Closed vs. Open System Management Model


Management is the process of achieving organizational goals through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling the organization’s human, physical, information, and financial resources in a systemic way. This crucial aspect of a business is usually done to achieve a goal set by the organization effectively and efficiently (Kaehler and Jens 7). Before conducting the interview, I already had an overview of various management principles. Still, I have to admit, I have drawn more information about this crucial area than expected. The interview assignment allowed me to interact with a business leader practicing an Open System management model. Before this interaction, I had a bias toward the Closed System management model over an Open System, but my position has changed to the latter so far.

Leadership Insights

Leading by example is important, therefore, being the leader of a group requires an individual whose instructions begin within themselves. The employees’ morale is greatly enhanced when they see that the person giving them instructions aligns with the goal. Being decisive but insightful is also very important, especially for momentum. Taking too long to choose may lead to a loss of opportunity, especially in markets that fluctuate significantly. As a leader, the interviewee suggested employing a trusted team to contribute to decision-making.

Communication also heavily facilitates decision-making. Effective decision-making is difficult if the information is not distributed accurately. I also appreciated the formal information exchange formats such as emails and internal memos more than before. Modern technology has made this relatively easier with the advent of the internet, allowing information to be passed quicker for faster processes. Accountability for the top tiers of management is non-negotiable. Holding myself accountable as a leader is the first step in instilling the same attitude throughout the department or organization.

Comparison with Modern Theories of Leadership

I found a lot of similarities in the Transformational theory of leadership to the insights I got from the interview. This approach to leading aligns employees’ goals with that of the leader. This is compatible with the Open System approach to management, which relies on the exchange of information within the hierarchy (Allen and Sawhney 35). Teamwork is also a cornerstone of this approach as employees are encouraged to be more concerned about the company’s well-being rather than individuals.

According to the insights shared by the interviewee, charisma is vital in building confidence, commitment, and admiration for the project. Leadership by example is essential for this approach as the “energy” of the group is determined by the one at the top. Another similarity is that it heavily relies on trust as a key factor. Faith in a leader’s integrity and personality increases the chances of followers being more trustworthy.

Effects of Colleagues’ Personality on Work Experience

The personality of staff members at all levels is an important indicator of teamwork and Accountability. My experience proved that those who expressed the Big Five Traits progressed further up the corporate ladder. From my interactions with them, they were more integrated into their ways than most. Most of these individuals, who were promoted in the interviewee’s organization within the past year, had very positive effects on their subordinates’ job satisfaction, job commitment, and job performance. I enjoyed my experience learning from them about what makes a good employee and an efficient organization.

Others often avoid co-workers that cause stress and create unpleasant work environments—difficult work-mates trigger negative attitudinal responses from colleagues. My personal experience of interacting with such individuals was troublesome. Few such individuals were in supervising roles. I was later informed that it reduces the possibility of cynicism and corporate disloyalty. It is clear that a leader’s prevalent traits, especially when interacting with others in the group, generally determine the overall state of mind, which influences the outcome.

Aspects of Motivation Theory

Motivation theory is the study of what drives a person to work on a particular task or outcome. Social and esteem needs are vital for motivation to manifest in a team. Positive work environments lead to desirable interactions within the workplace. Employees who feel involved in activities of the organization report a higher willingness to achieve goals set by superiors. Trust among employees is also a positive indicator of motivation. Getting a sense that the office environment is fair and unbias facilitates a productive workforce (Kaehler and Jens 12). For my personality type, this is an essential need to be at its most productive. I enjoy a sense of unity when working with colleagues to achieve a common goal.

Esteem needs are also paramount for harmony in any institution. Leaders who build a culture of mutual respect, appreciation, and recognition promote healthy self-esteem among their employees. Rewarding high-output employees with incentives make them feel more appreciated and confident in their abilities. Complementing good work also increases the self-confidence of employees. Seeing one’s effort rewarded is satisfying; I would enjoy my work way more if this feedback were offered where it’s due and constructive criticism where needed.

Impacts of Personal Understanding on Teamwork, Planning, and Motivation Theories

The interviewee did not provide much information on this. I have learned more about appropriate office culture. My teamwork perspective has been revamped to appreciate my role in any group effectively. Better communication with my colleagues is important not only for understanding the roles of all involved. Decision-making has never been something I have practiced a lot, but after the interview, I learned about its importance in most situations in any organization.

Requirements to be an Effective Individual

Accountability is a cornerstone for any individual who wants to be an effective and exemplary member of society. Holding yourself responsible for your actions is key to producing favorable results. Admitting when an error has been made is the first step to finding any solution. Adaptability is also a trait worth practicing; being able to adapt to any changes is a characteristic of effectiveness. Decisiveness is also a key attribute for an effective leader, provided the decision is informed, promoting time use efficiency. Effective communication skills are also necessary. Possessing the ability to share your ideas with others accurately and vice versa is important for appropriate interactions in any area of society.

Topics of Management

Many organizations heavily rely on the devolution of authority to ensure the efficient utilization of resources. As a result, management has become an essential part of organizational processes to ensure harmony in function. My appreciation for how challenging it is to harmonize unique minds to achieve common goals has grown since the course began. Leadership, personality, motivation, decision making, communication, Accountability, and the importance of positive management are the aspects I have learned more about from the interview.


The success of any organization is invariably linked to the quality of leadership practiced. Wajdi mentions that good managers should strive to be good leaders, and good leaders need management skills to be effective.

Leaders usually have a vision of what is possible to achieve and then communicate this to the rest of the staff/team and evolve plans to complete the goal. Distribution and organization of resources are crucial for positive outcomes in goal pursuits. The interviewee taught me just how important leadership is, especially its effects on the rest of the staff. He cited an example where the previous CEO of his corporation had to be fired due to his ineffective management style. After his tenure, the company’s fortunes increased significantly. He explained that positive leaders communicate policies and plan to subordinates from where the work begins. Leading by example is a good leader’s principle.


Personality involves relatively stable feelings, thoughts, and behavioral patterns a person exhibits. One’s leadership style is an excellent reflection of their personality. Qualities such as intelligence, vision, and objectivity are universal, but character adds an unquantifiable element to one’s management style. The interviewee pointed out how important it is for a leader to have a stable temperament even under challenging situations. Subordinates heavily rely on the state of mind of their executives to provide solutions when issues arise beyond their scope. Hence, leaders should express and exhibit personality traits that reaffirm positivity throughout the organization.

Unstable characters erode confidence and hinder the performance of management. “Personality traits of individuals can confound their leadership abilities and can introduce inconsistency between what they are supposed to do and what they do” (Allen and Sawhney 37). The interviewee expressed those who had the Big Five personality traits of openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism reported more success in management. Not much shocked me here; even in general society, those who exhibit these traits tend to succeed more. What truly intrigued me was the trait of openness; I always assumed that to lead, one had to be closed-minded. Now I understand and appreciate an open circuit when leading others and promoting the flow and exchange of information.


Employees’ desire to perform, regardless of their emotional state, can be defined as motivation. A great deal of human behavior is goal-directed. Motivation promotes goal-directed behavior. Like any other principle of management, those at the top of the hierarchy are traditionally responsible for the morale of their workers. Motivated leaders are a cost-effective catalyst for employees to do their jobs well. Making subordinates feel that their work has meaning, rewarding high-quality output, and fair treatment are simple ways to keep the workforce motivated. According to the interviewee, an upbeat staff increases the chances of a favorable outcome.

Therefore, managers must constantly design and create schemes to stimulate the desires and interests of employees parallel to achieving the goal (Allen and Sawhney 48).

I consistently underestimated this part of management. I reasoned that motivating employees should be delegated to staff lower in the chain of command. I was inaccurate; employees respond better when this value comes from a higher position within the organization. The interviewee also shared an exciting tip suggesting that the Hawthorne Effect can also be implemented to boost creativity (Allen and Sawhney 47). Financial incentives are also a standard tool used to achieve higher morale.

Decision Making

Selecting a course of action out of a set of possibilities is defined as decision making. Management and this quality run parallel. Making decisions is an essential part of any organization; the three types of decisions the interviewee discussed were strategic, tactical, and operational decisions. I honestly was unaware that they occur at different levels within the organization. Emotional responses in crises are generally avoided as they can hinder decision-making (Allen and Sawhney 37). Of course, it does not mean to treat people like robots as Weber’s management model assumed, but to allow decision-making to individuals with the proper insight and emotional intelligence. Surprisingly, he also touched on the importance of personal choices stressing this as the smallest unit of any institution. Decisions made at this level eventually affect the whole company.


Communication is essential for most processes in an institution to run smoothly. Management quality is directly proportional to communication clarity. Decision-making and planning are only possible if there is an exchange of information between the various departments. All decisions made will depend on how detailed the data is received. Afterward, any decisions made have to be transmitted to the subordinates to be carried out.

The interviewee also highlighted how coordination heavily relies on the effective exchange of ideas and information to promote unity of action. Indirectly this also boosts morale for teamwork by all parties pursuing a common goal. I was intrigued once I realized just how much information is passed around in a company. Memos, reports, and budgets were circulated at a frequency I did not expect. All this is necessary for effective communication and increasing managerial efficiency.

The mutual trust that is built as a result of effective communication increases job satisfaction. The current CEO of the interviewee’s organization is known for encouraging team cohesion, and one of his favorite tools is effective communication. Institutions that employ democratic management find effective communication essential. Without this channel, the multiple layers of hierarchy may lead to the emergence of a grapevine that promotes inaccurate informal communication. (Allen and Sawhney 38). A single, identifiable source is encouraged if an informal channel is utilized. I concur that effective managers need good communication skills.


Being accountable is the state of being responsible for one’s work and answering for the repercussions of one’s action. The course of action an individual then takes is dependent on the response. Expectations and Accountability have a strong correlation. The interviewee taught me that breaking up tasks into the smallest activity possible promotes Accountability (Allen and Sawhney 40). Communication, as discussed above, must be clear and concise when passing information to employees to ensure Accountability. Well-defined goals are useful frames of reference for employees, especially for their responsibilities in the plan.

Subordinates and supervisors should clearly understand when and how their projects should be processed and delivered. When the expectation level is clear, understanding that all involved are accountable for their performance, there is a boost in morale and overall workplace productivity. One advantage of Accountability that I was not aware of was its cost-effectiveness. When employees and their leaders are held responsible for their actions, the chances of costly mistakes are minimized. Some issues in institutions take a long time to fix; the interviewee stressed that a staff that can identify and owns up to its mistakes is more likely to find a solution and move through it quickly.

Importance of Good Management

Positive management styles have several merits for the individual and society. I find projects with good managers tend to be more cost-effective and successful than those lacking. Many of them promote effective communication and are decisive means that any errors are handled before they become too costly. As an employee, I find this beneficial as it builds trust with employers. Society generally benefits a company with minimal losses through job opportunities and social programs initiated by the company.

Works Cited

Allen, Jennifer and Rajeev Sawhney. “Open Versus Closed Systems.” Sage Publications, 2018. Sage Pub. Web.

Kaehler, Boris and Jens Grundei. HR Governance a Theoretical Introduction. Springer, 2018. Web.

Wajdi, Barid. “The Difference Between Management and Leadership“. 2017. Research Gate. Web.

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