Managing Organizational Employee Retention

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Introduction

There are numerous ways in which managers try to ensure employee retention. Alferaih, Sarwar, and Eid (2018) argue that one of the most used asset for employee retention is salary reviews. This means that the management has to ensure that the payments made to their staff are not only fair but that they also gives the employee a chance to achieve some of his or her personal goals. Al Mansoori (2017) explains that a significant number of employees who leave an organization do so due to low wages. This makes them that much easier to poach. Indeed, there are numerous ways in which employers ensure that the package they offer is competitive. One is through acknowledging the different packages in the industry and aligning their offers to the same. Secondly, the management has to also consider the qualifications of the staff. Ideally, even though staff are often judged on basic qualifications, there are some who are more qualified than others. Critically, the work environment also plays a significant role in ensuring staff retention within a specific firm. This study looks at the different strategies that managers can use to improve employee retention. It will focus on 21st century companies due to the new challenges that are enhanced by the digital economy. The study will use qualitative methodology to come up with findings and conclusions of the same.

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Aim

To discuss and formulate strategies on how 21st century organizations can improve employee retention through effective employee relations strategies.

Objectives

  1. To identify how retention strategy reduces turnover.
  2. To discuss employee retention strategies.
  3. To analyse the interrelationships of employee engagement with employee retention.
  4. To identify the role of middle level managers in staff retention strategy.
  5. To recommend best practice strategies in improving employee retention and talent management for organizational success.

Literature Review

Employee retention is affected by various elements. Bhandari and Verma (2013) argue that the most important element is salary or remuneration. The Watson (2020) argues that employees leave their work place when they feel like they are not compensated enough. Indeed, there are businesses that cannot afford to pay their staff as much as multinationals. Therefore, the employee has to first acknowledge the ability of the management to reach their expected salary. Bacchetta and Van Wincoop (2013) note that numerous firms ask potential candidates to state their current and expected pay to ensure that they can afford the same. These offers have to be reconsidered after a while in order to maintain staff inside the company. For example, companies have policies such that salaries increase by a certain percentage every year to help curb issues of inflation. Additionally, there are packages that are often given, such as holiday bonuses, leave days with pay, and even holiday benefits that have to be considered when discussing employee severance. Furrer (2016) explains that when a company’s turnover is high, the first investigations try to understand whether the staff believes they are paid fairly. Therefore, it is arguable that the same applies in the event that management wants to stop staff from leaving the organization.

Additionally, job satisfaction is critical in understanding why employees stay or leave their work environments. There are numerous things that target employee job satisfaction (Zeffane and Bani-Melhem, 2017). First, as mentioned before, the issue of compensation is vital for job satisfaction. On the other hand, the work environment can also have an impact on the same. Al Mamun and Hasan (2017) argue that when employees enjoy their work environment, they are more likely to also be satisfied. In turn, they will have less reasons to leave their work station. Junejo, Ashraf and Shaikh (2020) note that many companies do not think much about their organizational culture and how it affects staff turnover. The scholar goes further to note that employees who are comfortable in their work stations are more likely to also be tolerant towards lesser pay. These assumptions put significant importance and relevance on work environment as a whole and not just the different elements that affect the same. Critically, culture is key in ensuring both staff retention and employee productivity. A viable and positive culture will ensure that the employees are in their best shape to achieve organizational excellence (Jabeen and Isakovic, 2018). In turn, this will have a direct impact on the company’s return on investment and bottom line.

The larger aspects of work environment can also be linked to the relationships that exist and thrive within the same culture. Goldfarb, Greenstein, and Tucker (2015) note that there are two main types of relationships that are found in all work places. The first is employee-to-employee relations. These are often determined by the political stance of the affected employees. Karam (2017) explains that numerous types of politics that are found in the work space affect the individual employees in one way or the other. For example, team players are more likely to get along with each other as compared to gossipers. It is prudent that management not only understand the different teams in their work space but also acknowledge their behavior towards each other (Baker and Saren, 2016). Such monitoring will ensure that the company manages its culture. Thus, allowing all staff to thrive. The second type of relationship is employee-management relations. Tong (2018) argues that currently, companies have employed “people” consultants/specialists. These staff are tasked with ensuring that the relationship between staff, regardless of status, is beneficial to both the employees and the company as a whole. The latter relationship is critical in ensuring that the employee and the company are on the same terms. If employees cannot trust their supervisors/management, they are more likely to also leave their organizations for better companies.

Additionally, employees leave their firms due to better alternatives. There are three factors that have to be considered when discussing the issue of alternatives. The three are pay/compensation, promotions and progression (Zenger, 2016). Indeed, the issue of pay and compensation has already been discussed in light with the issue of employee retention. The issue of promotion goes hand in hand with career progression. Tapia (2018) argues that all staff appreciate moving from one point of their career to another. Even though the change might be small to the company, it is almost assured that the employee affected will be more than happy with the change. Floyd and Wooldridge (2017) note that promotions can also be housed within the same job category. For example, many companies use the grading system where different employees within the same job group are still ranked differently. Therefore, one can find that instead of having one rank of “officer”, the company has “junior officer”, “mid-level officer”, and “senior officer”. A move from one of these aspects of the same job category is also viewed as a promotion despite the fact that the individual is still maintained as an officer. Saunders and Cornett (2019) note that a key mistake companies make is assume promotions only mean more money. However, the added responsibility is also a key part of the process.

Notably, job quality and design are also important in keeping employees motivated and retaining them. Smith and Hanover (2016) note that job quality refers to respect and ability to fully utilize one’s knowledge and skills in their given task. Rao and Klein (2015) note that toxic work places do not trust their employees to make decisions. It is important to note that such trust is closely associated with respect as well. Randhawa and Komal (2018) note that employers should always select competent candidates who can make decisions without much supervision. On the same note, the decisions made by the staff, regardless of their level, should be respected and guided, if necessary. Putting blame on junior employees will result in high turnover of the same staff to better firms, where they feel appreciated and respected. Pedro and Cagica (2017) explain that giving staff such responsibility allows them to grow in their careers as well. Therefore, they will stay if they can achieve their personal career goals in the stated company. Job design refers mainly to the nature of the work given in relation to that person’s interests (Al Abdouli and Ali, 2017). It is common to find people doing jobs that they do not like. Many times, there are individuals who work in areas they did not primarily study, but have gained experience over the years. If such work is not done due to passion but rather as an opportunity to earn a living, then chances are the affected will leave the organization when an alternative opportunity presents itself.

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Critically, the recruitment process ties closely to job quality and design. Pandita and Ray (2018) note that the initial interaction with the employee can either ensure a highly motivated staff or otherwise. The recruitment process should ideally identify the best candidates for the positions. It is important to note that this is a vital part of ensuring employee retention. Oyku (2018) explains that when the right candidate is paired with the team, everyone flourishes. The right candidate will first have the needed qualifications to do the job. This will ensure that other employees are not burdened by the incompetency of the selected candidate, in turn, still leading to a high turnover. Further, the selected individual’s capabilities will allow management to trust their work and opinion, in turn, fostering a healthy relationship between all the involved. Ogbonnaya, Daniels and Nielsen (2017) explain that this will work for the benefit of both the employee and the employer. Additionally, the recruitment process should also include the determination of whether the selected candidate fits within the culture of the institution. As mentioned, work environment is essential in discussing stay retention. Different employees, even those who are highly qualified, will react differently towards the organizational culture. Mishkin and Eakins (2018) explain that despite the fact that culture can be taught, the selected candidates must show some similarities and adherence to the organizational culture set. This ensures a seamless transition for the employee, in turn, lowering chances of turnover.

Training and development are key in ensuring satisfaction among employees. Mishra (2017) explains that management have to come up with two types of trainings for all their employees. The first is job specific workshops that target the core role of the individual in question. Massoudi and Hamdi (2017) note that a significant number of employees get their primary training before they join the workplace. However, new advances in all sectors of the work industry crop up every now and then. It is important that staff be up to date with these new advancements. The best way to ensure this is through frequent and controlled training workshops. The second type of raining targets all employees. Therefore, regardless of the kind of work one does, they have to attend the stated workshops. These trainings offer general skills that can be used anywhere and anytime. For example, employees can be trained on the new ERP system that has been installed in the company. This not only ensures competency in all areas but also that the employees feel treasured and appreciated. Therefore, it is arguable that employees who receive constant and valuable training are less likely to leave their organization.

Socialization and burnout are also critical aspects of employee retention. Arguably, employees who feel tired and burnt out are more likely to leave their work for better opportunities (Lathabhavan and Balasubramanian, 2017). They will also constantly be in search for these better opportunities as opposed to concentrating on their work. This will affect the whole team’s performance. There are numerous activities that managements use to ensure employees do not get burnt out (Kumar, 2017). For instance, they use paid leave days to ensure that employees can get their rest. Employees are also entitled to maternity and paternity leaves, study leaves and off days. Corporations that offer these rest days without pay are more likely to have high employee turnover. Critically, there are companies that have the stated benefits but do not offer the employees the needed time to actually use their rest days. For instance, Lemoyne et al. (2018) explain that despite having all these benefits on paper work, a significant number of professionals working in Abu Dhabi do not use them. One reason for this is few staff such that rest days are only taken when absolutely necessary. It is arguable that such companies or corporations will still suffer from high employee turnover despite having the mentioned benefits.

On the same note, job security is critical in understanding why employees leave their work places. Critically, as Litz, Hourani, and Scott (2020) note, organizations that do not offer work security will most likely also record high employee turnover. There are various factors that can be considered under job security. First, long term contracts are perceived to ensure better staff retention compared to short term contracts. A significant number of countries are currently struggling with low employment, particularly in regards to jobs that offer security. The nature of the economy has made it that much difficult for staff to get such long term contracts. Additionally, the younger generation’s expectation in regards to how long they have to stay in one job differs greatly from previous generations. All these have to be considered when discussing job security and employee retention. The issue of generational differences is also critical, as Kundu and Lata (2017) note. Generation Y, who are currently in the work place are not keen on staying in one workplace for the rest of their career, unlike their predecessors, generation X (Jackson, 2019).). This means that the management has to come up with various creative ways of lowering their turnover.

Methodology

Induction Vs Deduction

Two broad approaches were discussed in relation to their relevance to the study. The two approaches were induction and deduction methodologies. Hitt et al. (2013) define the induction approach as the use of specific aspects to come up with much broader generalizations. It is often referred to as the bottom-up approach to research. In some instances, researchers already know what they want to find out from a study. Therefore, they test this theory in an attempt to come up with viable and as stated, more general, observations of the same. On the other hand, the deduction approach is the opposite of the former methodology. This means that the approach starts with a generalized idea that is then tested to come up with specific conclusions. Often, researchers will start by adopting a theory that relates to their topic of interest and then come up with tests that link the theory and the study in order to make more concrete conclusions. It is essential for the researcher to adopt the right approach in order to have a viable study.

The researcher used the deductive research methodology approach. This means that the researcher began with a broad aspect and understanding of the topic and used to study to reach more finite conclusions. As explained earlier, the aim of the study was to come up with strategies on how 21st century organizations can improve employee retention through effective employee relations strategies. This is a broad narrative as it includes various aspects of the topic. For instance, it includes the aspects of employee retention, staff relation strategies and also the time factor that is enhanced by the term “21st century”. It is arguable that due to the broad nature of the aim of the study, the researcher selected the right approach (deduction methodology). Not only is the topic broad but the aim can be further tested to see which strategies work and which ones do not.

Qualitative Vs Quantitative

Additionally, the researcher had to choose between qualitative and quantitative data/approaches. Quantitative methodology puts more importance on numerical data. This approach requires the researcher to design a viable tool that will then be used to collect numerical data. One advantage of this type of approach is that it can make studies that target a large sample easier. Additionally, it ensures that complex analyses are made easier through tables and graphs. On the other hand, the qualitative approach is highly descriptive and uses summaries as opposed to numerical data. One advantage of this approach is that it allows the researcher to capture more information on the topic. This is important in also coming up with relevant future research. Despite the advantages mentioned, both approaches have their shortcomings. Quantitative research requires much time and resources to complete due to the expected large number of research participants. On the other hand, qualitative research can be bulky as it is highly descriptive.

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The researcher chose the quantitative approach. The methodology was best suited for the study due to the fact that it would have made the complex data collected easier to understand. On the same note, the researcher planned to use a questionnaire to collect the needed data. The target population was defined and comprised of seven corporations, both local and multinational. It is critical to also note that the initial sample size was made up of 500 respondents across the seven companies. Critically, this sample size is too large to be used in qualitative approach, hence the decision to use quantitative approach. Further, due to the nature of the selected methodology, the researcher planned on using both quantitative and qualitative data analysis approaches. This meant that there would be both descriptive and numerical analysis of the data that was collected.

Impact of COVID 19

Interestingly, the plans that had been selected had to be changed significantly due to the impact of the corona virus pandemic. First, due to the pandemic, the researcher was not able to reach out to the identified corporations to request the needed participation. Therefore, there was no way of reaching the sample size. It is important to note that there are numerous measures that have to be observed now as part of the new normal. Interacting with people is not encouraged due to the high transmission rate of the virus. It is also critical to note that the researcher had initially opted to do the quantitative research online by sending out emails. However, this also proved futile due to the fact that a significant number of the sample population either lost their jobs or started working from home because of the pandemic. Debatably, the whole aspect of dealing with a pandemic, loss of work and the uncertainty involved with the stated condition made it impossible to gather primary data.

It is important to note that the researcher was keen to ensure viability of the study. Therefore, due to the nature of the economy and socio-cultural life in general, it was deemed necessary to change the initial approach. Therefore, the researcher adopted qualitative approach that fully relied on the use of previous studies. This, combined with the literature review, was then (through a descriptive approach) used to come up with specific strategies as per the research aim and objectives. It is critical to note that the information collected through the secondary sources was viable and reliable. The researcher ensured this by selected peer reviewed journals that had been published in renowned publications. Fortunately, the topic had been extensively covered and there were many studies that had been done on the same. These studies, and their findings, proved critical in coming up with the viable strategies.

Secondary Data Analysis

To ensure that the aim of the study was achieved, the secondary data collection was done according to the five research objectives set. This section will give previous studies done on the individual objectives.

Retention Strategy Reducing Turnover

There is a direct relationship between the retention strategy used and employee turnover. Alferaih, Sarwar, and Eid (2018) conducted a study of 518 respondents that showed tolerance towards one type of strategy as opposed to another. It is important to note that the scholars concluded that the type of strategy that is to be used should not be based on theoretical success but on the needs of the employees. The scholars further conclude that enough research is needed on a per company basis to determine the retention strategy that would work best for that particular firm. According to Alferaih, Sarwar, and Eid (2018), there was a 68% variance in turnover intention among the sample size.

This study is complemented by one that only focused on the 20th and 21st centuries. Hassan et al. (2019) focused on the generational differences, how they affect the choice of retention strategy, and, in turn, how that affects employee turnover. The researchers realized that the strategies that worked for generation Y would most likely not work for generation X and vice versa. This creates a challenge as many companies have a mixture of the two generations. The researchers conclude that the best option is to provide the two generations with alternatives that also support their generational differences in order to reduce employee turnover and enhance retention.

Viable Employee Retention Strategies

As explained previously, there are numerous ways in which managements around the world have tried to lower staff turnover. Al Mamun and Hasan (2017) looked into some of these strategies through a scientific study and came up with several sound ones. However, the scholars do not tie their findings to generational aspects. One finding revealed by the scholars was that compensation/pay as a retention strategy is currently not working. Analyzing their data, one can explain that a significant number of the participants who did not think money would work as a retention strategy was made up of generational Y (21st century).

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A viable retention strategy that was selected by the participants was a flexible, safe and open work environment. The scholars explain that 70% of their participants agreed that a flexible working environment was a key element when they consider turnover. Therefore, companies that offered flexible plans such as working from home and flexi hours were preferred compared to the traditional 8am to 5pm office work. Again, it can be argued that the realization was due to the higher number of generation Y that was present in the program. However, as mentioned, the scholars do not make it clear and this is just an assumption arrived at after reviewing the data presented. The following figure shows some of the data presented by the mentioned scholars.

Sound Retention Strategies
Figure 1: Sound Retention Strategies

Interrelationships Between Employee Engagement and Employee Retention

Indeed, there is also a direct relationship between engagement and staff retention. Pandita and Ray (2018), through their study, argue that talent management culminates in staff turnover. Therefore, the scholars present this as a relationship that has to be discussed when dealing with staff retention. Additionally, the scholars believe that the same employee engagement can be used as a tool to ensure retention. The argument goes hand in hand with some of the findings realized in the literature review. It is important to note that the scholars also present scholarly peer reviewed articles to come up with their conclusions.

Additionally, there is an interrelationship between employee engagement and retention as boosted by training and development. Fletcher, Alfes and Robinson (2018) argue that the two aspects are related through the impact of training and development in that employees who are well trained will also enhance engagement and in so doing will also enhance staff retention. On the same note, management can use the same trainings and development approaches to boost staff retention and in so doing also encourage employee engagement. Further, the scholars conclude that the issue of retention can be managed through proper communication between the employee and the employer. The figure below summarizes findings by Agarwal (2018).

Figure 2: Staff Retention Strategy Elements

actors 1 2 3 4
1. Retention Strategy
2. Employee stress 0.276*
3. Talent awareness 0.051 -0.066
4. Brand loyalty -0.043 0.181 0.085

Role of Middle Level Managers in Staff Retention Strategy

There are numerous studies that have been done linking middle management to staff turnover. Watson (2020) argues that the middle managers are the link between junior staff and top management. Therefore, it is their role to ensure that both parties are satisfied and happy to further ensure that there is little staff turnover. The scholar explains that one role of middle level managers in staff retention strategy is ensuring the implementation of the same. This is critical in that proper implementation is vital in determining whether the retention strategies selected will work or not. For instance, a company might have the right retention strategy but implementation might be wrong, hence, the whole process will be faulty.

The issue of worker attitude is also critical in understanding the role of middle managers in ensuring staff retention. Gopinath (2020) explains that the middle managers are responsible for ensuring the junior staff are happy. This is due to the fact that they act as the middle ground between the staff and the top management. Therefore, any communication between the junior workers and the top management will have to go through the middle managers. The scholar concludes that middle management has to ensure that the worker attitude is positive as part of their role in employee retention strategy.

Recommendations for Best Practice Strategies in Improving Employee Retention and Talent Management for Organizational Success

Several best practices can be recommended from previous studies done on the topic. First, Kundu and Lata (2017) argue that one best practice is the provision of a viable, healthy, and progressive work environment. The scholars argue that this is critical in determining whether employees will stay or leave the organization after a few months or years. It is important to note that the ideal working environment is always changing. The issue of the differences between the 20th and 21st century employee stress this point. To ensure that the environment is viable for everyone, management has to do constant research on how best they can improve the experience of the staff.

Further, it can be recommended that proper talent management should be done to ensure employee retention. As mentioned earlier, selecting the right candidates for positions within the company will make it easier to manage stay turnover. This recommendation is further cemented by the fact that leadership strategies are also important in ensuring staff retention. When the management/leadership allows staff to thrive, they will have less reasons to leave.

Discussions

There are several findings from the data analysis that can be discussed. This section will also be presented in regards to the research objectives set in order to also discuss whether the objectives were achieved or not.

Retention Strategy and Employee Turnover

One of the findings realized is that generational differences have to be considered in employee retention. Indeed, there are numerous differences in terms of attitudes, expectations and general way of working between older and younger generations in the workplace. These differences are common across the generational cohorts and are advanced by experiences. It can be argued that the strategies that affect generation X will not be as effective in generation Y due to the fact that they have different experiences. A significant number of generation Y were taught to work within the same organization for a significant number of years in order to earn promotions. On the other hand, the younger generation Y are the exact opposite. They believe that creativity is a better element for promotion as opposed to loyalty to the company.

Therefore, for the 21 century worker, retention strategies have to be tied to employee turnover as numerous companies are still using strategies meant for a different generation. It is important to also note that the 21st century worker craves more responsibility and as mentioned, the space to be creative in their work, if these two elements are carefully considered, then staff retention will be upheld.

Employee Retention Strategies

The findings reveal that work environment is a critical retention strategy. Ideally, work environment should be the only retention strategy as it encompasses numerous things. First, a health work environment boosts a positive organizational culture. Such a culture ensures that employees feel valued and are able to offer their opinions for decision making purposes. In turn, they will feel like part of the company and the sense of ownership will also foster employee retention. This finding goes hand in hand with the realizations made in the literature review. It is also important to note that a positive work environment will also encourage fair compensation for work done. Therefore, it also tackles the issue of pay, compensation, and benefits.

Critically, staff retention is also enhanced through significant relationships within the work environment. Such relationships, especially those that involve the employee and his or her supervisor, are important to ensure a healthy environment. Any instances of biases and favoritism can affect staff turnover. It is critical that such approaches be transparent. Additionally, the work environment also includes the issue of promotions and career advancements. In an ideal work culture, promotions are fair and transparent, ensuring that all the employees feel like they have the same chance at progressing their careers like anyone else.

Interrelationships of Employee Engagement with Employee Retention

Indeed, there are various elements that can be suggested as interrelationships between employee engagement and retention. One element that was realized to be highly influential is talent management. As explained, in the literature review, there is a need for managers to ensure they attract the best talents for their company. At times, hiring managers might meet candidates who are qualified yet do not fit within their organizations due to clashing personalities. In the event that such a candidate gets a job in the company, his or her chances of leaving are high due to the specified clash.

Employee engagement can be used to determine retention. It is arguable that employees in the 21st century like to be involved in issues such as decision making within their departments. Due to this, there is a strong need for engagement as much as possible. Therefore, companies that do not offer chances for such engagements will still record high employee turnover despite offering large salary packages. On the other hand, retention can be used as part of employee engagement as well. Surveys and employee feedback is a critical part of staff engagement. This information can be useful in ensuring staff engagement and in turn, ensure retention.

Role of Middle Level Managers in Staff Retention Strategy

Indeed, it is important to note that even when a company has developed the best retention strategy, the implementation has to be done well in order to record success. The middle managers are the primary caretakers of the retention strategy. To ensure success, it is critical to ensure that they also buy into the need to create a retention strategy. They should also understand their role in ensuring the successful implementation of the staff retention strategy. The findings revealed that middle level managers are also key in ensuring worker attitude. This is critical as it not only trickles down to the work environment but also touches on how top management select employees into top management.

As stated, the 21st century work place is different to the 20th. One of the key differences is that younger people are getting an opportunity to hold senior positions due to creativity and hard work unlike before when this was mainly based on experience and number of years spent with the same company. Notably, the same young employees form a significant part of the middle management in the workplace. This is an important realization as it also determines how this specific group of employees will take the retention strategy.

Best Practice Strategies

One of the recommendations given as a best practice is the use of talent management approaches to ensure staff retention. This recommendation is a combination of both the secondary data collected and the literature review done. Ideally, the company should choose employees who are more likely to stay in the organization. Such employees are often qualified both in terms of knowledge and skills and personality. It is this reason that encourages recruiting managers to use personality tests when getting the right candidate. If this approach is adopted as a best practice, then it will be easier for the company to record proper employee retention. On the same note, the practice will ensure that the employees are also provided with the best work environment for success.

Importantly, research on employee satisfaction should also be done as a best practice. The findings reveal that the work environment keeps changing and management has to ensure that the strategy is flexible enough to accommodate the changes. Whether the changes are generational or technological, it is important to have a flexible strategy that is guided by research. The current corona virus pandemic has made this best practice that more important. Companies that did not have needed infrastructure for their employees to work remotely are struggling to cope with the new normal.

Ethics

The biggest ethical concern for the researcher was the changing of the methodology due to the impact of the COVID 19 pandemic. The researcher needed to redesign the study in order to note only provide a viable study but also one that is reliable and based on facts. As explained, using the same approach would have been possible but would have included several loopholes that would have encouraged bias. It is for this main reason that the researcher changed the methodology completely from quantitative to qualitative.

Conclusions

In conclusion, the research study aimed at coming up with retention strategies for the 21st century employer through effective employee relations approaches. The study was highly affected by the COVID 19 pandemic that forced the researcher to change the methodology from quantitative to qualitative. Further, the researcher employed the use of deductive approach to come up with conclusions on the same. It is important to note that the study had five main objectives that guided both the literature review and the secondary data collection. The five objectives were to identify how retention strategy reduces turnover; to discuss employee retention strategies; to analyse the interrelationships of employee engagement with employee retention. to identify the role of middle level managers in staff retention strategy; to recommend best practice strategies in improving employee retention and talent management for organizational success.

Importantly, the findings and the literature review were concurrent. First, both revealed that a vital retention strategy includes the a positive, safe and progressive work environment. It was revealed that the 21st employee puts more importance on the work environment than anything else. Such an environment should, however, promote fairness and respect among all employees. It is also important to note that a second retention strategy is the use of talent management to lower staff turnover. The premise suggests that hiring the right people will lower their chances of leaving the organization. There are several factors that have to be considered when trying to hire the right employee. First, they have to be qualified for the job with the right skills and knowledge. Secondly, they have to fit within the organization culture. This is normally tested through personality tests.

Recommendations

It is recommended that the issue of employee retention be viewed as a wholesome part of organizational culture. Many companies struggle with retention and turnover as they see the process as separate. Notably, if perceived to be part of the process, the management will also incorporate the same approaches into everyday practices that make the experience better for the employees. It is critical to note that one way of doing so, as stated, is through attracting the right talents. The issue of talent management in connection with employee retention cannot be stressed enough. The right candidates are critical in ensuring the bottom line of the company is achieved and improved. However, few think about how it affects the working environment and culture.

Implementation Plan

The study was implemented over a period of four months. The first month was dedicated to researching and getting enough and valid information for the literature review. The second month had been dedicated for data collection. The initial timeline had put this as a two-month activity but due to the change in methodology, one month was enough to collect the secondary data needed to complete the study. The third month was dedicated to the writing of this report after analysis of the secondary data. It was expected that the researcher would also need another four weeks (the last month) to revise the report as necessary,

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