Background of Study
Employee performance has been linked with attitude towards both the working environment and the satisfaction of the role. There are numerous reasons why understanding the attitude of one’s employees towards various elements is important. First, as Ajilore (2015) notes, it allows for the management to come up with policies that enhance the wellbeing of the staff in general. Secondly, it also allows staff to shape their places of work in a way that benefits both their corporate and personal career goals. It is critical to note that employees will associate their attitudes towards various aspects to their personal beliefs and principles. For example, an employee who believes that hard work is the only way to succeed in life will have a negative attitude towards promotions based on education level. It is prudent for managers to understand the average attitude towards concepts that affect the work environment to avoid toxicity.
It is critical to also note that staff performance can be affected by various factors. For example, pay, culture and even the recruitment process can prove either positive or detrimental to staff motivation. In turn, the employees will not feel like achieving set objectives. Therefore, one can argue that a lot has to be consider in order to create a balanced work environment that encourages the growth of the company and the individual employees as well. This study aimed at understanding employee attitudes in relation to three independent variables. The three variables were wages, work environment and working hours. The research study also featured one dependent variable namely employee performance. The mentioned employee attitude served as the mediating variable. The study used both qualitative and quantitative data analysis to reach conclusions on the topic.
Significance of the Study
The research study is significant primarily due to two things. The first is that despite the fact that there are numerus studies on the impact of other elements on employee performance, management in the police workforce is still struggling to create environments that enhance employee productivity. Secondly, the results of the research study will help the Abu Dhabi police formulate better policies that affect the organisational culture in an attempt to make staff more motivated to achieve better results. It is important to note that this is critical due to the changing nature of crime in Abi Dhabi.
Purpose of Study
The purpose of the study is to determine whether employee performance of the Abu Dhabi police is significantly affected by employee attitude.
- To examine the relationship between work hours and AD Police employees’ attitude.
- To investigate the relationship between work environment and AD Police employees’ attitude.
- To evaluate the relationship between wages level and AD Police employees’ attitude.
- To analyse the relationship between AD Police employees’ attitude and employees’ performance.
- To identify the mediating role of AD Police employees’ attitude towards the relationship between working hours, work environment, and wages and employees’ performance.
It is evident that there are several elements that impact police officers in Abu Dhabi performance. Some of the suggested issues include lack of motivation and slow career progression within the workforce. This research study looks into the impact of attitude on performance, which is a neglected element of employee performance.
Significance of the Problem
The problem is significant due to the fact that there is a rising case of crime in Abu Dhabi. Therefore, the performance of the police has to be measured against their competency to address the issues at hand – that is, the increase in crime.
- What is the relationship between work hours and AD Police employees’ attitude?
- How work environment affects AD Police employees’ attitude?
- Do wages changes AD Police employees’ attitude?
- What is the relationship between AD Police employees’ attitude and employee performance?
- Does AD Police employees’ attitude meditate the relationship between working hours, work environment, wages and employee performance?
The hypotheses were formed in relation to the independent variables. Therefore, the study had six hypotheses namely:
- Education and wages. H0: Education level has a significant impact on wages. H1: Education level does not have any significant impact on wages.
- Gender and work environment. H0: Gender has a significant impact on work environment. H1: Gender does not have any significant impact on work environment.
- Job position and working hours. H0: Job position has a significant impact on working hours. H1: Job position does not have any significant impact on working hours.
Police performance is a critical element of any societal development. This is one of the reasons why this study is critical. Ideally, the management has to ensure that the police officers are not only satisfied with their job descriptions but also understand the impact of their role to the larger community. Due to the importance of their work, these officers also need a relatively suitable work environment in order to thrive. Arguably, the selected hypotheses will help determine whether they are comfortable with their working conditions or otherwise. Additionally, the study will be guided by the stated research questions.
This section will look into the different variables that are tested in the study. The variables will be discussed in reference to previous literature and studies that have been done on the same.
The independent variables that will be tested are working hours, wages and working environment. As mentioned previously, each of these variables affect staff performance in one way of the other. Additionally, the mentioned factors can be used to understand employee positions on their experiences and working situations. This section will look into previous studies and literature concerning the three independent variables of the study – wages, working hours and working environment.
Discussion in Relation to the Study
The selected dependent variable is employee performance, which is normally affected by numerous elements. Burkhardt and Baker (2019) argue that management has to constantly monitor employee performance in order to fully maximise their (staff) output. One vital aspect of staff productivity is the organisational culture. Burkhardt and Baker (2019) explain that when the culture within a company is progressive and healthy, employee performance will also be better. On the other hand, if the same is negative and toxic, staff will also perform poorly. According to Burkhardt and Baker (2019), it is critical to note that whereas it is impossible to have a culture that each staff member subscribes to, it is highly encouraged to create a work space that accommodates and appreciates the different strengths and weaknesses of the individual workers. Further, the general work environment should benefit the staff in order to ensure quality employee performance. For example, things such as processes and furniture should enhance the capacity of the employee to do his or her work.
Debatably, employee performance is also affected by wages and working hours. Burkhardt and Baker (2019) note that staff who are paid fairly/better will be more motivated to deliver than those who are not paid adequately. Indeed, it is important to note that the concern is not purely about poor pay but also when one employee is paid more than others despite being in the same job group. Massoudi and Hamdi (2017) argue that often, this is a difference associated with gender, where men earn higher than women despite having similar or even lower qualifications. Such disparities can cause poor employee performance due to lack of motivation. Further, employees will be more concerned about getting a better job than delivering the task at hand.
Further, the issue of employee performance can be linked to overall company profitability. Putting this into context, one can argue that police performance generally affects the authority’s ability to fulfil its mandate, which is enforcing the law. Massoudi and Hamdi (2017) argue that one primary factor as to why it is critical to understand the aspects that affect staff productivity is the aspect of the bottom line. For the police in Abu Dhabi, the rising cases of crime have also led to an increase in arrests. This means, therefore, that the officers are performing significantly well. In turn, one can argue that this is due to the fact that their concerns are addressed well by management as well.
The term “independent variables” refers to the unchanged element that will be measured against other variables that are to be measured. This study uses three independent variables to understand employee performance at the Abu Dhabi Police headquarters. The independent variables as mentioned are working hours, wages and working environment. The section will highlight the various literature done on these three elements and link them to the research study. Further, the section will highlight some of the critical factors that have to be considered when discussing the stated elements in regards to employee performance. Arguably, the Abu Dhabi police often interact with different notions of these aspects in one way or the other.
The discussion on the impact of working hours on employee attitude is complex. This is arguably due to the modern individualistic nature of work places. Indeed, it is possible to find that some companies allow their employees to work in relation to deliverables and not hours. Alhashmi et al. (2017) explain that police in Abu Dhabi, just like police in other part of the United Arab Emirates have various views concerning how different working hours affect their attitude at work. In order to fully understand this concept, it is important to also first understand the normal scheduling of police in Abu Dhabi. Aldhaheri et al. (2017) note that normal police stations operate in shifts that allow the employees to get equal measure of rest and work. There are other things that are usually considered such as sick leave, compassionate leave and study leave. These mentioned elements are provided on an individual basis based on the situation at hand in many firms.
It is arguable, therefore, that a significant number of employees would be disgruntled when exposed to long working hours. However, Randhawa and Komal (2018) note that the situation differs when issues such as working overtime are considered. Ideally, staff who work overtime also get additional wages for their efforts. Chu (2017) believes that when working hours are tied to extra benefits, then a significant number of staff would have a positive attitude towards staying longer at work. The complexity of the situation is also enhanced by the fact that different types of work are often associated with various requirements of time at the work place. For example, in a precinct, police officers will mainly be working outside the station while secretaries will be primarily indoors.
There is a relationship between attitude of police officers in and working hours in Abu Dhabi. Al Abdouli and Ali (2017) note that a significant number of professionals in Abu Dhabi and UAE in general are overworked. The scholar goes further to note that the interesting factor about this realisation is the fact that these employees rarely seek compensation for working longer hours. This might be due to two main things. The first is that the staff is comfortable with the longer working hours and secondly that they are paid exceptionally well, with great benefits that they do not need more money for their time (Zeffane & Bani-Melhem, 2017). It is critical to examine how these factors could indeed affect the attitude between police men and extended working hours.
In the first case, the employees are perceived to be comfortable with working long hours. Ahmed (2017) explains that such a possibility is practical due to the culture practiced by the people. It is important to note that despite the efforts achieved in regards to gender equality, there are some careers that are still perceived as male (like the police). On the same note, cultural attributes that are also highly linked with religion (Islam) which could in turn make the employees satisfied with their role in the society. The second aspect, that they are paid significantly higher than others due to their demanding job, is highly doubtful. This is due to the fact that police work is unpredictable so getting the right formula for awarding such salaries would be nearly impossible.
Critically, one can argue that policies and attitude are vital in understanding the attitude of police officers in Abu Dhabi. Lathabhavan and Balasubramanian (2017) reveal that policies are prudent in ensuring a positive and sustainable working environment in any department or organisation. One has to consider whether the firm has essential policies that allow staff to work enough hours to ensure work-life balance. For example, are the leave days paid or unpaid, is the study leave part of the annual leave? It should be noted that where there is no benefit associated with leave, apart from individual rest, a significant number of staff will not take such rest days (Tomaževič, et al., 2019). On the other hand, if the days are associated with benefits such as pay, then employees will feel motivated to use them appropriately. Karam (2017) argues that despite the fact that professionals in Abu Dhabi have benefits for their rest days, a majority of them do not use their off days. This can be largely linked to being overworked due to high turnover and also few employees.
It is important to note that when staff are few, the likelihood of working long hours is also high. This is due to the fact that there are no people who can take up the work that the specific employee was doing when he or she is off work (Bove & Gavrilova, 2017). The premise refers to two things – first that when a staff goes on leave, others will have to work longer hours to cover for the missing personnel. Secondly, that staff prefer not to use their off days in an attempt to not burden colleagues with their assignments. Bieler (2016) reveals that companies that have a shortage of staff have resolved this issue through proper planning. This is due to the importance given to rest in order to avoid burnouts.
It is also vital to mention that there is a relationship between position, working hours and attitude. Carter and Corra (2016) argue that people holding senior offices are not offended by working longer hours unlike junior staff. There are several reasons that can be highlighted as to why this can be true. The first is the fact that the senior staff are expected to have more responsibility in regards to fulfilling the company’s objectives. Therefore, the station manager has more responsibility in ensuring the police post performs as expected compared to the police officer. Additionally, the senior management staff gets paid more than his or her junior, therefore, ensuring that compensation is a key factor in determining attitude towards longer working hours.
Arguably, management level employees are also older than their junior staff. Therefore, they have a more stable work-life balance compared to the younger employees. The latter have to think about several factors such as their young family, socialising with their friends and also studying. Delehanty et al., (2017) note that the pressures put on the junior staff make it nearly impossible to have a positive attitude towards working longer hours. However, this does not mean that these staff do not put in as much effort in their jobs as the senior employees. In fact, Kumar (2017) notes that a majority of these younger employees concentrate more during the fewer hours they spend in the office compared to those that spend more time working. This can be linked to the stated social pressures that require them to manage their time well.
Understanding the work environment of a company is also prudent in determining the employees’ attitude. There are four things that can be linked to work environment that will be discussed in relation to the Abu Dhabi police workforce. The four factors are pay, culture, teamwork and promotions. Importantly, Choi et al. (2019) argues that all these factors are tied by the issue of gender when it comes to the Abu Dhabi police workforce. The first element in work environment as mentioned is pay. Arguably, in all other industries as well, there is a difference in pay for men and women. This is enhanced by the fact that police service is still highly regarded as a male career choice in Abu Dhabi (Junejo et al., 2020). Therefore, there are significantly fewer women in the job compared to men.
Differences in pay, little salary or no monetary compensation affect the attitude of employees in numerous ways. First, employees become highly demotivated when they realise that they are paid lower than others. This comparison can be in regards to both colleagues working in the same police station or two different posts altogether. Awad (2019) confirms that Abu Dhabi police have a unified remuneration scheme that ensures the officers are placed in job groups that are assigned specific salary scales. However, disparities come up in the distribution of benefits. Additionally, even with the scheme, it is common to find women earning less than men. This has been linked to the cultural and religious beliefs of the community (Jabeen & Isakovic, 2018). Due to the fact that the country is still trying to reach gender equality and equity, some processes have not been altered to support gender equality.
The second element of work environment is culture, which refers to the overall nature of the work environment. Al Mansoori (2017) confirms that gender equality is a critical part of the organisational culture. Abu Dhabi police stations have been accused of having toxic work environments due to gender bias. Alqutbah (2017) furthers this premise and explains that numerous female police officers have complained of disrespect in the stations. This has stemmed from both senior management and junior staff and has been falsely supported by cultural beliefs that women should not be working. Sanaa (2020) argues that there are some stations that have resolved this issue by sensitising all their staff on gender equality and equity. However, such change is expected to take time, therefore, the disparities concerning negative work environments are also expected to take some time to resolve.
Critically, UAE in general has achieved great milestones in empowering women in the workplace. Ulrichsen (2016) notes that there are several policies in place that allow for women to be respected and also be fairly considered for positions in the work place. It is through such policies that the country, in general, has been able to ensure that women are judges, that they are also leaders of several government departments and also lead in regards to education. The argument proposed, therefore, does not mean that no effort is being put in making work environments better for women (Alshehhi et al., 2019). However, it purports that a lot still has to be done to achieve this desired outcome.
Thirdly, teamwork is critical in the success of police work. Ding et al. (2018) explain that field officers are often teamed up to ensure they have the support they need. This is a universal approach to policing as other countries also encourage the pairing up of police officers. One importance of this approach is that it ensures that there is no bias when applying the law. Interestingly, as Ulrichsen (2016) notes, in Abu Dhabi, the pairing also helps the employees observe their cultural and religious beliefs. For instance, when a case involves a woman, it would be difficult for the victim to fully explain what happened to a male police officer. Towards this end, therefore, the issue of pairing up men and women officers is an advantage as it encourages the public to be open about their concerns without feeling like they are violating their cultural beliefs.
Additionally, teamwork allows police officers to appreciate the benefits that women bring into the profession. Ulrichsen (2016) explains that women have been able to prove their worth by being valuable partners to their male colleagues. The approach ensures that the involved parties build trust and also understand the other person better. Bearing this in mind, it is arguable that the approaches taken by police stations in Abu Dhabi have enhanced the gender debate in the sector, and in so doing, also ensured a healthier and more positive work environment. Ulrichsen (2016) confirms that there are, however, gender biases from the public in regards to female police officers. Therefore, there are some members of the public who would not engage with police woman simply because of the difference in gender and the personal belief that it would not be appropriate. Although this is an external force, it can still affect the work environment.
The last element of work environment that has to be discussed in relation to employee attitude is promotions. Damazo (2017) argues that there are numerous careers that face the same problem when it comes to equal and fair promotions. The Ulrichsen (2016) argues that numerous successful companies have come up with a formula to ensure transparent promotions. These can be done in relation to working hours, deliverables met and also sales done. In policing, however, promotions are often tied with age and gender. Ulrichsen (2016) notes that it is rare for women police officers to be promoted in the Abu Dhabi police workforce. There are few senior female police officers compared to men. Arguably, one also has to consider that until recently, women were not hired as police officers in the region. As mentioned, this was tied to both cultural and religious beliefs. Therefore, one can argue that they are currently not as qualified as their male counterparts.
This brings in the second consideration that age is a critical factor in considering promotions within the police service. Ashour (2017) argues that the use of age as a promotion matrix is misleading and can lead to negative attitudes among the staff. The argument is pegged on the fact that management should not be tasked based on how long one has worked but their capabilities to successfully lead a team and achieve set objectives. Indeed, when the wrong choice of manager is picked, the work environment can deteriorate significantly (Litz et al., 2020). It should be noted that management does have an impact on the attitude of the employees as well. Progressive managers will be able to deal with concerns that arise both from the nature of work and from internal biases.
The last independent variable is wages. There are numerous things that have to be considered when discussing wages and the police workforce in Abu Dhabi. Doran (2016) argues that within the Abu Dhabi police, there are people who earn more than others purely due to the number of years they have worked in the station. On the other hand, there are people who join the service and earn more based on their level of education. Thirdly, there are staff who earn more based purely on gender and lastly, those that get a higher salary based on their accumulation of benefits.
The first instance, where people who have been in the service longer earn more, is common across the different stations. Ulrichsen (2016) notes that one of the key realisations that come up from this premise is that loyalty to the service is deemed important. Additionally, one also has to understand that the wages go up with age due to promotions. As stated previously, Yahyaee (2016) argues that a majority of the promotions within the police service are reserved for people who have worked in the industry longer. This has affected the way women are paid as there are few senior female offices due to the fact that a few years back, women were not encouraged to work.
Additionally, the concern between age and wages is tied to the fact that older employees are expected to retire. The larger wages, therefore, help them get ready for a time in their lives when they would not be getting any salary. Further, it is assumed that older staff have more responsibilities than their younger colleagues (Jabeen et al., 2020). These responsibilities could be in the form of family and also personal development. Ulrichsen (2016) notes that many government institutions place an importance in slow personal development as it is associated with maturity. Arguably, the experience gained over the years also has to be rightfully compensated. It is prudent to note, thus, that the older police officers are paid not only for their efforts at that time, but also their role, work description, job grade and overall experience.
Importantly, the level of education also has to be considered when discussing wages and attitude in the Abu Dhabi police force. Ulrichsen (2016) argues that the level of education has played a role in the changing earnings at entry level. The scholar explains that two decades ago, education was not a motivator to join police work. However, with development and the realisation that education is critical in all sectors, police officers were encouraged to study more. Currently the basic entry level requirement for a police officer includes a certificate showing the potential candidate reached at least intermediary school (12th grade) (Parcero & Ryan, 2017). However, there are people who also do degrees and due to passion apply to join the police service. Ulrichsen (2016) explains that this is considered when determining the starting salary of the officer in question. Therefore, the more learned the person when starting out, the more money that person will be offered.
Further, there are people who also enhance their education after they have started working. Ismail (2020) reveals that a significant number of employees use this as a way to get promoted as well. However, the evidence of such in the Abu Dhabi police workforce is limited. Ulrichsen (2016) explains that there are people who are extremely well learned but earn lesser than people who have been in the force longer. The conclusion is that age and experience still play a critical factor in determining wages. The question, therefore, is whether employees’ attitude is affected by this approach. One can argue that it is not as the general community perceives the system as fair.
As mentioned, the issue of gender is also prevalent in the discussion on wages. Ulrichsen (2016) explains that fair wages was identified as a key determinant of satisfaction in the work environment among police officers in Abu Dhabi. This means that employees who felt the earnings they were getting were little, where not motivated to do their work. The scholar goes further and explains that a significant number of those who felt the wages were little were women. It is critical to also mention that there are men who earn differently despite being in the same position. These individuals are also demotivated as they feel unappreciated (Abdulhabib & Al-Dhaafri, 2019). There are numerous reasons why these disparities can be observed. At times it is due to a negative and unprogressively environment while other times it is individual effort that sets the officers apart.
Debatably, one can argue that both genders have different issues concerning their salaries. For example, for women, the main issue is that there is such disparity between their earnings and that of the men officers despite holding the same position. On the other hand, men are more concerned about the slow nature of promotions that will in turn ensure an increase in salary. Indeed, it is possible to find some stations that have less differences in terms of salaries. However, it is highly unlike that there are posts where promotions occur at a much faster rate than others. This is due to the fact that there are policies that determine this specific aspect of police work.
Additionally, one has to consider the benefits that different officers get to further understand concerns surrounding wages in the police workforce. Rabe-Hemp and Garcia (2019) note that job groups are often used to determine an officer’s salary. On the same note, the same categories are used to identify the appropriate allowances one can get while on duty. Whereas benefits such as study, annual and sick leave all apply the same to all cadres, others such as per diems and travel allowances differ. These are based on the job group the individual is in at that moment. AbudlHabib and Al-Dhaafri (2018) argue that these allowances have also created rifts in the police workforce due to the disparity. It is crucial, however, to also note that although there are concerns about these aspects, the employees rarely bring these issues up to their management.
Indeed, there are various reasons why staff do not expose their grievances to their supervisors. Ulrichsen (2016) argues that the culture is extremely exploitative that staff do not even use their leave days. This is in particular reference to junior staff as opposed to the senior ones. One reason why this is so due to the fact that there is so much fear in speaking up that the employees would rather keep quiet. Arguably, international companies in Abu Dhabi that work closely with the police have tried to encourage employees to speak up when they feel they have been treated unfairly (Burkhardt & Baker, 2019). However, this is yet to be realised and might take more years to be fulfilled.
Relationship of Independent Variables towards Mediating Variable
The selected mediating variable is employee attitude. It is arguable that there is a direct link between each of the independent variables discussed and the mediating variable. Many employees have an idea of what fair wage would be to them as individuals. Their attitude towards fair wages will be determined by their biases towards the same. For example, an employee who believes they are not paid fairly will have a negative attitude towards the company. Secondly, attitude is also critical in understanding the impact of the work environment on employee productivity. In particular, when the work environment is perceived as toxic, the employee’s attitude towards both fellow employees and management might be negative. In turn, their productivity level will be low. Further, when a staff member has a positive attitude towards their working hours, they are more likely to perform better.
A mediating variable often explains the why and the how of the independent variables. This is an important element of the research study as it puts into context the relevance of the research study, the questions, objectives and the hypotheses created. Importantly, the mediating variable has to be connected either positively or negatively to all the independent variables of the study.
There are numerous aspects of employee attitude that can be discussed in relation to staff performance. First, employee attitude is shaped by the beliefs of the staff member and the consequences presented by the organisation in regards to the work or job description of the worker (Massoudi & Hamdi, 2017). It is important to note that attitude can be placed into two broad categories. The first is the wavering attitude that is determined by daily run-ins and experiences. Massoudi and Hamdi (2017) refer to such kinds of attitudes as temporary. For example, an employee is annoyed at home and comes with the same attitude at work. If the attitude is negative, the employee’s performance on that day will also be negatively affected. The vice versa is true if the attitude is positive. On the other hand, there is long term attitude which is developed over time. For example, an employee (police officer) can have a bad attitude towards paper work but have a positive attitude towards digital filing.
The type of attitude that often affects performance is the latter one. Additionally, it is easier for the management to also resolve issues relating to the stated type of employee attitude. For instance, if the head of the police station realises that his or her officers are not doing their paper work as expected, he or she can call a meeting to understand why this is so. The management can then use the discussions done to come up with a better solution to ensure documentation is done. This might include exploring digital approaches that all employees are comfortable using. It is debatable that a positive and flexible working environment will help employees who are feeling stressed to calm down and achieve their targets.
Relationship of Mediating Variable towards Dependent Variable
There is a direct relationship between the selected mediating and dependent variables. As mentioned, the mediating variable is employee attitude while the dependent variable is employee performance. Massoudi and Hamdi (2017) note that negative attitudes will have a detrimental impact on how a staff member achieves the objectives set. Additionally, attitude affects how an employee interacts with other employees. For example, if an officer has a negative attitude towards an aspect of police work, he or she will make i9t that more difficult for other employees to work within the same environment. The same staff member can either encourage other employees to have the same negative attitude towards that process as well. This is particularly possible if the employee has some power, such as a supervisor.
A vital theory that can be used to explain the relationships between the concepts is Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Massoudi and Hamdi (2017) explain that the theory suggests that people put relevance based on their basic needs. Maslow came up with five such needs namely, psychological needs, safety, belonging, esteem and self-actualisation. According to the theory, psychological needs are the most basic and most important for any human being, including employees. Some of the things that fall under this category include food, water and shelter. It is critical to note that these said factors are affected by wages (which is one of the study’s independent variables).
Further, safety is critical according to the hierarchy of needs. This safety can be both financial and physical (Massoudi & Hamdi, 2017). Therefore, wages still play a critical part in understanding this category of needs. Additionally, the physical space has to be safe for the staff. This fits within the concept of work environment. It is important to note that even though police work can be dangerous due to the nature of crime, the officers have to feel safe at all times. This can be achieved through proper training, having quality equipment and also ensuring a safe space in the office. All the variables are linked together and all are affected by employee attitude. Further, they all contribute to either poor or excellent staff performance.
In summary, all the selected variables can be linked together. For instance, wages can be tied to work environment which can also be connected to working hours. Police officers who work overtime get paid more in terms of allowances. It is arguable that due to the fair remuneration they get for working overtime, police in Abu Dhabi also have a positive attitude towards working longer hours. Additionally, the issue of security, whereas important for the officers, is hard to promise due to the nature of the work. One way of protecting the officers, therefore, is to ensure they are properly trained and have the right equipment to also do their work.
Research Methodology & Design
This section will present the selected research methodology. Selecting the right design is critical in the success of the research study.
Description of Research Design
The study employed the use of both quantitative and qualitative research designs. One reason why the combined strategy was relevant for this study was the complexity associated with the research questions. Whereas four of the research questions were quantitative in nature, one was descriptive. This encouraged the need to use both approaches to ensure the capturing of the needed data fully. The research relied on three independent variables namely, working hours, wages and work environment. Additionally, employee performance was deemed the dependent variable while employee attitude was the mediating variable.
Additionally, the quantitative approach added value to the study through enhancing the understanding of the relation between productivity, employee’s behavior and emotions by measuring the quantifiable data according the size of the sample in order to deliver results. Further, qualitative design was important to demonstrate understanding and learning from the targeted sample experiences in the workplace environment and how is their productivity effected.
The data was collected through a questionnaire. The study targeted police officers in Abu Dhabi. The data collection tool was developed prior the study to ensure it captured the relevant questions. Additionally, it was divided into 3 sections with a total of 49 questions including biodata. The questionnaire was developed in Likert scale to ensure proper capturing of the data. The tool was self-administered to encourage honesty and remove any form of bias. The questionnaire has been attached as Annex 2.
As stated, the target population was Abu Dhabi Police employees. The study employed the use of convenience sampling of staff in the Abu Dhabi Police Headquarters offices. A total of 377 staff were selected for the study. However, only 114 were able to participate in the study.
Methods and Instrument
The questionnaire was adopted from the studies by Massoudi and Hamdi (2017) and Ogbonnaya et al. (2017).
Goodness of Measures (Content Validity) (Reliability)
The validity and reliability of the tool was determined through a pre-survey. The tool was administered to 10 police officers who were then excluded from the actual study. Revisions were done based on the feedback that was received during the pre-survey.
In summary, the selected research methodology and design was relevant for the study. This is due to the fact that the study incorporated both qualitative and quantitative aspects.
The study will employ both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The idea to use both approaches was necessitated by the nature of the research. It is prudent to mention that the productivity aspect of the study could only be contrasted with behaviour and emotions through the quantitative approach. This approach allows the measuring of quantifiable data in an easy and effective way. On the other hand, the size of the sample population allowed for the use of the quantitative approach. The qualitative methodology was employed for purposes of understanding the underlying reasons for the reactions the participants had in regards to the study. This section looks into all these aspects and how they were applied in the research study.
Reliability test. Reliability test is done to ascertain validity of the data from questionnaires and the level of consistency of each question before analysis is done (Mizera-Pietraszko & Pichappan, 2017). The test gives Cronbach’s Alpha score which ranges from 0 to 1. The closer the Cronbach’s Alpha is closer to 1 the more reliable the data is.
Table 1: Reliability Test Table
|Number of items||Cronbach’s Alpha|
From the table, the overall Cronbach’s alpha is 0.817, which is closer to 1. This shows the overall data is highly consistent. The other five variables had Cronbach’s alpha of 0.81 and above, which again shows the data is highly reliable and there is high internal consistency.
Frequency analysis (supported by graph, chart)
Table 2: Frequency of Respondents
|18 to 24 years||25||21.9|
|25 to 34 years||68||59.6|
|35 to 44 years||15||13.2|
|45 and above||6||5.3|
|1 to 5 years||39||34.2|
|5 to 15 years||19||16.7|
|15 and above||54||47.4|
According to the table, majority of the respondents are male, with age bracket of 25 to 34 years. Majority of the respondents, over 97% are nationalities of the Abu Dhabi. Almost 60% of the respondents had reached university level. Most of the respondents had experience of 15 years and above with only 34% having experience level of between 1 to 5 years.
Descriptive analysis was done to get a better understanding of the data collected from the questionnaire and the following statistics was done.
Table 3: Table for Mean, Maximum, Minimum and Standard Deviation
|Valid N (listwise)||78|
From the table, valid data that can be used for analysis is 78 since for some variable there was some missing data. The highest mean is 3.9 for both employee performance and attitude. This shows most of the respondent were neutral in the aspect of these two variables. The lowest was working hours, but with the mean of 3.6 which is also neutral.
Test for difference (T-Test). For this test, we will test two independent groups (Male and Female groups) and analyze them against variable wages. We will try to determine if there is a statistical difference among the two groups at 95% significance level.
- Null Hypothesis, H0: The difference between Male and Female group means is equal to 0.
- Alternative Hypothesis, H1: The difference between Male and Female means is not 0.
Table 4: Group Statistics
|Gender||N||Mean||Std. Deviation||Std. Error Mean|
Table 5: Independent Sample T-Test
|Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances||t-test for Equality of Means|
|F||Sig.||t||df||Sig. (2-tailed)||Mean Difference||Std. Error Difference||95% Confidence Interval of the Difference|
|Mean Wages||Equal variances assumed||.964||.329||1.135||76||.260||.14158||.12475||-.10688||.39005|
|Equal variances not assumed||1.107||58.830||.273||.14158||.12791||-.11438||.39755|
Since the P-value for Levene’s test (0.964) is greater than 0.05, we use values for Equal Variances assumed. From the results, since p-value for significance level (0.329) is greater than 0.05 we fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the mean of wages between the male and female group is not statistically different.
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and two factor ANOVA. ANOVA test has been done based on the following on the following criteria, if p-value is greater than 0.05, and F less than Fcrit, that means the responses are not significantly different. Whereas, if p-value is less than 0.05, and F is greater than Fcrit, this mean that the responses are significantly different. The following hypotheses are for education level and wages:
- H0. Education level has a significant impact on wages.
- H1. Education level does not have any significant impact on wages.
Table 6: ANOVA Analysis Table for Education Level and Wages
|Sum of Squares||df||Mean Square||F||Sig.|
The p-value (0.786) is greater than 0.05, therefore we reject the null hypothesis (H0) and state that education level does not have any significant effect on wages. This might be because of remuneration procedure for the organization.
The following hypotheses are for gender and environment:
- H0. Gender has a significant impact on work environment.
- H1. Gender does not have any significant impact on work environment.
Table 7: ANOVA Analysis Table for Gender and Work Environment
|Sum of Squares||df||Mean Square||F||Sig.|
The p-value from the ANOVA table above is 0.828, this is greater than 0.05. Therefore, we reject the null hypothesis and state that gender does not have significant effect on how an employee will rate work environment.
The following hypotheses are for position and working hours:
- H0. Job position has a significant impact on working hours.
- H1. Job position does not have any significant impact on working hours.
Table 8: ANOVA Analysis Table for Job Position and Working Hours
|Sum of Squares||df||Mean Square||F||Sig.|
From the table, p-value is 0.443. This is greater than the significance level, which is 0.05. Hence we reject the null hypothesis. This suggests that perception of how employees view the working hours cannot be affected by the employee’s position in the organisation.
For further analysis between independent and dependent variables, two factor ANOVA was done. The level of significance is 0.05. The hypothesis formed are:
- H0: Gender does not have significant effect on variable wages.
- H1: Gender does have significant effect on variable wages.
- H0: Education level does not have significant effect on variable wages.
- H2: Education level does have significant effect on variable wages.
- H0: Gender and Education level does not have significant effect on wages.
- H3: Gender and Education level does have significant effect on variable wages.
|Table for two factor ANOVA test of between dependent variable wages and independent variables, gender and level of education|
|Source||Type III Sum of Squares||df||Mean Square||F||Sig.||Partial Eta Squared|
|Gender * Education||.904||2||.452||1.614||.206||.044|
|a. R Squared =.084 (Adjusted R Squared =.005)|
From the data, the significance level for variable gender effecting wages, the p-value is 0.023. This value is lower than the significance level of 0.05, hence we reject the H0 and state that Gender does have an effect on variable wages. This can be supported by the value of Partial Eta squared which is 0.072 or 7.2% of the gender data has an effect on wages. The p-value for independent variable education is 0.696. This value is greater than significance level of 0.05, thus we fail to reject H0 and state that Education level does not have significant effect on variable wages. Also only 0.020 or 2% of education data can cause variance on wages. The p-value for both independent variables gender and education is 0.206. This value is greater than the significance level of 0.05. Hence we fail to reject H0, and state that Gender and Education level does not have significant effect on variable wages.
Test for association (Correlation analysis). Correlational analysis was done to show the relationship, whether positive or negative for all the variables and also to show the strength of the relationship.
Table 9: Correlation Table
|Working hours||Work Environment||Wages||Employee Performance||Attitude|
|Working hours||Pearson Correlation||1|
|Work Environment||Pearson Correlation||.509**||1|
|Employee Performance||Pearson Correlation||.441**||.417**||.429**||1|
|**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).|
From the table, all the variables have a positive relationship with each other. This is because all the values for Pearson correlation was positive. The highest correlation coefficient is 0.685, between attitude and employee performance which shows a positive relationship with moderate strength exists. The lowest is 0.417 which is work environment and employee performance. This is against what literature says, but this result could be as a result of the way the questions in the questionnaire were structured. Generally, the other variables have a positive correlation with moderate strength since they range between 0.4-0.56.
Test for influence
Multiple linear regression analysis. Further analysis to show relationship between the variables multiple regression was done. The aim of the regression analysis was to find how the dependent variable (employee performance) is affected by independent variable (wages, working hours, attitude and work environment). Regression analysis results can also give us a linear model on how to predict the dependent variable using the independent variables.
Table 10: Table for R and R Square
|Model||R||R Square||Adjusted R Square||Std. Error of the Estimate|
The able above shows value for R and R-squared. The R value is 0.696 which represent the correlation coefficient between the independent variables and dependent variable. The value of R-squared is 0.485. This can be interpreted as 48.5% of the data of independent variables (wages, working hours, attitude, and work environment) can be used to predict the dependent variable in this model. The other 51.5% can be from data from other variables in the research.
Table 11: Table for Regression Model
|Model||Sig.||Unstandardized Coefficients (B)|
The above table, in the first column, shows how significant the independent variables are in predicting the dependent variable. The significance level for this test was set at 0.05. Hence the most suitable independent variable is Attitude since it has significant level of 0.00. The other variables have their significant levels greater than 0.05.
The model for this regression model is:
- Employee performance= 0.985+0.46Working hours+0.137Work environment-0.125Wages+.107attitude.
The above model can be used to predict the value of employee performance from the values of independent variables.
Hierarchical regression analysis (Mediation analysis). This test was done to show if variable attitude has a mediation effect on regression of dependent variable (Employee performance) and independent variables (wages, work hours and work environment). The results can be analysed using change in R-squared and the p-value of the change of significance. The test was done using 95% level.
Table 12: Hierarchical Regression Model
|Model||R||R Square||Adjusted R Square||Std. Error of the Estimate||Change Statistics|
|R Square Change||F Change||df1||df2||Sig. F Change|
|a. Predictors: (Constant),Wages, Working hours, Work Environments|
|b. Predictors: (Constant), Wages, Working hours, Work Environments, Attitude|
Model used 3 independent variables (wages, working hours, work environments) to predict employee performance. Then for model 2 variable attitude was added to the test, making 4 independent variables to predict employee performance. For model 1, the R-square value is.234, which can be interpreted as 23.4% of the 3 independent variables (wages, working hours and work environments) can cause variance in the dependent variable. After adding variable attitude in model 2, now the test was done using 4 independent variables (wages, working hours, work environments and attitude). The R-square from model 2 is.457, implying that 45.7% of the data now can cause a variance in the model. The R-square change is.221 or 22.1%. Both significance level for model 1 and 2 is below 0.05. And the change in significance level after adding model 2 is also 0.00, less than the significance level (0.05). This change in value in R-square and the significance level of the p-value suggest that variable attitude can be a mediating variable in the relationship between dependent variable (employee performance) and independent variables (wages, working hours and work environments).
A qualitative analysis of the study reveals several things. The first is that there are more male than female employees in the Abu Dhabi Police Headquarters office. This is a critical realisation as it also helps one understand the findings. It is important to mention that the issue of gender plays a significant role in employee performance. This is due to the fact that work environment that is toxic towards one gender will make them demotivated, thereby, affect overall employee performance. Additionally, the data collected indicates that the police force had people from other nationalities (14%). Again, this impacts the views of the respondents and will be crucial in understanding the findings recorded. Further, a significant number of the respondents were single, meaning that they were also junior employees. They represented 57.89% of the sample population. The stated biodata is critical in the qualitative analysis going forward.
A key finding of the study is that there is a moderate positive relationship between working hours and employees’ attitude. A significant number of the respondents (37.97%) agreed that working more hours makes them less energetic and significantly demotivated. Critically, 35 respondents out of the 114 skipped the question. The realisation is significant to the study as it supports the first hypothesis that was being tested. One can argue that the result also links to the age and experience of the respondents, who as mentioned earlier are younger. Whereas there were significantly older and superior employees in the study, the fact that a majority were between the ages of 25 and 34 (59.65) ensures that their collective generational opinions were stronger. Arguably, therefore, younger police officers will be negatively affected by working longer than agreed hours. This will also affect their motivation, in turn, lowering employee performance.
A second key finding was that there was a low positive relationship between work environment and staff attitude. The finding is critical as it elaborates how the staff feel about their work environment, thereby, organizational culture. Indeed, 48.10% of the sample population agreed that the office working space was enough to promote their efforts. Another 17.72% agreed strongly with the statement, while 12.66% disagreed. The remaining 17.72% neither agreed nor disagreed with the statement. The realisation suggests that the Abu Dhabi Police Headquarters has ensured that the work environment, inclusive of the work culture, is favourable to the employees. 40.51% of the sample size agreed that the furniture they used in the office was comfortable enough for them and 48.10% stated that interpersonal relationships with colleagues was important to them as well. Importantly, 44.87% agreed with the fact that they felt their working environment was positive and appropriate.
The third major finding was that there was a moderate positive relationship between employees’ attitudes and the wages they received. Critically, 33.93% of the sample size were in middle-level management and 23.21% were junior officers. Additionally, 29.46% were specialists and only 13.39% were in top management. It can be argued that if the study had more junior officers, then this realisation would have been strong. Regardless, the study proves the hypothesis correct in regards to establishing a relationship between wages and attitude. This is due to the fact that the study also reveals that 50% of the respondents believe that wages directly affect their productivity and overall performance.
The research methodology used proved useful for the type of study conducted. The researcher used both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Further, the researcher designed a close-ended questionnaire that was pre-tested for reliability and viability. It is important to note that the combination of methodological approaches was necessitated by the type of study conducted. Four of the research questions could be easily answered through quantitative approach where one had to be answered through qualitative approach. Additionally, the sample population was 114 staff of the Abu Dhabi police headquarters. The sample was lower than expected but still viable for the study.
Discussion and Conclusion
This section will discuss the findings that were realised from both the primary and secondary data collected. Additionally, conclusions will be made based on the discussions.
5 hypotheses. The following section gives a discussion of the 5 hypotheses through correlation.
Hypothesis 1 attempted to answer the question; what is the relationship between work hours and AD Police employees’ attitude? The two variables are work hours and attitude.
- H0. The correlation coefficient of the two variables is 0; there is no association.
- H1. The correlation coefficient is not 0; a positive or negative correlation could exist.
|Table 13: Correlations for Working hours and Attitude|
|Spearman’s rho||Working hours||Correlation Coefficient||1.000|
|**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).|
Hypothesis 2 will attempt to answer the question; how work environment affects AD Police employees’ attitude? The two variables are work environment and attitude.
- H0. The correlation coefficient of the two variables is 0; there is no association.
- H2. The correlation coefficient is not 0; a positive or negative correlation could exist
|Table 14: Correlation of Work Environment and Attitude|
|Spearman’s rho||Work Environment||Correlation Coefficient||1.000|
|**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).|
Hypothesis 3 will answer the question; do wages changes AD Police employees’ attitude? The two variables are wages and attitude.
- H0. The correlation coefficient of the two variables is 0; there is no association.
- H3. The correlation coefficient is not 0; a positive or negative correlation could exist
|Table 15: Correlations of Wages and Attitude|
|Spearman’s rho||Wages||Correlation Coefficient||1.000|
|**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).|
Hypothesis 4 will attempt to answer the question; what is the relationship between AD Police employees’ attitude and employee performance?
- H0. The correlation coefficient of the two variables is 0; there is no association.
- H4. The correlation coefficient is not 0; a positive or negative correlation could exist
|Table 16: Correlations of Employee Performance and Attitude|
|Spearman’s rho||Employee Performance||Correlation Coefficient||1.000|
|**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).|
The last hypothesis attempted to the answer the question; does AD Police employees’ attitude meditates the relationship between working hours, work environment, wages and employee performance?
Summary (accepted or rejected)
From table 13, the p-value is significant (p<0.01) and therefore the correlation is significant. Therefore, we accept H1. The correlation coefficient is 0.511 between variable working hours and attitude. This shows suggests it is a positive relationship with moderate strength.
The p-value from table 14 is less than 0.01, hence it is significant and we accept H2. The strength between the variables work environment and attitude is 0.47 which suggests a positive relationship with a moderate strength.
From table 15, the p-value is less than 0.01, thus we reject H0 and accept the H3. The correlation coefficient between the variables wages and attitude is 0.529. This implies a positive relationship with a moderate strength.
P-value from table 16 is less than 0.01 which suggest the test is significant. Hence we reject H0 and accept H4, which states there is a relationship between employee performance and attitude. The correlation coefficient is 0.627, hence a strong positive correlation exists between the variables.
Table 17: Discussion Table
|Questions||Results/Findings||Comparison with Literature review|
|What is the relationship between work hours and AD Police employees’ attitude?||Work hours and AD Police employees’ attitude have a positive relationship with a moderate strength.||Similar|
|How work environment affects AD Police employees’ attitude?||Work environment has a positive effect on employees’ attitude.||Similar|
|Do wages changes AD Police employees’ attitude?||Wages changes AD police employees’ attitude positively with a moderate strength.||Similar|
|What is the relationship between AD Police employees’ attitude and employee performance?||The AD employees’ attitude effects employee performance positively.||Similar|
|Does AD Police employees’ attitude meditates the relationship between working hours, work environment, wages and employee performance?||The variable from the regression analysis shows it meditates between the dependent and independent variable.||Similar|
In conclusion, there is a relationship between wages, work environment, work hours and employee participation. All these elements are tied together by employee attitude. Therefore, if employees have positive attitudes towards the stated variables, they are more likely to perform better. The study was able to prove the hypotheses true through both qualitative and quantitative approaches.
There was one primary limitation of the study and that was the few studies that have been conducted on the same topic. The literature review was challenging due to the fact that there are few available sources on the same. Indeed, there are numerous studies done in other parts of the world on employee attitude and performance but few have focused on the police. This makes this study that more crucial. A secondary ethical limitation of the study also arose due to the nature of the work of the police officers. In order to avert this limitation, the researcher did not collect personal information, such as name of work identification number. This was in an effort to protect both the respondents and the study itself.
From the knowledge and experienced gained in undertaking this particular study, it can be recommended that more research be done in future. In particular, there is little research on the entire subject in relation to United Arab Emirates or Abu Dhabi. Therefore, more studies are required towards understanding the subject as a whole.
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