Quality management motivates decision-makers to comprehend the importance of high-quality products as crucial in launching and upholding an overall competitive position, in this regard, there is a consistent interest in research on quality management. In this investigative study, the research intends to close the gap by closely studying quality management at the hotel level.
The research paper will take the point that the hotels with the best quality performance will use a harmonized and united set of quality management practices as opposed to concentrating their energies on just a few prevalent quality management practices. As decision-makers get engaged in realizing Quality Management, concerns occur on which management practices should be highlighted. The research paper will therefore seek to answer key impacts about hotel management practices in four-star hotels.
To fix precise empirical connection of Quality management practices to Quality performance and an outline was established. It underscored both indispensable Quality management practices and the planning that fixes a system of surrounding support of its importance. Further, it integrates two important methods of quality improvement and the role they present in creating and supporting a competitive edge towards other businesses.
Quality Management contributes to a cohesive alternative of satisfying competitive benefits (Roney, 2004). In recognizing methods that inspire this approach, it fixes management ethics to establish vital Quality Management practices. Thus contribute unswervingly to superior quality management, performance, and organization practices; forming an environment that incorporates the use of efficient strategies in the use of fundamental Quality Management approaches (Hoyle, 2007). Among the objectives of the research will be to provide an assessment of the impacts of quality management practices in four-star hotels in London and make conclusions and recommendations.
As quality management is established in four-star hotels many changes are bound to occur and this triggers the need to evaluate the results in detail. Beaver (2003) clearly defines quality management as a continuous effort to provide services that meet or surpass customer expectations through a planned, systematic method for creating organizational participation in planning and fulfilling quality developments. Quality management is deliberated to be made up of four main elements which include; Quality improvement, assurance, planning, and control (Wheelen, 2008). Quality management is not centered mainly on product or service, but also on alternatives to achieve it. Therefore, quality management utilizes quality assurance and control of processes and also products to accomplish more constant quality.
Bolton (1971) states the process of quality management has several approaches that can be employed. The first method is benchmarking. Benchmarking involves the use of a standard dimension of measurement in an industry or service for comparison purposes. Benchmarking helps to establish the performance of an organization. Second, continuous improvement focuses on strengthening customer fulfillment through constant and incrementing developments to processes, including the removal of needless undertakings and variations for quality and performance. Seaver (2003) notes that failure mode and effects analysis is a tactic that when correctly delivered helps recognize and prioritize likely equipment and process failures.
Another set of management practices executed throughout organizations is the Total Quality Improvement as stated by (Foley, 1997). These practices are geared towards ensuring the organization steadily meets or surpasses customer needs.
Quantitative research aims to fix the relationship between two or more variables and quantify the findings in measurable terms. According to Pfeifer (2002), the relationship between the variables is expressed in statistical elements such as mean frequency, standard deviation, and correlation. Bengtsson (1998) explains that figures and charts may be used to visually display the results.
Quantitative research can either be descriptive or experimental. Bengtsson (1998) suggested that descriptive research is an approach where the variables are measured without changes. Experimental research involves some adjustments to the variable to find out how the variable behaves under a different stimulus or catalyst.
While quantitative research relies more on statistical methods, for example, regression analysis, qualitative research findings are analyzed based on the relationship of qualities according to (Balnaves & Caputi, 2001). In this study, since the focus is on the impacts of quality management in 4-star hotels, quantitative research will be used.
Bryman (1993) notes that any measurement should be objective also, it should be quantitative and valid statistically. Quantitative data is numerical and provides a statistical appraisal of a situation. In addition, Bryman (1993) concludes that the researcher in quantitative research is clear about what he or she must be measuring to institute the measures.
Quantitative research is important in classifying important features by either involving counting or modeling statistical models to help explain the idea. It helps researchers to know and understand clearly in advance what he or she is looking for and what to expect. It fore plans the aspects of a given study and ensures that it is designed first before actual data is collected. Also, this type of research, however, ignores the descriptive element of the data. This researcher in this paper did not use this tool for the research. Quantitative research aims at determining the quantitative relationship between two or more variables. It mainly utilizes the use of questionnaires or other equipment which are used to collect data of numerical nature.
Quantitative methods involve the collection of figures to represent statistical data as sketched by (Dess and Taylor, 2004). This data is precise because it uses accurate surveys and questionnaires and that it plays an important role in testing hypothesis because it is self-sufficient. However, the data collected might miss contextual facet and that researchers mainly tend to focus on the objective missing the big subject matter according to (Dess& Taylor, 2004). The quantitative research approach ensures that variables are measured without changes. Experimental research involves some adjustments to the variable to discover how the variable behaves under different stimuli or catalysts.
A descriptive study, also referred to as observational, relies so much on observations recorded from the behavior of the subject as signaled by (Yin, 2008). In this study, since the focus is on impacts of quality management; the researcher applied a type of descriptive study commonly referred to as case series. The advantage of this approach is that it provides a researcher with an opportunity to set a case-control.
Differences between Qualitative and Quantitative methods
The difference that arises between qualitative and quantitative research is in the kind of data they handle. Qualitative data handle qualitative data. Qualitative data captures relations or qualities. According to Bryman (1993), Qualitative research involves the analysis of words and other non-numeric correlates or links. Quantitative data is numerical and provides a statistical appraisal of a situation. The qualitative research method applies more in scenarios where the researcher is not sure of what to expect.
In quantitative research, the researcher is clear about what he or she must be measuring to institute correct measures as described by (Bryman, 1993). Besides, Crotty (1998) notes that quantitative research differs in a big way from qualitative research since it uses quantitative data or numerical measures. Qualitative research focuses more on qualities and captures data that is not numerical. According to Edwards (1982), the difference in the kind of data captured also leads to differences in the way data is recorded and analyzed. While quantitative research relies more on statistical methods for example regression analysis, qualitative research findings are analyzed based on the relation between qualities.
The impacts of quality management in 4-star hotels merit the application of both qualitative and quantitative approaches of data collection and analysis researches that are descriptive. The study analyses and describes the impacts of quality management in 4-star hotels in London. A research design has to be responsive to the situation or context of the research according to Bratton, (2001).
The research design refers to the structure or key aspects of a research project. A research design is comprised of several features such as measures, programs, groups, and kind of assignment to groups. According to Creswell (2003), a research design also gives special consideration to issues of time distribution and how to treat each aspect, especially the research respondent groups.
A descriptive study, also referred to as observational, relies on observations recorded from the behavior of the participant as described by (Bengtsson 1998). Descriptive research simplifies the general explanation or interpretation of the problem to improve understanding of the problem under study.
The design of the present qualitative descriptive study will include interviews and questionnaires to collect data about experiences related to quality management practices. The results of the interviews will be used to conclude the impacts of quality management practices in London 4-star hotels.
Data Collection and Analysis
The data collected will be reviewed by the researcher to get a representation stemming from the many information bases. The recorded statistics from the individual or group interviews will be coded according to the developing subjects that will arise from separate interviews. Throughout the process of analyzing data, detailed explanations and in-depth references will be included to strengthen understanding and provide understandings into the themes that will arise. The data will be organized after being indexed and labeled into significant and practicable categories.
Data collection from possibility samples; according to Lohr, (1999) such a sample is known as a purposive sample. Purposive samples ensure that an inference is made about the target universe. In this kind of sample, several assumptions must be made on the collection of representative data and reporting units. However, a limit of this method is that inferences cannot be drawn in purposive samples if the likelihood of a given selection is not known as stipulated by (Glaesser, 2006).
Data collection of random samples; in random samples, no assumptions are made about representativeness because all representation is needed to ensure the estimate or averages for the total population is factored as noted by (Lohr, 1999).
The impacts of quality management in four-star hotels in London will be put into focus. Several tools will be employed including data collection methods, data analysis procedures as well as protection of findings from the research. Several considerations must be made at the end of the research. The researcher will consider the extent to which the project has sufficiently performed the planned tasks and deliverables subject to agreed variations during the research work and the Quality Management aspect of such a review. Many other reasons exist that can back in examining the success of the research for example. The findings will be made available to the concerned organization for learning lessons, planning further improvements, and improving estimating techniques.
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