managers to involve their subordinates in achieving the desired performance and results. The leaders act as excellent role models for their colleagues and subordinates. Similarly, they contribute greatly to organisational success as they not only lead effective teams; they also demonstrate the ability to drive innovation and creativity across the organisation.
Some of the research studies conducted in this area revealed that this particular leadership style can lead to improved employee commitment, motivation, and enthusiasm (Gollan 2010). According to Ehnert (2012), three approaches underlie organisational strategic HRM, namely, the universal approach, the contingency approach, and the configurational approach. As has already been stated, these alternative approaches incorporate different aspects of strategic human resource management practices, such as employee engagement and involvement in the organisational planning process, training, development, and coaching programs, as well as organisation-wide information sharing activities. These strategic human resource practices and activities are strongly correlated with improved organisational performance. Furthermore, the importance of aligning strategic leadership with SHRM practices is considered to be a major driver of organisational performance and productivity.
Two types of research philosophies dominate the social research field: interpretivism and positivism. According to Creswell and Clark (2011), the interpretive philosophy is a qualitative approach to research that involves the interpretation and inference of the meanings of research elements and objects, based on human interaction. In contrast, positivism, according to Rubin and Rubin (2011), is a scientific approach that involves the utilization of structured and quantifiable methods of research, such as structured interviews. A positivist researcher collects and interprets factual data objectively to provide quantifiable findings. In the present study, a positivist research approach was employed to determine and evaluate the role of strategic human resource practices in the improvement of employee involvement and engagement at Success Solutions, a major software house based in Doha, Qatar.
The rationale for using the positivist research philosophy was to find out how Strategic Human relations practices affect employee engagement activities in Success Solutions as an entity. Furthermore, the use of a positivist philosophy enabled the researcher to remain objective and neutral to the respondent’s emotions and feelings to capture the differences between logic and emotion. The approach incorporates the overall research questions and hypothesis in a manner that allows the researcher to effectively address each of them separately. Also, as proposed by Saunders, Lewis, and Thornill (2009), the current research work utilized the positivist research philosophy to facilitate the generalization of research findings through statistical probability instead of pure theoretical abstractions.
There are typically two broad categories of research approaches, namely, the deductive approach and the inductive approach (Saunders, Lewis & Thornill 2009). King and Horrocks (2010), define the deductive methodology as the type of research that incorporates quantifiable variables into research to develop theories and conceptual frameworks, whereas the inductive approach entails, first, developing research questions and a hypothesis based on pre-conceived and existing academic theories and sources, and then working back towards those theories. In the present study, the deductive approach was adopted by the research investigator to evaluate and examine the contribution of strategic human resource relationship management on organisational success and effectiveness. Saunders, Lewis, and Thornill (2009), further suggest that a deductive approach also enables the researcher to gather facts and information, and verify them logically and statistically, in a sequential manner, in the light of existing published findings and literature.
According to Saunders, Lewis, and Thornill (2009), there are two-time horizons for a research study; longitudinal and cross-sectional. Newing et. al. (2011) define the longitudinal study as an iterative process resulting in multiple data sets collected at various times during the research. On the other hand, a cross-sectional research framework allows the data to be collected only once from the research sample. It is, therefore, conducted within a short period. The cross-sectional time horizon proved highly effective in gathering information from the employees of Success Solutions. Data was collected on employee engagement practices followed at the organisation at a single point. This particular time horizon also allowed the researcher to observe and address questions of employee engagement and employee satisfaction at the organisation through a cross-sectional study.
As identified by Creswell and Clark (2011), research studies can be qualitative or quantitative in design, whereby a qualitative study is based on an in-depth analysis of descriptive and non-statistical data to understand the patterns, attitudes, opinions, and motivations underlying the actions and behaviors of people using a numerical scale. The approach, therefore, offers significant insights into an issue or phenomena of interest to the study. On the other hand, as highlighted by Punch (2013), the quantitative research approach entails collecting the required and relevant data in digits and numbers. As far as the current research is concerned, the quantitative research method helped greatly in extracting quantifiable information from the respondents. Besides, this particular methodology allowed the investigator to determine the various activities and responsibilities the employees of Success Solutions were typically engaged in, as well as the degree of staff satisfaction with each engagement activity.
Data Collection Tool
The data collection tool selected for this research project was the survey questionnaire technique. This instrument enabled the investigator to collect and assemble first-hand quantitative data from the study respondents. This particular technique was selected to combine the collected data into an integrated quantitative form, which could not only aid and speed up the entire data collection process, but also be valuable in generating objective, unbiased, and verifiable data to filter out extraneous variables (Laurel 2003).
External variables are considered a threat to the internal validity of a study. A study with a higher internal validity is free from the effects of confounding variables, i.e., extraneous independent variables that are not the primary focus of the study. In this technique, a survey questionnaire bearing closed questions was developed and administered to the respondents. The use of structured questions facilitated the process of data collection by acquiring quantifiable and numerical information that could be analyzed to develop statistical findings that have potential applications in business. Therefore, this data collection tool had a minimum impact on the reliability and validity of the study related to confounding variables.
Furthermore, the use of this method facilitated a better interpretation and analysis, as statistical data could be easily entered onto an Excel spreadsheet and used to compare and contrast previous studies’ propositions and theories about the use of strategic human resource management approaches in improving organisational performance. Also, this data-gathering technique helped identify the impact of SHRM on organisational performance in a more specific manner with only a few variables (Bryman & Bell 2011). Thus, the closed questions allowed the researcher to obtain more reliable and accurate findings using only a few variables.
A detailed questionnaire was developed to collect extensive data from employees of Success Solutions. Punch (2013), emphasizes that questionnaires based on the Likert scale are valuable tools for measuring latent constructs, i.e., the participants’ opinions, feelings, attitudes, etc. Latent constructs are also defined by Creswell and Clark (2011) as the unobservable individual characteristics (which do not have any objective measurement) that are supposed to subsist and create variations in personal conduct. Accordingly, the present study aimed to measure the latent constructs of Success Solutions’ employees about the use of strategic HRM approaches to improve organisational performance in their software houses.
The questionnaire was developed, based on the Likert Scale. The 5-point Likert scale used, ranged from 1 (strongly agree) to 5 (strongly disagree). The questions were designed by the research objectives, namely, to identify the role of strategic HRM in increasing employee engagement activities in the Software Houses of Qatar and to identify the impact of strategic HRM on organisational success in terms of employees’ effectiveness in the context of Softwares House of Qatar. Hence, the research objectives and questions were kept in mind while developing the questionnaire using the Likert scale.
According to Lichtman (2012), pre-testing or piloting the questionnaire before undertaking the actual study helps check whether or not the questionnaire design works well in practice. It also helps pinpoint any issues or confusion in the composition of the questions that need to be amended to obtain a refined version of the questionnaire that enables a proper evaluation of the intended measures. Keeping in mind the need to use the initial sample for gathering feedback on how robust the questionnaire is in measuring the variables identified, a pilot study was undertaken before the actual study. It aimed to enable the researcher to discern and rectify problems related to the length, wording, layout, content, and interpretation of the questions.
To pre-test the questions and obtain feedback, the questionnaire was sent to the supervisor for evaluation, and corrections were made, based on his comments and directions. Subsequently, a group of five employees of Success Solutions were asked to complete the survey and provide appropriate feedback to the investigator. Additionally, this initial sample group was closely observed when filling in the survey questionnaire to identify any non-verbal cues, such as hesitation, when answering questions, confusion about certain terms, or difficulty in understanding some questions fully. Thus, in this manner, verbal and non-verbal feedback was taken from the initial sample group and used to amend the content and structure of the questions included in the final questionnaire.
According to King and Horrocks (2010), a research population is defined as the larger group of individuals who possess and share certain attributes that are necessary for the research study. As far as this research work is concerned, the entire workforce operating at the various levels of Success Solutions, a software house based in Doha, Qatar, constituted the target population of this study.
As proposed by King and Horrocks (2010), a sample is a subset of the total research population that shares the same attributes and characteristics as the population itself. For this study, a convenient sample of 40 employees was drawn from the entire workforce working at various levels at Success Solutions based on the aforementioned sampling frame.
According to Lichtman (2012), unlike in probabilistic methods, in a non-probability sampling method, some individuals have a greater chance to be selected as part of the sample than others. To ascertain the role of employee engagement activities used by SHRM, the non-probability sampling method was used because it is convenient, quick, and inexpensive (Spohn 2013).
This research study adopted the convenience sampling technique as the specific non-probability sampling approach. Adopting the convenience sampling technique allowed the investigator to draw the research sample based on the proximity and accessibility of the research participants during data collection. In addition, the convenience sampling technique also proved to be highly relevant and useful for the research investigator as it allowed him to approach only those staff members of Success Solution who could easily be reached during the actual data collection. According to Spohn (2013), the convenience sampling technique is highly cost-effective and lends speed to the overall process of research.
MS Excel was primarily employed for analyzing and interpreting the data gathered from the 40 staff members of Success Solutions. Specifically, it was used to illustrate the collected data through comprehensive graphical representations to clearly present the findings in a more detailed way. Accordingly, primary data were organised, calculated, and tabulated using MS Excel to enable a better interpretation of the findings in an accurate and presentable manner. Besides, this tool of statistical data analysis aided in the creation of graphs and other visual depictions of the findings to better analyze the resulting variables in a measurable way (Lee & Wang 2003). Thus, MS Excel software was used in the present study to interpret and depict the numerical results from the primary data collected from the sample of employees of Success Solutions.
Limitations of the Research Methodology
Several limitations could be associated with the research methodology used in the present study, including time, budget, and sample size. Due to time limitations, the research was based on the quantitative method of research using closed questions, which could have resulted in narrower views of the employees, as the responses were restricted to questions developed based on only a few dependent variables. Also, due to the limited budget and time, the study was based on only one organisation, i.e., Success Solutions. If more time and budget were available, employees from the other software companies of Qatar could also have been surveyed to further strengthen the results of the present research. A large sample size, drawn from multiple sites, yields findings with high external validity. For this study, the research sample size was limited to 40 employees of Success Solutions. A larger sample size drawn from several other software organisations of Qatar could lead to more generalizable findings than the study’s smaller sample.
In order to undertake the research ethically, a number of moral concerns were taken into consideration during the investigation. In practice, confidentiality, informed consent, anonymity, and objectivity are the major ethical concerns related to studies involving human subjects. Given this, personal and confidential information of the participating Success Solutions’ employees was not disclosed. Besides, the responses from each respondent was kept unnamed. Informed consent was taken by clearly informing employees about the purpose of the research, research methods, their contribution, and their rights. After employees agreed to participate in the study, they were surveyed using the designed questionnaire. Thus, none of the participants was forced or coerced into participating in the survey. Also, the data collected from these employees was only used for the present study and not disclosed to other individuals or used for any other purpose.
Data Analysis and Discussion
This chapter specifically focuses on the descriptive analysis of the study based on a structured survey involving a sample drawn from the Success Solutions’ staff population. The primary data collected, along with secondary data, are evaluated in combination to develop an in-depth understanding of the impact of SHRM on organisational performance. In this respect, the data collected from a sample population of 40 employees working in Success Solutions is integrated with secondary data and analyzed to test the designed hypotheses. The overall results obtained by means of data analysis are critically evaluated through inferential statistics in later sections, whereas descriptive analysis of the dataset is presented in the first sections of the chapter. As such, the first section covers the demographic analysis, which is then followed by the main section that focuses on hypotheses testing.
Analysis of Gender Distribution
From the above diagram (Figure 1), it is clear that the percentage of female participants is comparatively higher than that of males. The female respondents constituted 68% of the study sample, while only 33% of the participants were male.
Analysis of Age Distribution
Figure 2 shows the age distribution of the respondents. It is clear that most of the respondents were from the 29-39 years age bracket, with 43%of the total participants, followed by the 40-50 age group, who constituted 35%. In contrast, up to 13% of respondents were from the 18-20 years age group. The least represented age group was that of people aged over 60 years, constituting only 10% of the total sample.
Strategic Human Resource Management and Institutional Development
Figure 3 presents a comparison of opinions on the relationship between strategic human resource management and institutional development of employees working in Success Solutions. As already reported, the respective practices of strategic human resource management constitute an important precursor of the institutional development of individuals working in that organisation. Based on that approach, 70% of the employees surveyed strongly agreed with this statement, while 15% only agreed with it. This particular result indicates an almost absolute approval of the strategic human resource management practices as the key driver of the overall growth and performance of the organisation. Since a significant majority of the employees sampled favor these practices, it is suggested that the organisation adopts a suitable value proposition to create a sustainable environment for all the workers in terms of implementing these practices in the most effective manner (Wang 2006). It is important to note that most of the organisational principles and regulations should be fine-tuned to reflect the ideals of strategic human resource management, which may possibly produce positive outcomes for the organisation in the long run.
Strategic Awareness and Transparency of Practices and Procedures
From Figure 4, it can be observed that the majority of the respondents agree with the statement that the transparency of practices and procedures creates strategic awareness in Success Solutions’ employees. It shows that 53% and 25% of the respondents either strongly agree or agree with this fact. Notably, about 18% of the respondents disagreed with this fact, which demonstrates a normal variation of opinions that should be expected in any sample population. Based on these results, it can be confirmed that there is a strong relationship between business success and employee involvement. Therefore, staff involvement can be said to have a significant effect on employee performance and the long-term stability of the organisation. The major concept of the respective specification in terms of organisational growth is, importantly, dependent on increased employee involvement (Boxall, Purcell & Wright 2007). Organisational transparency is achieved through adopting practices and principles that depict the specific understanding and learning concerning strategic awareness. This explains why employees should be encouraged to implement the principles of transparency in their practices as a way to bolster staff strategic awareness.
Knowledge Sharing and Work Performance Efficiency of the Employees
Knowledge sharing within the organisation plays an important role in the management of employee performance and efficiency. From Figure 5, more than half (55%) of the employees who participated in this study strongly agree that the element of knowledge sharing was considerably important in organisational growth and development. Additionally, approximately 30% of the employees indicated that they agreed with this statement. However, 8% of the total respondents disagreed with this theory, with another 3% of them strongly disapproving it. Based on the results illustrated in Figure 5, it can be established that knowledge sharing is considered by Success Solutions’ employees to be the key practice of strategic human resource management that plays a significant role in the development of an efficient and productive workforce. Improvement in the performance of the individuals could be attributed to the smooth flow of information among the peers. Knowledge sharing, at best, is regulated in the context of long-term development and improvement of organisational culture; hence, it helps achieve the desired staff performance levels (Kramar 2012).
Creativity and Progressive Developmental Learning
As shown in Figure 6 above, 45% of the respondents showed strong approval to the thought of strategic human resource management practices involving creativity and progressive developmental learning through training. At the same time, 35% of the total respondents were in agreement with this thought. On the other hand, 8% of the respondents exhibited a strong disagreement with this statement, with another 5% only disagreeing with it. Based on these results, it is clear that creativity is another component of knowledge sharing thought to be crucial in achieving sustainability and the substantial growth of the organisation.
It requires employees involved in group projects or assignments to develop or improve their thought process through mutual consultation and knowledge transfer between peers. A culture of creativity can be construed to play a crucial role in Success Solutions’ growth as a technology company. The internal culture of an organisation, and collaboration among different teams or groups, have been observed to be enhanced in innovative organisations; hence, it is an important predictor of the strengths of companies (Sheehan et al. 2007). These strengths may later play an important role in combatting the potential threats that the organisation might face. Also, with its substantial significance, creativity may serve to increase the intellectual level and particular employee skills applicable to the current job-related activities or tasks assigned to an employee.
Coaching, Dedication, and Contribution in Relation to Set Mission, Values, and Strategy of the Company
Figure 7 presents an evaluation of the opinions of the respondents on the importance of coaching in the organisational context. The responses are evaluated in terms of employee dedication, satisfaction, and contribution to the fulfillment of the set mission, values, and strategy of the company in the most effective manner (Boxall & Purcell 2011). The results show that 45% and 33% of the respondents strongly agreed and moderately agreed, respectively, with the fact that coaching is substantially important in enhancing employee motivation and dedication. All of these attributes are required for the strategic fulfillment of the company. However, 13% of them showed moderate disagreement with this approach and a further 5% strongly disagreed with the statement. In view of these results, it is evident that coaching is a critically essential ingredient in programs that aim to improve employee dedication, satisfaction, and contribution. In general, these aspects are supposed to be inclined to the strategic values and mission of the company to give it a strong competitive position in the software market.
Strategic HRM Policies and Effective Implementation by Line Managers
The concept that the implementation of strategic human resource management is mainly dependent upon the effective measures taken by line managers is tested in Figure 8. From the results, it is evident that 73% of the respondents agree with this assertion, while 13% of the participants approve this proposal very strongly. In contrast, 8% of them disagree with it. Based on the study’s results, it is clear that all the employees play a role in the implementation of strategic human resource management policies and practices in the organisation. Overall, the positions in the organisational hierarchy relate in a top-to-bottom fashion to disseminate the values and practices across the entire organisation (Dimba 2010). The line managers, in general, perform specific HRM duties and daily work-related tasks, including the regulation of human resource practices within the departments or teams they lead.
Training and Development and Employee Motivation
Figure 9 shows that a majority of respondents consented to the fact that training and development should be considered an essential component of certain employee recruitment and selection, hiring, and firing activities where employee motivation and appraisals hold immense significance. The percentage of those agreeing with this assertion was 40%, while those in strong agreement constituted 35% of the respondents. Together, the two groups constitute a significant proportion of the entire sample population relative to those opposed to the aforementioned proposition. These results indicate that the elements of increased efficiency and motivation are directly related to staff training and development and are more significant to the long-term stability and growth of the organisation (Truss, Mankin & Kelliher 2012).
Information Sharing and Strategic Human Resource Practices
Figure 10, above, represents the opinions of respondents with respect to the proposition that information is shared with them most clearly and effectively to help them achieve the organisational goals more effectively and successfully. As observed, most of the respondents affirm this statement, which signifies an enhanced employee focus and clear distinction of organisational goals among the employees. Those agreeing with this proposition make up 43% of the respondents, while 38% of them strongly agree with the proposition. On the contrary, 10% of the respondents disapprove of this statement, with a further 5% strongly disagreeing with it. Collectively, it is acclaimed that information sharing based on knowledge management is a prerequisite for organisational development and growth in terms of supporting the respective employee activities and roles (Lengnick-Hall et al. 2009). Similarly, information sharing tools or activity creates a substantial impact on the overall management of any organisational activity. In other words, it forms the basis for enhanced performance and involvement of all individuals, a practice that is substantially favored for increasing the level of employee engagement and involvement.
Managing Employees with a Strategic Framework
Each employee surveyed in this study rated his or her perception of the management styles, particularly strategic management, differently. From Figure 11, it can be seen that 55% of the respondents show a strong approval of this concept. Only 5% strongly disagree with the implication of these practices and regulations for organisational goals and objectives. From these observations, it can be seen that variation in the modes of managerial styles is a pre-requisite for employee development, which equips them with distinguishing capacities for decision-making, and supports the attainment of a strategic fit within the organisation (Stanton et al. 2010).
Role of HR Code of Ethics and Improved Quality of Employee’s Life
In Figure 12, the quality of employee life is compared with the significance of organisational codes of ethics and the role of the Human Resource department. This is particularly related to the fact that organisations with an implied code of ethics demonstrate increased employee morale and engagement that, ultimately, gives rise to stronger organisational development and growth (Daily & Su 2011). The data shows that 58% of employees are strongly in favor of an implied code of ethics and HR role, whereas 28% of them only indicate a moderate agreement. In contrast to these values, about 3% of them show a strong discomfort with this approach, while a further 5% of them only disagree with this view. With these statistics, it can be inferred that a certain code of practice, in general, demonstrates the overall approach of the organisation with the Human Resource department playing an important role in strengthening the bond between employees and in helping them remain more focused on organisational goals and stability.
Conclusions and Recommendations
This study aimed to identify the importance of strategic human resource approaches for the software houses of Doha, Qatar. This study specifically investigated the strategic human resource management approaches of Success Solutions, Qatar. The research used a quantitative research approach, using a structured questionnaire as the data collection instrument, administered to 40 employees working at Success Solutions. Data analysis was carried out using MS Excel. This program allowed the researcher to present findings in a graphical format (comparative bar graphs).
Primary data, gathered for this research, was organised, calculated, and tabulated using MS Excel. The use of a quantitative research methodology allowed an objective evaluation of the research topic to be made. The research findings confirm that the utilization of strategic human resource management practices by firms results in a superior performance of the organisation. This implies that the software houses of Qatar can improve their performance by incorporating SHRM strategies into their long-term plans.
The research aimed to identify the role of strategic human resource management in increasing employee engagement. The importance of strategic human resource management has been highlighted in earlier studies. The analysis of secondary data in this study revealed that the focus of strategic human resource management is on aligning organisational goals with human resource policies. It also revealed that SHRM approaches provide flexible and practical ways of achieving employees’ development and governance in an organisation.
The findings of this research suggest that strategic human resource management is associated with increased employee morale and engagement, which ultimately results in organisational growth and development. Furthermore, strategic human resource management provides autonomy to employees to organise their tasks and activities to achieve individual career goals, as well as organisational goals. As a result, employees develop a sense of engagement with their work. Moreover, strategic human resource management programs, including staff training and development, allow employees to achieve professional growth. The training and development opportunities provided to employees also increases their engagement.
The second objective of this research was to identify the impact of strategic human resource management approaches on organisational success in terms of employee effectiveness. According to the findings, strategic human resource management strategies ensure the retention of a skillful workforce, which eventually contributes to the realization of business objectives and organisational goals. The findings also suggest that human resource management strategies contribute to organisational success through enhanced employee motivation and retention. The research has also established that SHRM strategies improve different key areas of an organisation, including customer satisfaction, employee training, productivity, innovation, and employee turnover. All these factors have a significant, positive impact on the success of an organisation.
Based on the findings presented in this study, it can be concluded that strategic human resource management practices are vital for the software houses of Qatar. The practices allow organisations to achieve a competitive advantage in the modern dynamic business environment. Further, the development and implementation of strategic human resource management practices result in increased employee motivation. The strategies also promote extrinsic employee engagement in the operations of the software houses, contributing to their retention or a reduced turnover. When employees are motivated, they deliver a superior performance, translating into improved overall output of the software houses.
The following are the recommendations for the software houses of Qatar, based on the findings of this study:
The successful development and implementation of strategic human resource management practices depend on a firm’s strategic vision, which embodies the current situation of the company and the role of human resource management. Therefore, the strategic human resource management strategies should be aligned with the strategic vision of the organisation. It is recommended that the human resource management department aligns its strategies for human resource management with the strategic vision of the company.
Internal and External Factors
It is recommended that the firm’s strategic human resource management practices consider the internal and external factors affecting the organisation, particularly the personnel of the company, in making personnel-related decisions.
Knowledge Transfer and Sharing
Strategic human resource management should ensure knowledge transfer between the management and workers. It is recommended that the software houses of Qatar regularly communicate their strategy to their employees working at every level of the organisation. For this purpose, the Human Resource department should develop a clear knowledge transfer strategy whose aim is to ensure that every member of the organisation is aware of human resource functions and its objectives. This will enable employees to work towards achieving the strategic human resource objectives and the organisational objectives as well.
Training and Development
The research has highlighted the importance of training and development for employees. Training and development is an important part of the strategic human resource management of an organisation. It is recommended that the organisation provides training and development opportunities to employees to increase their work efficiency and motivation.
It is further recommended that the training and development programs incorporate creativity as an essential element of training. The inclusion of creativity in T&D programs would boost the overall morale of employees and result in improved overall employee performance.
It is also recommended that training and development programs include the coaching of employees. Coaching helps employees working at software houses of Qatar to develop insights into different work procedures. Coaching should also be provided to allow employees to learn the strategic values and mission of the company.
Code of Ethics
The research has also highlighted the importance of the code of ethics in the organisation. The code of ethics is essential in increasing employee morale which, in turn, contributes to a high level of employee engagement. Therefore, it is recommended that the software houses of Qatar develop a code of ethics for employees to bolster employee engagement that would translate into long-term organisational development. This approach will also help incorporate ethical values into the organisational culture.
Transparency of Human Resource Practices
The research has highlighted that human resource management practices need to be transparent so that every employee is aware of them. Promoting transparent practices will improve the strategic awareness of employees and increase the involvement of employees. When the human resource practices are transparent in the organisation, the number of conflicts and misunderstanding are minimized.
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- Are you male or female?
- Male [ ]
- Female [ ]
- In which age group do you fall?
- 18 – 28 [ ]
- 29 – 39 [ ]
- 40 – 50 [ ]
- Over 60 [ ]
- Strategic human resource management at Success Solutions works as a precursor for institutional development of employees working in this organisation
- Strongly Agree [ ]
- Agree [ ]
- Neutral [ ]
- Disagree [ ]
- Strongly Disagree [ ]
- At Success Solution, the transparency between the employees and procedures is encouraged for all the employees to have a strategic awareness as to how the outcomes would be achieved and managed in the most effective and efficient manner
- Strongly Agree [ ]
- Agree [ ]
- Neutral [ ]
- Disagree [ ]
- Strongly Disagree [ ]
- Knowledge sharing is also used at Success Solution as the key practice of strategic human resource management which directly influences work performance efficiency of the employees
- Strongly Agree [ ]
- Agree [ ]
- Neutral [ ]
- Disagree [ ]
- Strongly Disagree [ ]
- Success Solutions; SHRM practices also involve creativity as an essential attribute for any training procedure of employees which tends to provide an extra boost for the overall development and learning.
- Strongly Agree [ ]
- Agree [ ]
- Neutral [ ]
- Disagree [ ]
- Strongly Disagree [ ]
- One of the most important means of SHRM practised at Success Solutions is through ‘coaching’ which is regarded as providing an insight to employee’s dedication, satisfaction and contribution that is particularly aligned with the set mission, values and strategy of the company.
- Strongly Agree [ ]
- Agree [ ]
- Neutral [ ]
- Disagree [ ]
- Strongly Disagree [ ]
- At Success Solutions, Strategic HRM corresponds to ensure that respective policies and regulations are recognised by the line managers as a part of daily work.
- Strongly Agree [ ]
- Agree [ ]
- Neutral [ ]
- Disagree [ ]
- Strongly Disagree [ ]
- Success Solutions emphasises the importance of training and development as an essential component to be focused, especially in certain recruitment and selection, hiring and firing activities where employee motivation and appraisals holds immense significance.
- Strongly Agree [ ]
- Agree [ ]
- Neutral [ ]
- Disagree [ ]
- Strongly Disagree [ ]
- As an employee of Success Solutions, I am well aware of the respective proposition and demonstration of information shared with me in the clearest and effective manner so that I can achieve my goals more effectively and successfully.
- Strongly Agree [ ]
- Agree [ ]
- Neutral [ ]
- Disagree [ ]
- Strongly Disagree [ ]
- At Success Solutions, SHRM is practised by undertaking an approach of managing employees in a way that sustains long-term organisational goals and objectives with a strategic framework.
- Strongly Agree [ ]
- Agree [ ]
- Neutral [ ]
- Disagree [ ]
- Strongly Disagree [ ]
- Success Solutions also emphasises on organisational codes of ethics and role of the HR department in improving the quality of employee’s life, which in turn results in boosting employees’ morale and engagement.
- Strongly Agree [ ]
- Agree [ ]
- Neutral [ ]
- Disagree [ ]
- Strongly Disagree [ ]