Employee Relations

Introduction

Employee relations refer to the body of work that is concerned with the maintaining of the relationships that exist between the employees and their employers, which contribute to acknowledgeable production and level of motivation. Employee relations concern itself with the prevention and solving of conflicts in which individuals are involved that come about or have effects on the work situations.

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The supervisors in the business organizations are offered with pieces of advice on how to go about in bringing correction to poor performance and wrong conduct among the employees. In doing this, the on-going disciplinary, as well as regulatory requirements among other requirements, should be put into consideration in affecting disciplinary measures and handling the grievances and appeals of the employees.

More so, the employees are provided with information to boost a clear understanding of the goals as well as the policies of the business organization. In addition, there is providing information to the employees in order for them to be able to correct the issue of poor performance, misconduct arising among them (whether at the workplace or out of the workplace), and also in order to address issues that are personal but may affect them while they carry out their work.

Advice is offered to the employees concerning the bargaining agreements, legislation as well as regulations. More so, they have advised the grievance they present and the rights of appeal protections.

Construct and describe the state of employee relations in the organization

Explain the Unitary and pluralistic frames of reference

The unitary frame of reference refers to a way of reasoning, a frame of mind of assumptions, feelings, ideas, and practices that are associated with the management and the membership of the organization. The basic assumption here is that the management and the employees are in the true sense of all the organization’s members and have common interests, objectives as well as purposes. Therefore, this implies that they should work together as a team, striving to achieve a common goal.

By an organization achieving this, there are several assumptions about the activities that would have been undertaken within the organization. First, it is assumed that there are acceptance and co-operative attitudes and standards within the organization and whoever lacks this is an outsider and has no proper reasoning.

More so, it is assumed that in the organization’s language, keywords are used together with phrases that emphasize pulling together as a team for the organization to acquire its goal. Therefore, failing to agree and bringing about conflicts and strike actions are not necessary, out of the ordinary, and destructive to the organization. This is according to those people who subscribe to the unitary frame of reference.

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A depiction of the management is given by the unitary frame of reference putting much consideration of the employee’s interests while it formulates the decisions; even if not the interest of all the people but at least the majority of them. A management that is effective ensures that everyone is comfortable by having goodwill at all times, being reasonable, and offering communication that is sensible. Having put this in place, then it is needless to have trade unions. Bad managerial practice and poor communication yields trade unions.

On the other hand, the pluralist frames of reference assume that the employees and the managers of an organization do not have the same objectives and the legitimate authority comes from several sources. More so, it assumes that conflicts within the organization cannot be avoided and they are caused by people having varied opinions as well as values and this is of benefit to the organization.

These conflicts can be avoided by accepting the formation of trade unions that participates in the process of making the decisions. Under this, it is further assumed the role played by the trade union is not the cause of the conflicts in the organization but rather, the trade unions play a role in the expression of the various interests among the employees that are often there, and these unions are regarded as the legitimate portion of the relations in the workplace.

Under the pluralist frames of reference, it is assumed that the role of collective bargaining is to handle problems collectively and this is the most well-organized way for institutionalizing the rules of employment. Collective bargaining brings about results that are fairer by bringing in a balance between the management power and employee power (Petzall, Abbott, and Timo, N. d)

Review the development of trade unions and the nature of industrial relations

Trade unions are legally accepted associations made by members from different sectors of an economy that works independently to maintain a close relationship between the employers and employees. They aim at developing a platform that ensures equality and mutual benefit between the employee and the employer.

They look into issues like wages, employment contracts and working conditions. Different parts of the world developed trade unions at different times. However, recognition of trade unions as stakeholders in the economy was more recognized with enlightens brought about by globalization. The development is triggered by the degree of awareness that a certain country has on employee’s right. The underlying factors that lead to the emergence of trade unions are;

  • Recognition of employees right
  • Changing nature of employment that requires a neutral body to represent either party to an employment issue.

Trade unions are the most prominent representative body of the employees. They are set up to offer protection and advancement to the interests of the members against those who have employed them and other trade unions. Those unions that are based on occupations concentrate on the recruitment of employers who carry particular jobs. Still, there are those unions that concentrate on recruiting the employees of all levels working in a certain industry. Such unions are called industrial unions.

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More so, there are general unions that recruit their members without boundary limits. They organize workers within industries as well as between industries. The origin of members does not matter and they recruit the members without considering the kind of job he or she does or which industry she or he works in.

Determine the role of a trade union and its contribution to effective employee relations

Collective relationships characteristically ensure the employee’s involvement and usually engage the trade unions and the employer or a collection of employers. Where there are trade unions, the amount of disputes is greatly reduced in comparison with where such unions do not exist. The representatives of trade unions assist in making sure that there is smooth running of business activities within the industry or among industries.

In any place where people carry out work or come together, there is a likelihood that disputes, as well as grievances, will arise. Within the industry, people may come across such problems as those relating to the emergence of new technology, complications in the system of payment of the salaries and work that do not have the motivation and these problems are likely to bring about dissatisfaction among the employees.

Many of these problems come about daily, and they can easily be handled by holding meetings, discussing them and offering an opportunity for bargaining. It is the representatives of the trade unions who present the employee’s views regarding these problems (The Times 100: Employer-employee relations, 2010).

Trade unions are given the task of representing workers in courts and ensuring that justice has been done on them; on the other hand, they take a neutral point. Although from the look of it may be thought that they are formed for the interest of employees, they recognize the need to work closely with the employer.

They also involve in Non- and partly unionized workplaces and advising either party on the trends to undertake. Recently there have been two cases where trade unions have played a part in Africa. The two trade unions are Central organization of Trade Unions (COTU) in Kenya and South Africa Trade Union.

In Kenya the national carrier, Kenya Airways staffs demanded that their salaries need to be reviewed, they threatened for a strike which occurred in October 2009. The entire crew of over 500 million people went on strike making the company lose over $20million in revenue. It took the intervention of trade union in the country to devise a “return to work formulae”.

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In the same country, there is a case in court brought about by C.O.T.U. Where it is disputing a move by National Health insurance to increase employee’s health cover deductions with over 1.5 percent per month (Mwaniki, 2010).

In South Africa, the case was on government employees who amounted to over 1.3 million employees in different sectors of the economy; they went for a strike for a whole week. They wanted an 8.6% rise in salaries among other benefits. The end of the strike was commission when the South African trade union entered into negotiations with the government (Seedol, 2010).

Differentiate the roles taken by the main actors in employee relations

Government, workers and their union, as well as the employers, are the major actors in employee relations. All those above contribute to employee relations through their various roles. The government is the most significant actor because it has more power in employment relations. Government control is vital in protecting the rights of the people who are involved who include employers, employees, and management.

For instance, the chamber of commerce takes action in a proper manner to offer support and promotion of the members’ prosperity through a working affiliation that is produced with all stages of government and other organizations.

The management has a duty of conveying information regarding any alterations (management) to their industrial relations team; train as well as advising them on issues relating to the industry. On the other hand, the union can get a good deal which could not be obtained by each employee engaging in the negotiation process.

The government has the task of ensuring that a legally constituted union is registered according to the need of the country. It is given the mandate of ensuring that they conduct their businesses well.

In South Africa, the government had licensed the South Africa Trade Union, the same union that called for a national strike against the government. In Kenya, the Central Trade Union is licensed by the government.

What can be realized in the two unions, they are working for the benefit of an employee who when he feels angered by decisions of the employer, they represent him in court or arrange for mass actions as employees fight for their rights. Employees have a contribution that they make to the unions to ensure that they run their business effectively.

In an individual company level Toyota Company in Japan has a trade union that is mandated to ensure that employees in the company are traded equally despite the countries that they work in. It looks at issues of salaries working condition and retirement benefits.

Examine the nature of industrial conflict and resolution of collective disputes

Explain the ideological framework of industrial relations background against the current standpoints

According to Burgess (1975), the dependence among the ideological factors, the political factors, and the economic factors offers the framework from the industrial relations in capitalism. Considering the case of Britain, the expansion in the export market in the mid-nineteenth century was critical in the building up of the British Industrial relations.

The growing power of organized labor brought about the encouragement of the formation of unions in the economy’s main sectors. Initially, it was only the traders that were skilled that formed unions and this left out large numbers of the wage earners not being organized.

In the current times, the industrial relations have developed and most of the employees have joined the unions for them to be able to present their grievances through them.

The case of Kenya has been triggered by an increased number of unemployment where the government felt that there is need to increase health insurance rate to cater for the unemployment. According to the policy in dispute, the entire population will be able to access affordable medical care since it will be subsidized by the increased contribution from the employed population.

The trade unionists, on the other hand, are arguing that the employees are taking the task of the government and thus there is no point in injuring them. The case is a clear case that shows the underlying factors that support the presence of the organization in the country.

Investigate the different types of collective dispute

There are various types of collective disputes. They include such disputes that involve matters concerning terms and conditions regarding employment, the working conditions (Physical), disputes involving termination, engagement, and assignment of jobs, among other issues linked to employee relations.

Whereas most of the matters relating to employment are resolved through dialogue between the concerned parties, disputes sometimes do come about. It is quite vital that the employers, as well as the representatives of the employees, adopt the best practice to handle these disputes in the most effective way possible by following the acceptable procedures.

In South Africa, the dispute was on the salaries of workers which was minimal and not growing to reflect the changing rate of inflation and increased living conditions. In the country, the function played by the trade union was one that ensured that employee’s grievances were heard by the government. This was the case even though the world since 2007 is recovering from the world economic crisis. The union had to come with a plan that looks the two sides of the same coin.

In Kenya on the other hand, the union recognizes that the unemployed in the country require medication. However, the move to get funds from the employed had to be questioned on the basis that it will lead to more economic deterioration in the country. The effectiveness of the body to handle these funds is also questioned.

Review dispute procedures and the resolution of conflict

In a situation where the usual procedures of dialogue between the relevant parties in a dispute do not lead to the realization of settlement, this should be recorded down, and an official dispute procedure is called upon. This formal procedure should avail a chance for a dispute to be referred to the senior stage.

If the senior stage (Higher management-employee representative stage), is unable to settle the dispute then this issue should be sent to external conciliation. The reference for the dispute procedure to the internal and external stages should be carried out within sensible time confines.

In most cases, the concerned parties, that is, the employee representatives and the employers may have a willingness that the dispute procedures provide for either mediation or arbitration. It is of much preference for the concerned parties to reach a settlement of the dispute by way of conciliation before employing any other form of resolving the dispute.

South African Union body used arbitration in its efforts to come up with a “return to work formulae”. Representative engaged in talks with labor minister in the county and a decision was made. In Kenya Airways case the same was used where C.O.T.U. played the role of an arbitrator between Kenya Airways union of employees and the company.

Another way that trade unions present their case is through court proceedings, they represent either party in court and cases against the other party. In the US, the United States Union of workers produces monthly magazines that are aimed at ensuring that employees and employers learn of their rights in the changing world business environments.

Critically evaluate the effectiveness of dispute procedures in resolving conflict in a given situation

In a few employment sectors, local arrangements are made for conciliation or even arbitration. However, many employers together with the representatives of the employees seek for the “Labor Rations Agency’s” services. This agency can assist by providing mediation or arbitration and even conciliation.

Considering conciliation, requests for it may be presented to the Agency by either of the parties. In the case where a trade union is involved, it will be an official of the union who will refer the dispute to conciliation. The Agency will have to carry out an investigation to establish that the concerned parties have completed any internal dispute resolution procedures they might have prior to its acceptance to conciliate.

In the case where conciliation does not work in terms of getting the matter settled, the arbitration is employed. In this, there is the appointment of a panel by the Agency to critically look at the dispute and carry out the appropriate measures in order to come up with a solution. Another way to handle disputes is mediation. This method is the same as the arbitration method but only that in this one the mediator makes official proposals that are not binding or the recommendations that are meant to offer a base for the dispute settlement.

Explore the process of collective bargaining and negotiation

Explore the nature and scope of collective bargaining

Collective bargaining is not just a relations procedure of the employees for carrying out a determination of the conditions of employment but it is as well a system of industrial governance in which the employers together with the unions in a joint manner come up with decisions regarding the relationships in employment. This procedure calls for the involvement of the employees through their representatives who are elected by the members of the unions, taking part in the managing of the business enterprise in question.

Collective bargaining is a mechanism employed in coming up with solutions but this can be realized in the situation where the employees are orderly and well-organized and at the same time if the employer is ready to make the recognition of the unions for the intention of collective bargaining (Judge and Gennard, 2005).

In normal situations, the results of collective bargaining are not just limited to the members of the union. The companies that have formed unions jointly negotiate terms and conditions of employment to their employees who are not unionized and at the same time to their employees who are unionized.

Those companies which do not make the recognition of the unions consider the rates that have been collectively bargained within their industry when coming up with a decision on the employment conditions of their employees if ever they have to stand a better chance in the competition in the labor market.

Most of the companies that are not unionized strive to maintain workplaces that do not have unions by offering wages and salaries to the employees that are more than those that are negotiated by unions. This implies that such companies must take a keen interest in the results of collective bargaining by the unionized companies.

Describe the process of negotiation

The process of negotiation involves five main steps. The first is making preparations. This stage involves forming up a team to engage in negotiation. The team should be composed of the representatives from the two parties with enough knowledge and experience to carry out effective negotiation. At this stage, the two sets of representatives (Employer’s and the union’s representatives), should assess their situations to build up the issues they think will be of great significance in the process of negotiation.

The next step is to carry out a discussion. The two parties come up with a decision on the basic guiding principles that will have to control the negotiation. More so, a setting of mutual trust is established so that an agreement in the process of negotiation can be arrived at.

The third step involves making proposals. There is exchanging of ideas and opinions between the parties. This stage is a “brainstorming” stage. The fourth stage is the bargaining stage. There can be difficulties in the process of negotiation if there is the adoption by the negotiating parties of an attitude of problem-solving. At this stage, questions are raised against probable solutions, and there is the drafting of the agreements.

The last stage is the settlement stage. Here is where the two parties reach at an agreement over the issue(s), at hand. The stage is expressed as composed of effectual combined realization of the agreement through a common vision, calculated planning, and discussed change (Anon. Collective bargaining process, 2007).

Prepare and apply negotiation strategy in a given situation

There are different strategies that can be used in negotiation in a different case; however, each case adopts its strategy. Let’s take the case of arbitration in Kenya Airways. The companies employees have a micro-union; Kenya Airways Employees union. The union is a member of the larger Central organization of Trade Unions (COTU). When the employees felt they had been aggrieved, they called for a strike. They informed the management of their intention and negotiations which failed to start with the micro-union representatives.

They eventually went for a strike. The management at the time of strike tried negotiation and threats to return the employees to their works, but the efforts failed. Realizing that they cannot make it, the employer sought the intervention of Central Organization of Trade Unions (COTU) which arbitrated between them and eventually a return to work formulae was derived.

Diagram
Diagram 1

Among the most essential proficiency, one needs to obtain from training in the field of negotiation is coming up with a clear objective about what is expected in negotiation. Being aware of the objective will assist in considering improvements that could be carried out on the terms of the negotiator and still be able to attain the objective.

Having trained in negotiation will as well provide one with various strategies to be employed in the process of negotiation in order to be successful by reaching a resolution. Among these strategies is to be a listener who is effectual. In being a keen listener in the process of negotiation and getting exactly what the other party is saying will be helpful in understanding what terms the other party is looking for in the conflict.

By being aware of this, one can be able to formulate the alternatives that can be offered in a manner that they will appeal to the other party on the maximum number of levels possible and this will increase the likelihood of the other party agreeing to the terms. One can also acquire clarity through being a keen listener and be asking questions.

The answers obtained will bring important information that can aid in coming up with modifications on one’s position of wording, showing the other party the benefits they will derive but at the same time still sticking to one’s final objectives.

More so, another strategy that can be employed to achieve successful negotiation is to start by reaching an agreement on small issues and develop on this. This will eventually play a major role in enabling the achievement of the final resolution that is desired (Blocker, 2008).

Investigate the concept of employee participation and involvement

Investigate the effectiveness of arrangements made by two organizations to involve their employees in decision making

Successful managers are aware that the effectiveness of the decisions they make relies upon commitment as well as quality and the knowledge that commitment is realized through the involvement of the employees. When people are engaged in the process of coming up with solutions to problems, they honestly get committed to acquire the solutions. But in the case where they are not involved, they deem it to be an act of being looked down upon and they become rebellious.

To explain how employee’s participation in decision making has benefited companies, we will compare two companies in the motor industry; Toyota motor company and Ford Company.

Toyota is divided into various departments and the departments are supposed to face a certain area. As much as there are departmental meetings and departments are supposed to come up with their way of doing things, there are meeting with the larger management that is not restricted to the team managers alone. Views from all, the juniors are weighed equally, and no one is supposed to be seen as the sole holder of wisdom.

Though decisions in this type of organizations take a long period, in most cases, they make informed decisions. They are firms that embrace change and keep changing gradually. Innovations in the organizations are seen as the order of the day and entrants are highly encouraged to be innovative. The management has to define the destination of the organization, and it is the employee to drive the entire firm to that destination. When conflict arises these are the organizations that embrace dialogue.

Employees here are highly motivated as well as can make a decision, however, controlled by the management. In a computerized organization, the rights are given in the amount of data or information that a certain employee can access from the system. When an issue arises, there are those that go directly to the higher management and those that employees are not supposed to escalate to the management. They are supposed to be held in full by the junior staffs.

Many are the times that the customers may feel not satisfied by the decision of the junior, and go to the higher leadership upon the issue, in most cases leader reinforces the decision of the junior. The reward is given according to individual performance. The organizations are highly competitive and seen to emerge with time. These are the efforts that made the company become the world’s largest motor company in 2008 when it surpassed General Motors’ (Hino, 2006).

On the other side, Ford Company has a culture that is mostly associated with organizations that have a dictatorship form of leadership. Here the assumption is that the boss has the sole wisdom and decisions are only made by the boss. Here the man or woman in authority is the determinant of everything. On the other hand, the team members are not supposed to air out their contribution to the higher authority. They are seen as mere tools of command.

The culture here is that the employee has to follow the laid down rules without questioning. The leaders of these organizations are characterized as powerful and controlling. The junior is de-motivated. These are the organizations that are static to change. There are early warnings to new entrants that the policy of “untouchable” boss exists. In meetings, the views of the boss are always supported without questioning.

The resultant as in 2008, the company was forced to sell its United Kingdom branch to Tata limited of India; the sold branch was concentrating on making of Jaguar and Land Rover. This was because of not engaging their employees in the decision when establishing the plant (Ford Company Limited official website, 2010).

Therefore, it is quite vital for the management to establish an atmosphere that boosts open, free, and sincere passing over of ideas along with the whole management structure. The workers of the organization should take part on an increased level to release their full potential and the part played by the managers should be to act as facilitators and expeditor.

Analyze the influence of the EU on democracy in the UK

The European Parliament was set up in the year 1979 and from this time the citizens of the U.K have had an opportunity after every five years to exercise their power over the European Parliament and thus the E.U.

The European Parliament is the weakest portion of the European Union hierarchy and doesn’t possess much power over the European Union Commission and thus this brings about the common notion of the European Union being termed as possessing a deficit in democracy.

The increasing influence of the European Union is viewed by some people as a danger to the parliament’s sovereignty and the capability of the United Kingdom act as a state that is independent and embraces democracy.

In terms of employment, the EU has opened an area and adopted a free movement of labor from one country to another. As people interact and work in different countries, there has emerged the need to have uniform rules of employment. These apply in areas of employment contracts, wage classification, and conditions of working.

Representation of employees and employer is now on a wider level where governments of different countries recognize the unions likened by other countries. Journals targeting the area on human resources are uniform and tend to address things on the same platform.

Policies by either company take a rational and economic angle; Transactional and rational angle. Transactional, are based on economic terms. The approach here is seen as a closed minded approach. Each party of contact in a transitional contract aims to fulfill his or her financial gain. They are not interested in the other party. For example, the employee works because he is going to be paid, and the employer aims to exploit the employee for his gain. Rational focus is on socio-emotionally (non-economic returns).

It is a dynamic approach, and nothing is seen as static. It is an open-minded approach. In this approach, it is a complex one where the interests of both parties are put into consideration. The employee works to satisfy his employer, and the employer understands the employee as a business partner who needs to be well compensated and satisfied with his job.

Here the employees work hard to meet targets set by the employer and the employer compensates them appropriately. Both parties look into the present and the future. The employee demands for employee’s loyalty and employees demand continued improvement of their status (Kasey & Zupan, 2007).

Differentiate between industrial relations and employee relations

Considering the term industrial relations, it refers to the relations that exist between the employer and a combined labor force, almost entirely held together by an acknowledged union, though this doesn’t essentially require being the case. Certain industries require different treatment of employees, and there is a similarity in the way they are conducted. An individual company should ensure that it is in line with the particular company’s need and the direction that its industry has taken.

For example, an airways company will be required to pay its flying crew a mileage allowance over and above normal pay. A mining industry will have risk allowance, and in the hospitality industry, there is a service charge. These are different depending on the industry that a company is operating in.

On the other hand, the employee relations concerns all the issues regarding the relationship that exists between the employee or a group of employees and the employer and this is a much wider term, and that is the reason it is used on a common basis in the human resources departments of the organizations. Employee relations can be concerned with several things such as pay, disciplinary cases, etc. But on the other hand, the industrial relations are quite specific and concern itself basically with unions.

Employee relation is contracted relations which the employer and employee have. Elements that shape employees’ psychological contracts can broadly be divided into individual and company factors. Regarding the company, there are policies that are set to ensure that employees are satisfied at work; this is the work of the human resources department. Policies may affect the contracts either negatively or positively. When the policies are clear and well implemented then employees are more likely to be satisfied with their employers.

Their performance will be enhanced. The policies determine monetary and nonmonetary gains that employees derive from the employer. Decisions and the management styles adopted by a company influences organizational culture and on its part, organizational culture affects the organization’s perception

Evaluate the effectiveness of employee involvement techniques

Employee involvement is bringing about a setting in which individual persons have an impact on decisions and measures which have an effect on their respective jobs. This becomes the management’s philosophy.

Involvement of the employees in all aspects of work decisions and carrying out plans brings up ownership and commitment, boosts the retention of the best organization’s best employees, and brings about an environment in which people come up with a choice to contribute to work and be motivated.

The way to make the involvement of the employees in the process of decision making and in those activities that bring about a never-ceasing improvement is a strategic feature of participation and may comprise methods like: – work teams, non-stop meetings on improvement, suggestion system, processes for corrective measures, discussions held on a periodic basis with the supervisors, and events that bring about improvement.

Essential to the majority of the processes of employee involvement is communication, offering training on the team effectiveness, and solving problems. More so, another important issue is coming up with a system for recognizing and rewarding the employees and regularly dividing the benefits among the employees derived from the efforts of employee involvement.

Establish the impact of human resource management on employee relations

According to Anon. (The impact of human resource management on business effectiveness: The organizational performance as measurement, 2009), the human resource management is believed to the crucial connection in a contemporary performance management program which boasts an effective employee relations program. The modern (contemporary) performance management program concerns itself with achieving the favorable outcomes that are evaluated on their impact and not the quantity.

Instilling the idea in the employees as being champions and as being an important part of the organization brings about positive outcomes and among these positive outcomes is the general improvement in the performance of the organization.

In the current situation in regard to the job market, both the private and public sectors alike are competing for “talents” as the basis for carrying out the recruitment of the employees, developing them, and retaining those who turn to be talented. Putting this into consideration, any particular organization should be in a position to employ a strategy and put in place a management system that will have to boost the business’s performance in order for it to grow bigger than its competitors.

In order for this organization to utilize its assets optimally, it should intelligently and efficiently handle the working conditions of its employees. These employees should be allowed to participate in the process of making those decisions that are related to the work they carry out in order to improve the structure of the organization.

In addition, the duties structure among the employees makes the performance of the organization much stronger. Therefore, it is quite essential for the management to have an understanding of the employee characteristics in order for the organization to be successful.

Developing the employees of any organization, as well as building them, enriching, motivating and enhancing them heavily relies on the organization’s leadership, authorization as well as the vision the organization is having. In general terms, the human resource management that is employed strategically will greatly assist in bringing about the improvement in the performance of the organization (Anon. The impact of human resource management on business effectiveness: The organizational performance as measurement, 2009).

Conclusion

For the organization to improve in its performance, it should take all the necessary measures in order to ensure the welfare of the employees through the provision of a contusive environment in which to work.

It is quite vital for the management to establish an atmosphere that boosts open, free, and sincere passing over of ideas along with the whole management structure. The workers of the organization should take part on an increased level to release their full potential and the part played by the managers should be to act as facilitators and expeditor.

Essential to the majority of the processes of employee involvement is communication, offering training on team effectiveness and solving problems. More so, another important issue is coming up with a system for recognizing and rewarding the employees and regularly dividing the benefits among the employees derived from the efforts of employee involvement

Developing the employees of any organization, as well as building them, enriching, motivating and enhancing them heavily relies on the organization’s leadership, authorization as well as the vision the organization is having. In general terms, the human resource management that is employed strategically will greatly assist in bringing about the improvement in the performance of the organization

About the trade unions, Collective relationships characteristically ensure the employee’s involvement and usually engage the trade unions and the employer or a collection of employers. Where there are trade unions, the amount of disputes is greatly reduced in comparison with where such unions do not exist. The representatives of trade unions assist in making sure that there is smooth running of business activities within the industry or among industries.

In any place where people carry out work or come together, there is a likelihood that disputes, as well as grievances, will arise. Within the industry, people may come across such problems as those relating to the emergence of new technology, complications in the system of payment of the salaries and work that do not have the motivation and these problems are likely to bring about dissatisfaction among the employees.

Reference List

Anon. 2007. Collective bargaining process. Industrial Relations. Web.

Anon. 2009. The impact of human resource management on business effectiveness: The organizational performance as measurement. Feed Burner. Web.

Blocker, J., 2008. Conflict negotiation strategies. Article alley. Web.

Burgess, K., 1975. The origins of British industrial relations: the nineteenth century experience. Croom Helm social history series. Routledge. ISBN: 0856640557, 9780856640551.

MWANIKI W.(2010). “Kenya Airways Fries into Fresh trouble as Workers plan strike”. Saturday Nation. Web.

Ford Company Limited official website. (2010). Ford. Web.

Kase, R. & Zupan, N., (2007). Psychological contracts and employee outcomes in transition to market economy: a comparison of two Slovenian companies, Problems and Perspectives in Management. 5(4): 16-27.

Judge, G., Gennard, J., 2005. Employee relations: People and organizations. CIPD Publishing. ISBN: 1843980630, 9781843980636.

Hino, S.(2006). Inside the mind of Toyota: management principles for enduring growth. Tokyo: Productivity Press.

Petzall, Abbott, and Timo. Australian Industrial relations in Asian context. Eruditions Publishing. Web.

The Times 100. 2010. Employer-employee relations. The Times Newspapers Ltd and MBA Publishing Ltd. Web.

Seedol. (2010). South African Government Workers Strike for Wage Increase. Web.

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