Selection Procedures, Their Factors and Stages

Introduction

Job analysis is an important concept in the discipline of Human Resource Management since it is useful in job selection process, especially in hiring candidates who apply for managerial job positions. Getting the right individuals for employment is critical to achievement of an organization’s goals. Different selection stages enable employers to foresee candidates who would be victorious and productive if employed.

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Thus, this reflective treatise attempts to explicitly identify critical process involved in the hiring of administration management assistants and procedure for hiring potential managerial employees. Besides, the treatise identifies stages involved in the recruitment process of administrative management assistants who are expected to perform the role of assistant managers in the procurement department. This position entails general management roles, auditing, and book keeping. Besides, the position demands flexibility since the occupant is expected to be an all rounder in performance of general management duties.

According to Ivancevich, selection processes are not only reliable but also valid devices for hiring management assistants in an organization (2006). For instance, it is right to give keyboarding test to an applicant who seeks to work as an administrative assistant which is a field requiring critical management skill. Reflectively, the desired skill must be displayed by potential candidates. Specifically, this position is unique due to the fact that the selection procedure demands procedural testing and evaluation for desired traits.

According to Ivancevich (2006):

Selection is a procedure of assessing applicants through different means and making preference following tender of employment. Selection is a procedure of employment function that begins instantly upon reception of application letters and resumes (2006).

Furthermore, selection is focused to evaluate resumes of applicants for essential requirements which in this case include possession of management and analytical skills besides academic credentials.

An applicant who does not fulfill necessary qualifications is not suitable and thus would not be considered. As a matter of fact, “selection process is based on ‘profession-related qualification’ as well as required education, capabilities, knowledge, skills, and experiences as illustrated in employment description” (Ivancevich, 2006). Qualification has to be legitimate job-related requirement. Thus, a candidate who seeks employment must fulfill preferred requirements listed in employment description. Selection is a procedure of matching candidates to employment conditions. Moreover, selection is a procedure of eliminating unqualified applicants while identifying most preferred applicant. In this case, the process is systematic, and through aptitude test, elimination of those lacking analytical skills is possible within minimal prejudice or biasness.

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Factors for Selection Procedures

According to Burke & Cooper, the main idea of a selection procedure is to assess information about applicants in order to determine their fitness for employment (2005). Indeed, there are factors that affect stages involved in selection procedure. First, different stages involved in selection procedures rely on the kind of personnel to be hired. Much information is needed to hire managerial personnel than subordinate employees. Secondly, selection procedures rely on recruitment sources and technique used to get in touch with potential applicants.

In administrative management assistant recruitment, the procedure is complex and requires in-depth analysis of each candidate. Thirdly, Ivancevich asserts that selection procedures rely on numbers of applicants who are present for the selection process (2006). For instance, when the number of applicant is huge, filtering points should be increased in order to minimize this number. Nevertheless, when the number of candidates is small, reduced filtering Points would be required to regulate the number of applicants.

Selection strategy adopted by an organization also determines factors to be considered in selection procedure. This is because different organizations have their own way of conducting selection procedures. Indeed, it is upon organization’s policy to adopt unique kind of selection procedure. Selection procedure can be handled successfully when the following conditions are fulfilled. Somebody needs to authorize selection process since this influence comes from demand of employment as enacted through evaluation of labor-force and workload.

Since this is a managerial position, the authority is likely to come from top management. Moreover, there must be job specification and job description that should be used in the selection procedure, that is, possession of managerial and analytical skills besides academic qualifications. Furthermore, there must be adequate number of candidates from which the requisite number of applicants may be selected.

Stages of Selection Procedures

Selection procedure comprises succession of steps used to choose preferred candidates. Reflectively, every step is a fact that may lead to disqualification of some candidates. There is the succession stage that candidates who seek employment have to pass through. Actually, screening system is meant to disqualify unsuitable applicants at any step of selection procedure. Nevertheless, there is no absolute criterion for selection process adopted in all professions (jobs) or organizations. Sims (2002) opines that selection process becomes more complex with increase in responsibility and level of profession to be occupied (2002).

Technique and policy adopted for selecting candidates varies from one profession to another and from an organization to another. For example, selection procedures done in private organization is quite different from public sector. In public sector, ministry of public service is in-charge of employment procedures. Management of Human resource services recommends the following stages to be adopted in selection procedures of applicants who aspire to work as administrative management assistants in an organization. Nevertheless, the steps are not mandatorily to be put into practice chronologically as illustrated.

Screening Application

Initial screening is normally carried out in order to eliminate unsuitable applicants and is based on resume and general. It is in this stage when potential applicants are informed about significant nature of an organization and job description. Besides, essential information is obtained from applicants about their salary expectation, experience, education qualifications, and skills since administrative assistant post has management roles. In addition, test of legitimacy for applicant’s certificate is carried out. Actually, it is an important step that asses applicants’ competence. “If candidates are approved from this stage, they may proceed to fill up application form” (Arthur, 2005).

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Application Form

Application form is broadly utilized for gathering essential information from applicants. Application forms provide significant information for selection process. However, Budhwar & Debrah asserts that references of birth region, religion, and caste may not be necessarily considered since they may be perceived as proofs of discrimination (2001). The application for this position contains aspects of personal reflection on management skills besides those of personal information.

Selection Test

Psychological test may be adopted in employees’ selection procedures (Ivancevich, 2006). Indeed, psychological test is focused on certain aspect of applicant’s performance, behavior, and attitude since management position is associated with decision making and calmness under pressure. Psychological test is important when the number of candidates is large in order to reduce it. Psychological test is able to show applicants who scored above a certain fixed mark and assumption is made that they are possibly good performers than those candidates who attained below the mark limit. “Psychological test may be in form of oral interview, written test and aptitude test” (Shetterly, 2008).

Employment Interview

According to Shetterly, interview is a significant component of selection procedure. In fact, there is no selection process that is absolute without several interviews (2008). Personal interviews are important since information gathered through application letters and various tests are cross examined. Interview is an essential step of selection process since it is where applicants demonstrate their strength and competence in reference to their academic qualifications.

Interviews perform three functions. First, interview process seeks to get information about work experience, interest, training, education, and background of applicants. Secondly, interview process provides information to applicants about the nature of the organization, policies and regulations of the organization and job description. Thirdly, interview process creates a friendly relationship between applicants and employer in order to motivate the triumphant candidates to work for the company.

Medical Examination

Ivancevich states that those candidates who qualify in the above steps are also expected to attend physical examination to assess their capabilities either through a medical expertise or organization’s physicians (2006). Medical examination provides four functions. First, medical examination determines if an applicant is physically fit to carry out work; applicant who are physically disabled would be eliminated.

Secondly, medical examination show existing deformities of applicants and thus offers significant records for applicant’s health. “The records are important in settling organization’s liability under Workmen Compensation Act for injury claims” (Tayeb, 2005). Medical examination eliminates employment for applicants who suffer from transmittable sicknesses. Thirdly, medical examination identifies applicants who are otherwise qualified, however need special jobs because they are physically challenged or suffer from health problems such as allergies.

Reference Checks

The candidates are normally required to mention addresses and names of three people, who know them very well, in their resumes and application letters. Indeed, “reference checks may be candidates’ public figures, head of learning institutions and previous employers” (Budhwar & Debrah, 2001). In fact, these are individuals who are expected to offer open opinion about the applicants’ attitude and conduct, without gaining any favor. Referees usually play important role in evaluating future performance and behavior of applicants. However, it is not recommendable to depend exclusively on the references since they are generally prejudiced in favor of applicants.

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Comprehensive and unprejudiced details of applicants’ competence and behavior would be an important value in the selection procedure, especially to employers who provide job description to applicants. Nevertheless, this expectation is never achieved due to many reasons. First, “most applicants are hired at the time of their application, when referees’ recommendations are not handed over to employers” (Tayeb, 2005). Most applicants never desire their employers to know how people perceived them in other places. Indeed, employers may develop mistrust if they get negative recommendations from referees before an applicant is hired for job. Second, employers normally get reference information late when selection process has already been done, thus reference are merely used to warn employers of applicant’s faults based on the reference report.

Final Approval

Most companies carry out selection procedure through human resource department that provide recommendatory decision upon which applicants are selected. In fact, “applicants are selected and finally approved by the administration of human resource department” (Shetterly, 2008).

Employment

According to Burke & Cooper, employment is normally provided to the qualified candidates in form of appointment letters that clarify salary scale, the post, the commencement date, the rank, and terms and conditions of employment (2005). Moreover, contract service is normally signed by the company’s representative and the candidate. It is at this stage when qualified candidate is given an approval letter for the job. Nevertheless, such initial job provisions should be taken with special concern.

The salary stipulated should suit the job offered and motivate the preferred applicant. Also, it should be consistent with the salary scale of other workers. Furthermore, Lipiec states that the hired applicant should know necessary employment conditions like fringe and bonus benefits, working hours and holidays (2001). Besides, probation period of either one or two years is normally made on appointment of the candidate. Whenever satisfactory remarks are made, the applicant would be confirmed finally for the work, whether employed on contractual or permanent basis.

Induction

Induction is the process of receiving workers who are commencing their duties as new employees. Actually, organization’s representative should introduce new employees both to the organization and other fellow employees, informing them the traditions, events, and customs of the organization. Indeed, “organization should provide various induction courses to fresh employees in order to familiarize them in the new environment” (Sims, 2002). In this case, the successful candidate(s) are shown their respective work station, team, and work schedule.

Follow-up

Every selection procedure should be certified by evaluation. In fact, it is a moment when every worker is required to evaluate how he or she feels and sees the progress of work performance. Moreover, supervisors are also required to provide their comments upon workers’ progress. “Human resource department would compare these two recommendations, and would come up with their conclusion upon each employee’s job performance” (Burke & Cooper, 2005).

If the follow-up is not appealing and discouraging, the selection procedure is presumed to be handled with faults and mistakes. “The entire process of selection procedure is evaluated in order to provide better alternative ways for next move” (Arthur, 2005). Actually, it is necessary to follow-up fresh employees, since it is important to know how they are progressing with work performance. It is helpful to handle problems at early stage in order to support employees who might encounter challenges rather than suppressing critical issues which would have long-term negative effects on the company.

Conclusion

The main aim of selection procedures is to employ applicants who have high possibility to work successfully. This kind of selection procedure is meant for choosing administrative management assistants who posses analytical skills besides academic qualification. Selection process has multiple stages which include interviews, pre-employment inquiries, background investigation, aptitude test, first screening interview, and application form. Multiple ‘hurdles’ (stages) are important because they ‘screen’ suitable candidates who would be productive to organization’s objectives. Nevertheless, choosing right individuals for employment is always a challenge. Features that employers seek for employment are persons who are thirsty for success and who are able to take risk in life, people who are innovative and open minded, people who know how to handle psychological stress, and people who are team players and hardworking. Organizations are focused to get dedicated people who are ready to fulfill companies’ objectives.

References

Arthur, W. (2005). Team Task Analysis: Identifying Task and Jobs that are Team based. Human Factors, 47, 56-67.

Budhwar, P. S & Debrah, Y. A. (2001). Human Resource Management in Developing Countries. London: Routledge.

Burke, R. J & Cooper, C.L. (2005). Reinventing Human Resources Management: Challenges and New Directions. London: Routledge.

Ivancevich, J. M. (2006). Human Resource Management (11th ed.). Boston: McGraw- Hill.

Lipiec, J. (2001). Human Resource Management Perspective at the Turn of the Century. Public Personnel Management, 30, 10-15.

Shetterly, D. R. (2008). Job Characteristics of Officers and Agents: Result of a National Jobs Analysis. Public Personnel Management, 37, 23-30.

Sims, R. R. (2002). Organizational Success through Effective Human Resources Management. Westport: Quorum Books.

Tayeb, M. H. (2005). International Human Resource Management: a Multinational Company Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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