Business Negotiation Process: Before and After

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Negotiations are a means of communication between people, involving the achievement of consensus and agreement on both sides; they are usually aimed at concluding contracts and transactions. The tactics and strategy of conducting negotiations and proper preparation are one of the most critical stages at which the success of the upcoming decisions is laid. They include a set of actions to solve the problem, establish, and maintain effective interpersonal interactions and create a favorable atmosphere. This case study examines the main essential aspects before and during the negotiation process, based on the situation of business negotiations between the company developing GPS devices and the department.

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Key Approaches to Negotiation

The negotiation team should use a certain number of critical approaches, methods, and strategies to study the government’s negotiators and overall government activities. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of understanding the partner intends to focus attention, not on people’s positions but the fundamental interests of the “opposite side” (Brett, 2017). At the same time, the team must consider the partner’s cultural, psychological, and other characteristics. Sometimes, some of the facts obtained require analytical reflection. Basically, the success of the analysis is determined by the preparation, experience, abilities, and even intuition of the team (Brett, 2017). In addition, it is of great importance to assess the current state of affairs, actions, and intentions of the “counterparty,” predict the development of the situation and calculate their steps based on the relevant conclusions. Also, it is necessary to make a distinction between the participants and the subject of negotiations. Clarifying the positions, the parties can agree on some issues at once or defend their point of view. When conducting negotiations, the participants can indicate either what unites them or what is different. Each delegation member informs their partners about specific issues of their position, thereby opening it.

Potential Selling Points to Overcoming Any Objections

Similar equipment produced by the company’s competitors includes GPS trackers and beacons for personal use and tracking children, animals, objects, as well as tourist navigators for adventurers. To overcome any objections on price or quality of the product, the team should resort to two potential points of sale. Firstly, the primary obstacle that prevents people from making a purchase is objections related to the product’s quality characteristics. Such doubts are usually based on their own negative experience, the opinion of familiar people, reviews from websites and blogs. In this situation, the seller should ask the buyer about what does not suit and embarrasses and the experience of using this type of product. In addition, a personal demonstration of GPS guidance is another sign of the quality of the products sold and the company’s integrity.

Secondly, the phrases “it is expensive” and “I do not have much money” can hide a variety of reasons, ranging from a bad mood of the buyer to a lower price for products from competitors. At this moment, there are several ways out of the situation. For example, the seller is supposed to ask about the estimated amount of the client. He or she should convince the buyer of the validity of the purchase that goes beyond the costs and tell about all the benefits and advantages when buying a particular product. Surely, favorable conditions, discounts, and bonuses will please any person. However, one should not particularly abuse these bonuses since it does not motivate people to buy.

Essential Steps in Opening the Negotiation Session

Preparation for negotiations is a critical, fundamental stage determining further development of relations with business partners. In opening a negotiation session with the U.S. government negotiators, the team should take the following essential steps. Preparation for the opening of the negotiation session should consist of a drawn-up plan of negotiations, analysis of interpreted data, identification of means of communication, establishing contacts, and trusting relationships between participants. Moreover, the team must determine the final goal and the expected result and identify both stakeholders’ possible benefits. It is essential to choose a competent meeting place, participants in negotiations, and a contact form.

Negotiating Gambits

To conduct a successful negotiation session, I would use two negotiating gambits. The first one is “Opening Gambits,” and the second – “Middle Gambits.” The first “debut” is necessary for more thorough preparation at the beginning of negotiations, avoiding mistakes, and successful transaction execution. Such techniques will help the team as “the Flinch,” a fine sense of the emotions and feelings of a “partner (MeetingsNet, 2017).” The company should never accept the first offer but try to squeeze the price range in favor of the company (MeetingsNet, 2017). Another “gambit” is helpful in the case when the plans are disrupted. If the company wants to maintain a trusting relationship with the U.S. government, the team should, in some cases, compromise (MeetingsNet, 2017). In addition, if the conversation has reached an impasse, one needs to start with more straightforward questions, put more complex and specific tasks aside, and return to them later.

Main Reasons for the Initiative of Writing a Contract

As a negotiator, it is essential for me to write a contract instead of letting the government team dictate their terms. The first reason is to protect your company from unforeseen circumstances and force majeure. The contract should specify mutually beneficial conditions that the two interested parties are forced to observe and fulfill. The document does not infringe on the rights and opportunities of anyone in any way. In other words, everyone will do what they are obliged to do. The second reason is to show interest in the interests of the U.S. government, following common goals and tasks. The company positions itself as an honest and reliable business partner, considering all the risks, challenges, and opportunities by putting forward its conditions.

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Body Language Attributes

The team, during the entire negotiation process, should pay attention to some non-verbal means of communication. Common attributes of body language include gestures, facial expressions, intonation, the distance at which the conversation is conducted, etc (Schneider & Ebner, 2018). This is an integral part of business communication, including during negotiations. The reasons for the importance of these attributes are the following points. The most basic and critical fact is the reliability of the “said” information. Nonverbal behavior can complement verbal behavior, contradict it, replace, strengthen, or soften what is said. As practice shows, “body language” is usually spontaneous, less recognized by a person, and less amenable to control (Schneider & Ebner, 2018). This means that true attitudes and assessments are manifested in this area, internal motives are reflected (Schneider & Ebner, 2018). Despite this, in most cases, non-verbal forms and means of human communication allow people to interact, achieving mutual understanding at the emotional and behavioral levels.


Based on the above elements, one should conclude that the preparation and conduct of negotiations require a more profound, integrated approach. In this area, it is crucial to feel and understand the counterparty, to show mutual respect not only as a business partner but also as a person. Thus, for the negotiation team to formalize a contract with the US Department, it is necessary to know the basics of effective communication and understand the whole picture of the situation to anticipate the outcome.


Brett, J. M. (2017). Culture and negotiation strategy. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 32(4), pp. 587-590.

MeetingsNet (2017). 8 need-to-know negotiating gambits. MeetingsNet.

Schneider, A. K., & Ebner, N. (2018). Social intuition. The negotiator’s desk reference (Christopher Honeyman & Andrea Kupfer Schneider, eds., 2017). Marquette Law School Legal Studies Paper, 18(5).

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BusinessEssay. "Business Negotiation Process: Before and After." September 7, 2022.